Inverters

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inverters

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Inverters

  1. 1. Inverter (Konverter DC – AC) Pekik Argo Dahono
  2. 2. Penggunaan Inverter <ul><li>Pengendalian motor ac </li></ul><ul><li>UPS </li></ul><ul><li>Catu daya ac </li></ul><ul><li>Ballast elektronik </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave heating </li></ul><ul><li>Static VAR generators </li></ul><ul><li>FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) </li></ul><ul><li>Filter daya aktif </li></ul><ul><li>Penyearah </li></ul>
  3. 3. Variable Speed Drives
  4. 4. Uninterruptibe AC Power Supplies
  5. 5. Basic Concepts
  6. 6. Properties of Ideal Inverters <ul><li>DC input is free of ripple </li></ul><ul><li>AC output is sinusoidal or has a controllable waveshape </li></ul>
  7. 7. Klasifikasi Inverter <ul><li>1) Menurut jumlah fasa </li></ul><ul><li>- satu-fasa </li></ul><ul><li>- banyak fasa </li></ul><ul><li>2) Menurut sumber dc: </li></ul><ul><li>- sumber tegangan </li></ul><ul><li>- sumber arus </li></ul><ul><li>3) Menurut metoda komutasi: </li></ul><ul><li>- komutasi paksa </li></ul><ul><li>- komutasi natural </li></ul><ul><li>4) Menurut metoda pengaturan gelombang ac: </li></ul><ul><li>- gelombang persegi </li></ul><ul><li>- pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) </li></ul><ul><li>- pulse width modulation (PWM) </li></ul><ul><li>5) Menurut jumlah level gelombang keluaran: </li></ul><ul><li>- dua level </li></ul><ul><li>- banyak level </li></ul>
  8. 8. Inverter Satu-Fasa
  9. 9. Inverter Center-Tap
  10. 10. Inverter Center-Tap
  11. 11. Inverter Center-Tap
  12. 12. Analisis Tegangan Output Inverter Center-Tap
  13. 13. Inverter Center-Tap <ul><li>Sederhana </li></ul><ul><li>Komponen minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Harus pakai trafo </li></ul><ul><li>Cocok untuk daya rendah (< 1 kW) </li></ul><ul><li>Cocok untuk tegangan dc yang rendah </li></ul><ul><li>Pengaturan tegangan dilakukan dengan menggunakan trafo ferroresonance. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Half-Bridge Inverter
  15. 15. Analisis Tegangan Output Inverter Half-Bridge
  16. 16. Inverter Thyristor
  17. 17. Inverter Thyristor
  18. 18. Inverter Full-Bridge
  19. 19. Inverter Full-Bridge
  20. 20. Inverter Tiga-Fasa
  21. 21. Inverter Tiga-Fasa
  22. 22. Inverter Tiga-Fasa
  23. 23. Simulation
  24. 24. Simulated Result
  25. 25. Teknik PWM <ul><li>Sampling Based PWM: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural sampling (Carrier Based) </li></ul><ul><li>Regular sampling </li></ul><ul><li>2. Programmed PWM: </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated Harmonics </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Harmonics </li></ul>
  26. 26. Teknik PWM If f c /f r integer, the technique is called synchronous otherwise asynchronous
  27. 27. Regular Sampling
  28. 28. Simulation
  29. 29. Simulation Results
  30. 30. Analisis Tegangan Keluaran nverter PWM Satu-Fasa
  31. 31. Simulation result under nonsinusoidal reference
  32. 32. Analisis Tegangan keluaran <ul><li>Maximum peak output voltage is E d /2. This value is less than the fundamental component of square-wave output voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>The output current waveform is almost sinusoidal when the switching frequency is high. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the switching frequency is high, the switching losses are also high. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Analisis Riak
  34. 34. Analisis Riak
  35. 35. Programmed PWM
  36. 36. Teknik PWM Untuk Inverter Satu-Fasa Full-Bridge
  37. 37. Three-Phase PWM Inverter
  38. 38. Teknik PWM Inverter Tiga-Fasa
  39. 39. Simulation
  40. 40. Simulation Results
  41. 41. Teknik PWM Inverter Tiga-Fasa
  42. 42. Teknik PWM Inverter Tiga-Fasa
  43. 43. Simulation Result
  44. 44. Switching Function Concept
  45. 45. Current-Type Inverters Current-Type Inverter Voltage-Type Inverter
  46. 46. Autosequential Commutation Current-Source Inverters
  47. 47. Current-Source Inverter with Individual Commutation
  48. 48. Current-Source Inverter with Fourth-Leg Commutation
  49. 49. Duality Between Voltage-Type and Current-Type Inverters
  50. 50. Duality Between Voltage-Type and Current-Type Inverters
  51. 51. Current-Type Inverters
  52. 52. Current-Type Inverters <ul><li>At present, voltage-type inverters are more popular than current-type inverters. </li></ul><ul><li>Current-type inverters are commonly used as PWM rectifiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Advances on superconductor will increase the use of current-type inverters. </li></ul><ul><li>At present, several manufacturers introduce reverse-blocking devices on one module. </li></ul><ul><li>Current-type inverters are introduced for medium voltage ac drives because the input and output currents are almost sinusoidal, inherently four-quadrants, and short-circuit proof. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Space-Vector PWM
  54. 54. Space Vector PWM
  55. 55. Space Vector PWM
  56. 56. Two-Level Inverters <ul><li>High-voltage applications need high-voltage switching devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Series connection of switching devices are difficult to control. </li></ul><ul><li>Output waveforms can only be improved at the expense of switching losses. </li></ul><ul><li>High-voltage applications may need bulky and expensive transformers. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Diode clamped multilevel inverters Three-level inverter Five-level inverter
  58. 58. Flying capacitor inverters Three level inverters Five level
  59. 59. Cascade connection of single-phase inverters Three level inverter Five level inverter

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