Leading the Way to a Clean Energy Future A holistic approach to energy efficient data centers Steve Hammond
Laboratory SnapshotOnly National Laboratory DedicatedSolely to Energy Efficiency andRenewable Energy• Leading clean-energy innovation for 35 years• 2540 employees with world-class facilities• Campus is a living model of sustainable energy• Owned by the Department of Energy• Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy
Scope of Mission Energy Renewable Systems Market Efficiency Energy Integration Focus Residential Solar Grid Private Industry Buildings Infrastructure Wind and Federal Commercial Water Distributed Agencies Buildings Energy Biomass Defense Dept. Interconnection Personal Hydrogen State/Local and Battery and Govt. Commercial Geothermal Thermal Vehicles Storage International Transportation
Focus on Buildings Status U.S. Buildings: • 39% of primary energy • 71% of electricity • 38% of carbon emissions • +3% of electricity by data centers DOE Goal: • Cost effective, marketable zero energy buildings by 2025 • Value of energy savings exceeds cost of energy features on a cash flow basis NREL Research Thrusts • Whole building systems integration of efficiency and renewable features • Modeling and Simulation: building energy optimization tools • Building integrated PVNational Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future
Efficient Buildings• NREL Research Support Facility• LEED Platinum office building• Uses 40% of the energy of typical office buildings• Model for sustainable commercial office buildings• On track for net-zero energy building.• Space for ~1200 employees• Construction cost $260 per sf similar to other metro area buildings
Key Design Features• Fully day lit office wings• Continuous insulation precast wall panels with thermal mass• Radiant heating and cooling• Outdoor air preheating • Transpired solar collector • Datacenter waste heat • Crawl space thermal storage• Aggressive plug load control strategies• Data center air-side economizer, hot aisle containment• Roof top and parking structure-based PVhttp://www.nrel.gov/news/rsfnews/awards.html
Every Watt Counts • Whole building energy use = 283 watts per occupant • Includes enterprise data center. • Personal habits represent ~1/3 of typical building energy use • For every 1 watt continuous we save, we avoid $33 of PV needed to offset this 1 wattNational Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future
Energy System Integration Facility LEED Platinum Building 8
ESIF HPC Data Center• Showcase Facility • High Performance Computing – 10MW, 10,000 s.f. – Petascale+ HPC Capability in 2012 – Leverage favorable climate – 20 year planning horizon – Use evaporative rather • 5 to 6 HPC generations. mechanical cooling. – Energy Data Hub – Waste heat captured and • Data mgmt, mining, analytics used to heat labs & offices. – Insight Center – World’s most energy efficient • Scientific data visualization data center, PUE 1.06! • Collaboration and interaction. – Lower CapEx and OpEx. Leveraged expertise in energy efficient buildings to focus on showcase data center. Chips to bricks approach.National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future
Data Center Sustainability IT Power Consumption Energy Re-use Facility PUE Sustainability is a function of optimizing all three factors.
ESIF Data Center Electrical System • Primary utilize 480 volt distribution to enhance energy efficiency, eliminate the losses and heat associated with PDU’s and step down transformers. • UPS for 10% of peak load – Sufficient duration to allow generator to spin up and protect critical components. • Operate in ASHRAE TC 9.9 recommended range 99% of the time (~87 hours per year in allowable). – Allow forays into higher temps • Dashboards to report instantaneous, seasonal and cumulative PUE values.
ESIF Data Center Mechanical System • Focus on warm water cooling – HPC equipment cooled indirectly with tower water. – Pumps/water more efficient fans/air. – Can capture 100% heat load dissipated to liquid – Can manage up to 10% heat load to air. • “Cooling” supply temp, 75F • Return temp, 95F (20F delta T) or warmer • Waste heat used in cold months to heat lab and office space, temper inlet air, or ejected directly outside when not needed. • Waste heat also fed to district heating system.
NREL ESIF Data Center Cross Section • Data center equivalent of the “visible man” – Reveal not just boxes with blinky lights, but the inner workings of the building as well. – Tour views into pump room and mechanical spaces – Color code pipes, LCD monitors
Critical Data Center Considerations• Warm water cooling • Pumps trump fans. • Water much better working fluid than air. • No condensation worries.• High power distribution • Eliminate conversions.• Think outside the box • Don’t be satisfied with an energy efficient data center nestled on campus surrounded by inefficient laboratory and office buildings. • Innovate, integrate, optimize.
Questions? DiscussionNational Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future