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Modern Trends of Electric Drives
  In Electric Traction System

                      SUBMITTED BY:-
                      SURINDER KUMAR
                      B.TECH (E.E.)
                      100170593752
Introduction

• Traction motors can use both ac/dc currents with suitable control
 electronics. They are operating in high voltage current.
• They can widely used for vehicles, elevators, locomotives etc.
• Traction motor refers to an electric motor providing the primary
 rotational torque of a machine.
• Traction motors are used in electrically powers rail vehicles such
 as electric multiple units and electric locomotives.
Requirements of Traction System
• High starting pulling effort in order to have rapid acceleration.
• Equipment capable of withstanding large temporary overloads for
 short periods.
• The locomotive should be self contained and able to run on any
 route.
• Capability of withstanding voltage fluctuations and temporary
 interruption of supply.
• Parallel running usually more than one motor (two or four motors)
 should be possible.
Components of an AC Locomotive
Electronic Speed Control Method
              for DC Motor
• Compared to the electric and electro-mechanical systems of speed
 control, the electronic methods have


    Higher accuracy
    Greater reliability
    Quick response
    Higher efficiency
Recent Trends in Electrical Traction System
Multi-Stage Converters:
• The multi-stage converter has a chain of 4 converters per phase (4-
  Stage Converter), with a “Main converter” that manages more than
  80% of the total power.
• Three “Slave converters” that take the rest of the power (less than
  20%).
• It can generate almost perfect current & voltage waveforms,
   because it is modulated by amplitude instead of pulse-width
  modulation.
Continued…..

• It can generate near sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental
  frequency switching.
• It have almost no electromagnetic interference of common mode
  voltages.
• They are suitable for large volt-ampere rated motor drives & high
  voltages and it is lower frequency devices.
Multistage Converter

          • S2 and S1’ are switched on the output is –V dc.
          • Either pair S1 and S2 or S1’ and S2’ are on the
            output is zero.
          • S1 and S2’ are on the output is +V dc.
4 Level Multi Stage Converter




        Main components of Multistage Converter
2-level converter
• The two-level converter is the simplest type of three-phase voltage-source
  converter.
• It is a six pulse bridge in which the thyristors have been replaced by IGBTs with
  inverse-parallel diodes.
• The voltage at the AC output of each phase is switched between two discrete
  voltage levels.
• Corresponding to the electrical potentials of the positive and negative DC
  terminals.
• When the upper of the two valves in a phase is turned on, the AC output terminal
  is connected to the positive DC terminal.
• Resulting in an output voltage of +½ Ud with respect to the midpoint potential of
  the converter.
• When the lower valve in a phase is turned on, the AC output terminal is
  connected to the negative DC terminal, resulting in an output voltage of -½ Ud.
2-level converter
Three Level Converter
• To improve the poor harmonic performance of the two-level converter, some
  systems have been built with three level converters.
• Three-level converters can only two discrete voltage levels at the AC terminal
  of each phase: +½ Ud, 0 and -½ Ud.
• A common type of three-level converter is the diode-clamped (or neutral-point-
  clamped) converter, where each phase contains four IGBT valves.
• Each rated at half of the DC line to line voltage, along with two clamping diode
  valves.
• The DC capacitor is split into two series-connected branches, with the
  clamping diode.
• To obtain a positive output voltage (+½ Ud) the top two IGBT valves are turned
  on.
• To obtain a negative output voltage (-½ Ud) the bottom two IGBT valves are
  turned on
• To obtain zero output voltage the middle two IGBT valves are turned on
Three Level Converter
Modular Multi-Level Converter
• The MMC differs from other types of converters.
• In that the current flows continuously in all six valves of the converter
  throughout the mains-frequency cycle.
• As a result, concepts such as “on-state” and “off-state” have no meaning in the
  MMC.
• The direct current splits equally into the three phases.
• The alternating current splits equally into the upper and lower valve of each
  phase.
• The current in each valve is therefore related to the direct current Id and
  alternating current Iac as follows:
Modular Multi-Level Converter
Voltage Distribution in Multistage Converter
Power Distribution in Multistage Converter
Advantages
• It can generate perfect current & voltages waveforms.
• The power losses into the machine due to harmonic current
 are also eliminates.
• Reducing power losses at minimum value.
• Power rating of semiconductor is very small.
• Multi stage converter working at low switching frequency.
• Operation is fast & quick response.
Applications

