Elektronika daya kuliah ke 1

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Elektronika daya kuliah ke 1

  1. 1. Elektronika Daya Pekik Argo Dahono
  2. 2. Elektronika DayaDisiplin ilmu yang mempelajari penggunaan teknologielektronika dalam konversi energi (daya) elektrik.Mengapa energi (daya) elektrik perlu dikonversikan?• Hampir semua peralatan listrik bekerja kurangefisien atau tidak bisa bekerja pada sumber energi(daya) elektrik yang tersedia.• Banyak pembangkit energi (daya) elektriknonkonvensional mempunyai bentuk yang tidakkompatibel dengan sumber energi (daya) elektriklainnya.
  3. 3. Konverter Daya Daya masukan Daya keluaran Konverterdaya BebanPengukuran Pengukuran Pengendali Acuan
  4. 4. Konverter Sinyal dan Daya Konverter Sinyal Konverter DayaSinyal masuk Sinyal keluar Daya masuk Daya keluar Daya masuk Sinyal masuk
  5. 5. Regulator tegangan R1 Rv Io Vi IoVi R2 Vo Ro Vo Ro
  6. 6. Switching Regulator TsIi Vi Io Vo TON 0 Vi Vo Load Io 0 Ii 0 TON Vo = Vi Ts
  7. 7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Switching RegulatorAdvantages:• High efficient and small size• ReliableDisadvantages:• The control is more complicated• EMC problems
  8. 8. Linear and Switching Power Supplies Io 220 V/ 50 Hz Vo Io •220 V/ 50 Hz Load Vo •
  9. 9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Switching Power SuppliesAdvantages:• High efficient and small size• DC filter capacitor is working at high voltage (Energy stored is high)• The reactive component requirements are small.Disadvantages:• Control is more complicated• EMC problems
  10. 10. Power Supply Comparison Power Density EfficiencyLinear Power <0.12 W/cm3 <40% Supply SMPS 6W/cm3 >95%
  11. 11. Variable Speed Pumping System Pipe characteristic 2 Head/Press ure Pipe characteristic 1 H2 H1 Pump characteristic 1 H3 Pump characteristic 2 Q2 Q1 Flow
  12. 12. Klasifikasi Konverter Daya• Konverter DC-ke-DC (Chopper)• Konverter AC-ke-DC (Penyearah)• Konverter DC-ke-AC (Inverter)• Konverter AC-ke-AC (Cycloconverter/Matrix)
  13. 13. Power Electronic Applications
  14. 14. Power Electronic Applications in Power Generation• Excitation system• Automatic Voltage Regulator• Variable Speed Power Generation (Hydro, Wind, Microturbine gas)• Power Conditioners for Renewable Power Generation (Fuel cells, solar cells)• Energy Storage
  15. 15. Excitation System in Brushless AC Generator D1 D3 D5 Rotor D2 D4 D6 Stator Exciter Main generator
  16. 16. Renewable Energy System
  17. 17. Power Electronic Applications in Power Transmission• High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission• Static VAR Compensators• Series Compensation• Phase Shifters• Dynamic Braking• Flexible AC Transmission System• High-Speed Circuit Breakers
  18. 18. Static VAR Compensator• Improving power factor• Reducing voltage drop and losses• Increasing maximum power transfer• Improving damping factor
  19. 19. HVDC Transmission System DC Line AC System AC System Converter Converter Two - terminals dc system• Asynchronous links• Suitable for long distance transmission and underground cable transmission• Improving damping factor
  20. 20. Power Electronic Applications in Power Distribution• Static VAR Compensators• Power Conditioners• Active Filters• Unified Power Conditioners• Dynamic Voltage Restorers• High-Speed Circuit Breakers• Light High-Voltage Direct-Current Distribution• Power conditioners for distributed power generation
  21. 21. Active Filter isAC source Ls if ih es Harmonic Active source filter
  22. 22. Power Electronic Applications in Transportation Industries• High-Speed Trains• Electric vehicles• Elevators• Airplanes• Ships• Unmanned vehicles
