2012 06-07 nahb leading suppliers council - zeh final

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  • Who am I?
  • What is BA?
  • Buildings consume about 1/3 of energy in U.S.23% of energy $$ is for homesAverage homeowner could cut energy bill by half through EEReduce dependence on fossil fuelsReduce pollution and CO2 production
  • resulting in a net-zero energy consumption for the home over the year.
  • The PV system that meets the estimated annual use is about 5,700 watts - requiring just over 500 square feet of south facing roof area. The PV system is estimated to produce about 8,266 kWh annually.
  • Solar hot water systems provide a pre-heat for domestic hot water and space heating systems.
  • When demand heater went on, inverter went off . . .
  • In some types of equip don’t know when they aren’t working right . . . Not way off, but clearly there is an inverter problem and PV system is not outputting (similar to HVAC)It can fail and you may not know it
  • Some of these have been taken care of . . . progress being made in all of these areas
  • Homeowners can begin to understand their house vs. old house builders using metric
  • Financing mechanisms – leasing arrangements
  • 2012 06-07 nahb leading suppliers council - zeh final

    1. 1. Building Towards Net Zero Amber Wood Manager, Energy Programs NAHB Leading Suppliers Council June 7, 2012Driving Innovation in Housing Technology
    2. 2. NAHB Research Center Upper Marlboro, MD Housing R&D and laboratory testing  Promote innovation  Enhancing quality & affordability  Promoting high standards for the building industry 2
    3. 3. Building America Private/public R&D partnership sponsored by DOE Energy-efficient solutions for new and existing housing  Technologies/Systems  Whole-House Test Homes  Quality Processes
    4. 4. 4
    5. 5. Why ZEH? 5
    6. 6. What is ZEH?Efficient Efficient RenewableEnvelope Equipment energy systems Annually producing as much energy as consumed
    7. 7. Types of ZEH Builder-Installed Electric nZEH Production Accounts for All Builder- Installed End-Uses All Electric nZEH Production Accounts for All Electric Total House nZEH Production Accounts for All Electric + Excess to Account for Other Fuels Net Producing House Produce > Consume 7
    8. 8. ZEH Disclaimer A Zero Energy Home is NOT:  Zero energy consumption  Utility independent  Energy rationed  Energy unlimited 8
    9. 9. The Basics Hathaway home, Purcellville , VA. NREL photo archive1. Decrease total energy use2. Produce energy from renewable sources 9
    10. 10. An Energy Efficient HomeHouse Shell: Water Heating:Added insulation, low-e Solarwindows, insulated preheat, efficientfoundation, overhangs, delivery, low-flow orientation fixtures Lighting: Fluorescent fixtures/Air-sealing: bulbs, daylightingSeal vents, holes andgaps through walls androof Appliances: ENERGY STAR® LabelHeating & CoolingEquipment: Plug Loads &High Appliances:Efficiency, programma Homeowner’sble thermostat, sealed choice to decreaseducts, ventilation use 10
    11. 11. Effect of Efficiency Upgrades 12,000 120% 110% 10,000 100%Annual Consumption (kWh) 90% Percent Reduction in Use 8,000 80% 70% 6,000 60% 50% 4,000 40% 30% 2,000 20% 10% 0 0% Heating Cooling Water Heating Ventilation Air All Other Loads Primary Energy Category Base House Net-Zero Design Reduction in Use 11
    12. 12. Example ZEH Energy Use Baltimore, MD Base House Percent Net-Zero Annual Annual Percent of Energy End Use of Consumption Consumption Total (%) Total (%) (kWh) (kWh)Heating 12,749 47 2,110 26Cooling 5,100 19 850 11Water Heating 3,627 13 167 2Ventilation Air 0 0 175 2All Other Loads 5,730 21 4,833 59Annual Consumption 27,206 100 8,135 100 PV System  5,700 W  500 sqft area  Produce 8,266 kWh 12
    13. 13. ZEH Approaches ZEHDetails InvolvingBuilder, Trades, Government, etc. 13
    14. 14. Current ZEH Experience Over 50% minimum reduction in total energy  Typically 50 – 70% Net-zero electric bill Gas offset unavailable 14
    15. 15. Solar Water Heating System 15
    16. 16. Solar Electric (PV) Systems Convert sun energy to electricity  Operate daily  Output varies PV Systems are ZEH remodel in NJ, courtesy of Bill Asdal  Available,  Reliable, &  Low maintenance  Quiet 16
    17. 17. Utility Connection 17