• Active power filters.
• Sinusoidal current rectifiers.
• Machine drives.
• Power factor compensators.
• Back to back frequency link system.
• Traction drive system.
Modern electric trends in electric drives

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Modern electric trends in electric drives

  • 1. Modern Trends of Electric Drives In Electric Traction System SUBMITTED BY:- SURINDER KUMAR B.TECH (E.E.) 100170593752
  • 2. Introduction • Traction motors can use both ac/dc currents with suitable control electronics. They are operating in high voltage current. • They can widely used for vehicles, elevators, locomotives etc. • Traction motor refers to an electric motor providing the primary rotational torque of a machine. • Traction motors are used in electrically powers rail vehicles such as electric multiple units and electric locomotives.
  • 3. Requirements of Traction System • High starting pulling effort in order to have rapid acceleration. • Equipment capable of withstanding large temporary overloads for short periods. • The locomotive should be self contained and able to run on any route. • Capability of withstanding voltage fluctuations and temporary interruption of supply. • Parallel running usually more than one motor (two or four motors) should be possible.
  • 4. Components of an AC Locomotive
  • 5. Electronic Speed Control Method for DC Motor • Compared to the electric and electro-mechanical systems of speed control, the electronic methods have  Higher accuracy  Greater reliability  Quick response  Higher efficiency
  • 6. Recent Trends in Electrical Traction System Multi-Stage Converters: • The multi-stage converter has a chain of 4 converters per phase (4- Stage Converter), with a “Main converter” that manages more than 80% of the total power. • Three “Slave converters” that take the rest of the power (less than 20%). • It can generate almost perfect current & voltage waveforms, because it is modulated by amplitude instead of pulse-width modulation.
  • 7. Continued….. • It can generate near sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching. • It have almost no electromagnetic interference of common mode voltages. • They are suitable for large volt-ampere rated motor drives & high voltages and it is lower frequency devices.
  • 8. Multistage Converter • S2 and S1’ are switched on the output is –V dc. • Either pair S1 and S2 or S1’ and S2’ are on the output is zero. • S1 and S2’ are on the output is +V dc.
  • 9. 4 Level Multi Stage Converter Main components of Multistage Converter
  • 10. 2-level converter • The two-level converter is the simplest type of three-phase voltage-source converter. • It is a six pulse bridge in which the thyristors have been replaced by IGBTs with inverse-parallel diodes. • The voltage at the AC output of each phase is switched between two discrete voltage levels. • Corresponding to the electrical potentials of the positive and negative DC terminals. • When the upper of the two valves in a phase is turned on, the AC output terminal is connected to the positive DC terminal. • Resulting in an output voltage of +½ Ud with respect to the midpoint potential of the converter. • When the lower valve in a phase is turned on, the AC output terminal is connected to the negative DC terminal, resulting in an output voltage of -½ Ud.
  • 12. Three Level Converter • To improve the poor harmonic performance of the two-level converter, some systems have been built with three level converters. • Three-level converters can only two discrete voltage levels at the AC terminal of each phase: +½ Ud, 0 and -½ Ud. • A common type of three-level converter is the diode-clamped (or neutral-point- clamped) converter, where each phase contains four IGBT valves. • Each rated at half of the DC line to line voltage, along with two clamping diode valves. • The DC capacitor is split into two series-connected branches, with the clamping diode. • To obtain a positive output voltage (+½ Ud) the top two IGBT valves are turned on. • To obtain a negative output voltage (-½ Ud) the bottom two IGBT valves are turned on • To obtain zero output voltage the middle two IGBT valves are turned on
  • 14. Modular Multi-Level Converter • The MMC differs from other types of converters. • In that the current flows continuously in all six valves of the converter throughout the mains-frequency cycle. • As a result, concepts such as “on-state” and “off-state” have no meaning in the MMC. • The direct current splits equally into the three phases. • The alternating current splits equally into the upper and lower valve of each phase. • The current in each valve is therefore related to the direct current Id and alternating current Iac as follows:
  • 16. Voltage Distribution in Multistage Converter
  • 17. Power Distribution in Multistage Converter
  • 18. Advantages • It can generate perfect current & voltages waveforms. • The power losses into the machine due to harmonic current are also eliminates. • Reducing power losses at minimum value. • Power rating of semiconductor is very small. • Multi stage converter working at low switching frequency. • Operation is fast & quick response.
  • 19. Applications • Active power filters. • Sinusoidal current rectifiers. • Machine drives. • Power factor compensators. • Back to back frequency link system. • Traction drive system.