  23. 23. PWM Inverter for Electric Traction Pantograph PWM Inverter Traction Motors
  24. 24. TGV
  25. 25. Shinkansen
  26. 26. Power Electronic Applications in Industries• Rolling mills• Variable speed pump systems• Cement kilns• Rolling ball mills• Robotics• Electrolysis
  27. 27. Variable Speed Drives Smoothing inductor AC Motor AC source 3φ Smoothing capacitor vout Controlled Square - wave rectifier inverter AC MotorAC source 3φ Smoothing capacitor vout Uncontrolled PWM inverter rectifier
  28. 28. Power Electronic Applications in Home Appliances• Microwave heating• Air conditioners• Refrigerators• Toasters• Cookers• Vacuum cleaners• Wash machines
  29. 29. Power Electronic Applications in Information Industries• DC power supplies• Distributed power supplies• Power conditioners• Uninterruptible power supplies• Battery chargers• Voltage Regulator Modules
  30. 30. Is power electronics new technology?Power electronics have been developed since thebeginning of 20th century when mercury arc andvacuum tubes technology was emerged.Power conversion has been known for a long time byusing a combination of electrical machinery.Power electronics development has grown very fastsince the introduction of thyristor or SCR(Semiconductor controlled rectifier) in nineteenfifties.
  31. 31. Interdiciplinary nature of power electronics Control Circuit Signal theory theory processing Electronics Power Solid - state Power Electronics systems physics Computer Electric machines Electromagnetics
  32. 32. Current Challenges• Voltage regulator modules for microprocessors• Embedded inverter for motor drives• Intelligent power ICs• Flexible AC power transmission systems• Custom power distribution system• Unified power conditioners• Renewable energy power generation system
  33. 33. Microprocessor operating voltages
  34. 34. Matriks saklar S1 S3Vi u v Load S2 S4
  35. 35. Penyearah tak terkendali Vi S1 S3 S1Vi u v S2 Load S3 S2 S4 S4 v uv
  36. 36. Penyearah terkendali Vi S1 S1 S3 S2Vi u v Load S3 S4 S2 S4 v uv
  37. 37. AC regulator Vi S1 S3 S1Vi u v S2 Load S3 S2 S4 S4 v uv
  38. 38. Phase-Controlled AC-AC Cycloconverter S1 S3 + ei Beban vo S2 S4
  39. 39. Konverter DC-ke-DC Vi S1 S3 S1Vi u v S2 Load S3 S2 S4 S4 v uv
  40. 40. Inverter PWM Vi S1 S3 S1 S2Vi u v Load S3 S4 S2 S4 v uv
  41. 41. Understanding Power Electronic Circuits• Consider all power semiconductor switches as ideal switches• Ideal switches have no voltage drop, no leakage current, and transition times are zero.• Practical considerations are given in detailed design.• Background on signal electronics is useful to understand power electronics.
  42. 42. Tugas Kelompok I• Sebutkan peralatan rumah-tangga yang menggunakan teknologi elektronika daya. Jelaskan peran rangkaian elektronika daya pada peralatan ini (salah satu).• Sebutkan peralatan kantor yang menggunakan elektronika daya pada peralatan kantor (salah satu).• Jelaskan prinsip mobil hibrida. Jelaskan mengapa mobil hibrida lebih efisien dibanding mobil konvensional.• “Saving energy by using more electricity” merupakan salah satu jargon untuk menghemat energi saat ini. Jelaskan maksudnya.• “Power electronics for peace environment” merupakan salah satu jargon para ahli elektronika daya. Jelaskan maksudnya.• Apa keuntungan transmisi daya arus searah dibanding transmisi daya arus bolak-balik. Sebutkan contoh penerapan transmisi daya arus searah di dunia.• FACTS (Flexible Transmission AC Systems) merupakan contoh penerapan elektronika daya dalam transmisi daya arus bolak-balik. Jelaskan maksudnya.

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