    18. 18. ZEH Utility Requirements  Utility must “net-meter”: credit for electricity fed back to the utility  Utility must “settle” credit not less than once a year  Utility must be ON to have PV power 18
    19. 19. Armory Park del Sol A Historic Solar CommunityJohn Wesley Miller Companies & NAHB Research Center
    20. 20. Armory Park del Sol Urban in-fill  Southern Pacific RR executive homes  Existing infrastructure Downtown Tucson  Rio Nuevo Project  Walking distance to downtown & university  Cultural activities, arts, & music
    21. 21. Armory Park delSol
    22. 22. Armory Park del Sol 14 acre subdivision  Purchased land in 1999  99 lots  Construction started 2000 Historic Armory Park/ Armory Park del Sol  Designs blend with area  Neighborhood embraced project  Increased local property values
    23. 23. Armory Park del Sol Single family homes  New technology/ construction methods  Southwestern design  Concrete construction  Thermal mass  Metal framing  Termite-proof  Significant energy savings
    24. 24. Armory Park del Sol Energy efficiency construction  Thermal mass  Exterior insulation  Insulation through slab edge  Raised heel truss, R-38 ceiling  Dual-pane, Low-E & Low SHGC windows  Ducts in conditioned space  14 SEER heat pump  HVAC system design with Manual J  Optimized (reduced) duct runs  Return air pathway from each room  Passive ventilation system
    25. 25. Armory Park delSol Solar Electric Technology  1.5 kW Photovoltaic (PV) system minimum  Garage roof mount (parapet wall)  Utility approved components & systems; annual utility inspection
    26. 26. Armory Park del Sol Solar System Attributes  One solar subcontractor (The Solar Store)  Subsystems & components from major manufacturers  BP PV Modules  Trace Inverters  Meets TEP SunShare requirements (ACC approved)  Compliance  IEEE  National Electric Code  TEP Service Requirements Book
    27. 27. Armory Park del Sol Single family homes  Information age design  Minimum 3 telecom ports  Digital Satellite Service  CAT5e wiring  Pre-wired for fiber optics  Security system  Central vacuum
    28. 28. Armory Park del Sol Utility collaboration  Tucson Electric Power 5 year A/C guarantee  TEP inspects each home during construction  Guarantee qualifies Armory Park del Sol for reduced residential utility rates  Guarantees heating & cooling portion of annual bill
    29. 29. Armory Park del Sol Utility Collaboration / Solar Electric System  State & federal tax credits  Homeowner qualifies for TEP cash rebates  Output offsets highest Time-of-Use rate  TEP inspects solar electric system annually  City permit fee credit up to $1,000
    30. 30. Armory Park delSolSolar Energy Homes in Downtown Tucson An Award Winning Community!  SAHBA Builder of the Year, 2003  City of Tucson Most Energy Efficient Builder, 2003  Sonoran Institute Livable Community Award, 2005  NAHB Builder of the Year Award Winner, 2005  Metropolitan Pima Alliance Common Ground Award, 2006
    31. 31. Armory Park del Sol APdS Standard Homes  Predicted to use less than half the energy of a typical regional home
    32. 32. John Wesley Miller Companies’Net Zero Energy Home Project
    33. 33. Zero Energy Home Construction 34
    34. 34. Zero Energy Home at APdS  Natural extension of work at APdS  Engineering work funded by DOE through NREL  Goal of net-zero annual energy use  Started with clean sheet of paper 3
    35. 35. Zero Energy Home Design TeamNAHB Research Center, Inc. Project Management Design Support Monitoring Armory Park Del Sol Project Summary Build Information Dissemination Define Constraints Consumer Education Consumer Information Feedback Solar Store Manufacturers Design Design Support Manufacturer Contact Product Specification Solar Components Installation Requirements
    36. 36. Zero Energy Home Construction Features Concrete walls with 2” polyiso R-41 attic U-0.32, SHGC-0.35 windows SEER 18 AC Combined solar (128 sf) space and water heating system with tankless backup 4.2 kW PV array PEX piping (with some copper) Fluorescent lighting throughout Outdoor living spaces Ceiling fans without light kits Energy Star appliances 37
    37. 37. Masonry Walls
    38. 38. 2” Polystyrene
    39. 39. Radiant Roof Decking
    40. 40. Window & Porch Overhangs
    41. 41. Air Admittance Valves
    42. 42. Systems in Conditioned Space
    43. 43. 4 kW PV System
    44. 44. 45
    45. 45. John Wesley Miller Companies’ Zero Energy Home (ZEH) Now averaging about $10/mo (including $5.28 monthly base fee) Average 23 kWh/day Total Average Energy Use Tucson ZEH at Armory Park del Sol Monthly Total Energy Use and Cost 1,800 $90 Modifications to solar thermal system 1,600 (+ values = House Use; - Values = Utility Feedback) complete $80 Electric Energy, kWh; Solar Insolation, kWh/m 2 1,400 $70 1,200 $60 Monthly Energy Cost 1,000 $50 800 $40 600 $30 400 $20 200 $10 0 $0 -200 -$10 Values less than zero indicate sell-back to the utility -400 -$20 Apr-04 Apr-05 Apr-06 Aug-04 Aug-05 Aug-06 Oct-03 Dec-03 Jul-04 Sep-04 Dec-05 Jan-04 Feb-04 Jun-04 Oct-04 Dec-04 Jan-05 Feb-05 Jun-05 Jul-05 Sep-05 Oct-05 Jan-06 Feb-06 Jun-06 Jul-06 May-04 May-05 May-06 Nov-03 Nov-04 Nov-05 Mar-04 Mar-05 Mar-06 Energy Cost Utility Supply PV Supply PV Insolation
    46. 46. ZEH End UsesTucson ZEHData from 9/1/05 to 8/31/06 A/C Compressor, kWh, 1,847Other, kWh, 3,536 Utility Supply, kWh, 1158, Blower, kWh, 663 14% PV Supply, kWh, 7209, 86% Demand Water Heater, kWh, 1,040 Refrigerator, kWh, 631 Lights, kWh, 651
    47. 47. ZEH 1st Year Monitoring
    48. 48. ZEH OccupiedPeriod Monitoring
    49. 49. ZEH Monitoring Results
    50. 50. Year 1 ZEH Monitoring Results
    51. 51. ZEH Monitoring ResultsInverter-Demand Heater Compatibility
    52. 52. ZEH Monitoring Results PV System Output
    53. 53. Plug Loads The big challenge… 54
    54. 54. Energy Simulation Summary Annual Electrical Consumption Description Cooling Heating Fan DHW Lighting Appl/Othr Total (kWh/yr) (kWh/yr) (kWh/yr) (kWh/yr) (kWh/yr) (kWh/yr) (kWh/yr)JWM Standard * 3,568 621 772 1,855 1,873 3,687 12,376ZEH As-Built ** 2,207 200 430 158 779 3,072 6,846TucsonStandard*** 6,770 669 1,229 4,064 1,873 3,687 18,292*(includes passive SDHW)**(Option A+B+C+D+E w/ R41 ceiling instead of R43)***Light Frame, R19 ceiling, 10 SEER, double pane wood frame windowsOccupied Use To Date :Demand Heater = 1,918 kWh, Lighting = 640 kWh, Other = 3,116 kWhTotal Use to Date = 6,406 kWh (26.3 kWh/day)Estimated Daily = 18.8 kWh 55
    55. 55. ZEH Lessons Learned Project Success, Builder interest PV system  Utility interest prime  Knowledgeable installer  Inverter compatibility problems (new) Solar Aesthetics  Even with flat roofs Solar thermal system performance  Temperature limitations  Controller  Losses 56
    56. 56. ZEH Lessons Learned Integration of HVAC & thermal system  Simple design/connections Space and access for thermal storage Thermal mass  Winter penalties? Air admittance valves  Manufacturer design required  Plumber reticence  Work 57
    57. 57. ZEH Lessons Learned PEX plumbing  Design is important  Different installation method Lighting  Whole-house permanent fluorescent lighting options NOT mainstream  New technologies emerging (LED, etc) Plug loads still need control 58
    58. 58. John Wesley Miller Companies’ Zero Energy Home 2 (ZEH2)  ZEH2 Utility Savings Estimate  PV system cost benefit offsets utility-supplied energy
    59. 59. ZEH2 Energy Features Tucson, AZ  Concrete Block Construction  Foundation  12” floating slab  Exterior Insulation  2” exterior insulation (R-13)  Attached using z-strips  Ceiling & Roof Insulation  R-38 ceiling insulation  1” rigid foam on roof deck (R-6.5)
    60. 60. ZEH2 Energy Features (cont.) High Efficiency Space Heating and Cooling  Heat Pump: Trane XL19i  Two-stage compressor  Variable speed blower  Sealed ducts in conditioned space (22 CFM25 – total) Mechanical Ventilation  Mechanical room exhaust fan  Fresh air to central return
    61. 61. ZEH2 Energy Features (cont.)  Solar Hot Water Preheat System  Closed loop  80G storage  64sf collector  Tankless Backup Water Heater  Manifold Distribution System
    62. 62. ZEH2 Energy Features (cont.)  Efficient Windows  U-value: 0.35, SHGC: 0.30  Air Sealing Package  740 CFM50  Lighting  90% Hard-wired fluorescent lighting  ENERGY STAR fixtures  CFL  Appliances  ENERGY STAR Refrigerator, Dishwasher, Washing Machine
    63. 63. ZEH2 Energy Features (cont.)  Solar Electric PV System  6.93 kW (DC) PV System  Net Metered  > 100% Predicted Energy Savings with PV
    64. 64. Code Approval & Programs  Meets all safety, health, and 2006 IBC & 2006 IECC code requirements  Tucson Electric Power’s (TEP’s) Guarantee program  5 year heating/cooling & comfort  Tucson Sustainable Energy Standard  Performs 50% better than the Model Energy Code  Builders Challenge  Builder Federal Tax Credit  Local & State Tax Incentives
    65. 65. Quality Control Requirements High Performance Home Specifications Envelope Moisture Control Foundation drainage/capillary breaks – n/a slab design Climate appropriate vapor retarder – n/a due to climate & masonry wall construction Continuous drainage plane – felt paper over fixed polyisocyanurate Envelope Air Tightness 740 CFM50 Space Conditioning Equipment and duct sizing per ACCA methodology
    66. 66. Quality Control Requirements High Performance Home Specifications Space Conditioning (cont.) Distributed whole house mechanical ventilation – exhaust fan and a central fan integrated supply Local exhaust – bathrooms, kitchen Filtration – Honeywell electronic air cleaner Sealed ducts in conditioned space No combustion appliances or fireplace System capable of maintaining RH < 60% Hot Water SRCC rated collectors for solar hot water system
    67. 67. Neutral Cost Target Upgrade Costs
    68. 68. Neutral Cost TargetEfficiency Feature Upgrades Note: PV not included
    69. 69. Neutral Cost Target Tax Credits & Incentives
    70. 70. Neutral Cost TargetEfficiency Feature Upgrades w/ PV Note: PV incentives not included for Std Home
    71. 71. Neutral Cost TargetEfficiency Feature Upgrades w/ PV Note: PV incentives included for Std Home
    72. 72. Value of ZEH 74
    73. 73. ZEH2 Conclusions  APdS demonstrates increasing levels of energy efficiency  ZEH is possible  Technologies “off-the-shelf,”  Attention to builder’s marketing effort is necessary  Builders Challenge  Green Building  Local Utility Programs
    74. 74. Whole House EnergyZEH1 Monitoring Comparison – ZEH
    75. 75. Whole House EnergyZEH2 Monitoring Comparison – ZEH2
    76. 76. Incentives 78
    77. 77. Federal Incentives Tax Credit:  30% of cost with no upper limit Expires:  December 31, 2016 Details:  Existing homes & new construction  Principal residences & second homes  Rentals do not qualify 79 NEXUS EnergyHomes
    78. 78. Incentive Details Solar Water Heat  Certified by SRCC or equivalent a  Must provide ≥ 50% dwelling’s water heating  Not apply to swimming pools/hot tub Photovoltaics Wind Fuel Cells  $500 per 0.5 kW maximum Geothermal Heat Pumps  Meet federal Energy Star criteria 80
    79. 79. Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs) In SREC states, Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires some electricity from solar The SREC program provides a means for SRECs to be created for every megawatt- hour of solar electricity created.  1 SREC = 1,000 kWh of solar electricity = 1 MWh of solar electricity  10 kW solar capacity = ~12 SRECs per year 81
    80. 80. Maryland SREC Market Energy Year  Jan 1 - Dec 31 SREC Useful Life  3 years Solar Requirement  Reaching 2% of total elec generated in 2021 Solar Alternative Compliance Payment (SACP)  $400 through 2014 82
    81. 81. 83
    82. 82. Summary ZEH used to be all about cost Still an interest in ZEH, driven by  Increasing utility costs  Lower cost of PV  Familiarity (owners & trades) Consumer acceptance Utility acceptance New financing mechanisms  Changing accessibility 84
    83. 83. Programs Energy Efficiency Certification  ENERGY STAR  DOE Challenge Home Energy Efficiency Research & Development  Building America Program Green Certification  National Green Building Certification Program Awards 85
    84. 84. References NAHB Research Center Technical Website  www.toolbase.org DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA)  www.eia.gov DOE/EERE Buildings Energy Data Book  http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/default.aspx ENERGY STAR  www.energystar.gov Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE)  www.dsireusa.org 86
    85. 85. Questions? 87
    86. 86. Thank You! Amber Wood NAHB Research Center Manager, Energy Programs 400 Prince George’s Blvd  Upper Marlboro, MD 20774 (direct) 301.430.6309  (fax) 301.430.6180 www.nahbrc.comDriving Innovation in Housing Technology

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