Smart cities, sustainable cities, city branding and lean start up methodology: a theoretical approach.


Published on

A theoretical approach on some basic concepts concerning smart cities, sustainable cities, lean start up methodology and city branding.

AthensCoCreation BrandingProject

Panteion University Of Social And Political Sciences
Department of Communication, Media and Culture
MA in Cultural Management
Course: Cultural Marketing and Communication
Course Instructor: Betty Tsakarestou, Assistant Professor and Head of Advertising and Public Relations Lab

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Smart cities, sustainable cities, city branding and lean start up methodology: a theoretical approach.

  1. 1. SMART CITY
  2. 2. SMART CITYKey Concepts: CreativityEfficiencyUsabilitySustainabilityCommunication and NetworkingInclusivenessInvolvementOpenness
  3. 3. SMART CITYA paper of smart cities” by Colin Harrison andIan Abbott Donnelly offers an overview of thedifferent theoretical bases for the “Smart Cities”trope. As they mention, “the current ad hocapproaches of Smart Cities to the improvementof cities are reminiscent of pre-scientificmedicine. They may do good, but we have littledetailed understanding of why“.
  4. 4. SMART CITYThey highlight two theoretical approaches:One of these is work in scaling laws goingback to Zipf, but enormously enriched inrecent years by theoreticians such as Westand Batty.The first body of work provides evidence thatalthough many behaviours of complexsystems are emergent or adaptive,nonetheless there are patterns or consistentbehaviour at the level of macro observation.
  5. 5. SMART CITYThe second body of work (Allen,Portugali) considers cities as complexsystems. This approach introducesconcepts such as interconnection,feedback, adaptation, and self-organization in order to provideunderstanding of the almost organicgrowth, operation, decline, and evolutionof cities.“
  6. 6. SMART CITYFloridas theory asserts that metropolitanregions with high concentrations oftechnology workers, artists, musicians,lesbians and gay men, and a group hedescribes as "high bohemians", exhibit ahigher level of economic development.Florida refers to these groups collectivelyas the "creative class."
  7. 7. SMART CITYThe creative class:SUPER CREATIVE COREscientists, engineers, university professors,poets, novelists, artists, designers, actors,entertainers, nonfiction writers, editors,cultural figures, analysts, opinion makers ...
  8. 8. CREATIVE PROFESSIONALSpeople in thefinancial serviceshealth carehigh-tech sectorsbusiness management ...SMART CITY
  9. 9. SMART CITYHe posits that the creative class fosters an open,dynamic, personal and professional urbanenvironment. This environment, in turn, attractsmore creative people, as well as businesses andcapital. He suggests that attracting and retaininghigh-quality talent versus a singular focus onprojects such as sports stadiums, iconic buildings,and shopping centers, would be a better primaryuse of a citys regeneration of resources for long-term prosperity.
  10. 10. SMART CITY
  11. 11. SMART CITYThe rise of the creative class
  12. 12. SMART CITYCities and the Creative Class
  13. 13. SMART CITY
  14. 14. SMART CITYSO Who does the city work for? Where do people play in cities? What new inequalities are created in cities? What are the emergent third places in cites? What new technologies are built for cities? How do future scenarios of cities seducepolicy makers, planners, and designers?
  15. 15. www.fireball4smartcities.euSmart Cities as Innovation EcosystemsSustained by the Future InternetLiving Labs Summer School 2012, HelsinkiHans SchaffersVisiting professor Aalto University School of Business, CKIRESoCE NetScientific Coordinator of FIREBALL
  16. 16. Thessaloniki smart city developmentICT transforming city activitiesand ecosystemsApps ande-services:Bottom-up initiativesCity representationCity sectorsCity districtsCitizens. Aggregation/ collective contentCity administrationand social servicesLocation-basedservicesCity infrastructureand utilitiesCity managementPlanning for Smartdistrict Development ofwired and wirelessnetworks Free Internet tousers andbusiness. Smartenvironmentsbased on sensors e-services suitablefor the communityof each district Training servicesfor involvement ofend-usersBroadband networksby large companiesADSL: 24/1 MbFibre optic net: 2,5 Gb3G-HSDPA: 42 MbWireless: free (municipalnets)Governance challenges:Three gaps to address(1)Digital skills gap -TRAINING(2)Creativity gap – LIVINGLABS(3)Entrepreneurship gap –BUSINESS MODELS
  17. 17. Empowerment Examples Thessaloniki: emergence of developer communities: e-servicesand applications e.g. mobility services Oulu: PATIO (test user community tool): empower ordinary peopleto experiment new services Manchester: Digital City Test-Bed (as a vision) Barcelona: 22@Urban Lab: city as urban lab, pilot programs, useof public spaces, e.g. Open data Helsinki: competitions for innovative applications e.g.Apps4Finland; Innovative City program; Open Data businessdevelopment initiatives
  18. 18. The positive and strong identityand the image of a city can bea strong competitive advantageand a useful tool in anincreasingly globalized andcompetitive market.CITY BRANDING
  19. 19. CITY BRANDINGSimon Anholt launched two completelynew topics:The City Brands Indexthat measures perceptions of citiesamong nationals of both developed anddeveloping countries by combining thefollowing six dimensions:
  21. 21. CITY BRANDINGPresenceBased on the citys international status andstanding and the globalfamiliarity/knowledge of the city. It alsomeasures the citys global contribution inscience, culture and governance.
  22. 22. CITY BRANDINGPlaceExploring peoples perceptions about thephysical aspect of each city in terms ofpleasantness of climate, cleanliness ofenvironment and how attractive its buildingsand parks are.
  23. 23. CITY BRANDINGPre-requisitesDetermines how people perceive the basicqualities of the city; whether they aresatisfactory, affordable andaccommodating, as well as the standard ofpublic amenities such as schools, hospitals,transportation and sports facilities.
  24. 24. CITY BRANDINGPeopleReveals whether the inhabitants of the cityare perceived as warm and welcoming,whether respondents think it would be easyfor them to find and fit into a communitythat shares their language and culture andwhether they would feel safe.
  25. 25. CITY BRANDINGPulseMeasures the perception that there areinteresting things to fill free time with andhow exciting the city is perceived to be inregard to new things to discover.
  26. 26. CITY BRANDINGPotentialMeasures the perception of economic andeducational opportunities within the city,such as how easy it might be to find a job,whether its a good place to do business orpursue a higher education.
  27. 27. CITY BRANDINGand the Nation Brands IndexThis index ranks various countriesand the image the have upon othersin the world.
  28. 28. CITY BRANDINGThe Anholt-GMI Nation Brand Index is basedupon people’s perception of a country by meansof 6 different areas. These areas are: Tourism Exports Governance People Culture and heritage Investment and immigration
  30. 30. Tourism
  31. 31. Exports
  32. 32. Governance
  33. 33. People
  34. 34. Culture and heritage
  35. 35. Investment and immigration
  36. 36. CITY BRANDINGBetween sameness and differenceFlorian: Cities need a soul.Speaks: The construction of identities is disappearingand the same rate that grows the global sameness.Mommaas: people are expecting a residentialenvironment, which can reflect their own personality.
  37. 37. CITY BRANDINGFOCUS ON 4 THINGSObjectives of city branding: economic or social?Perception of the city: personal experience.Causes of the complexity of city branding.What are the risks of city branding?
  38. 38. CITY BRANDINGObjectives of city branding: economic or social?According to Parkerson and Saunders theobjectives of branding a city are toincrease the flow of visitors by improvingattractiveness, to stimulate businessinvestments and foster students andpeople to live in. They state that ‘thebottom line is economic”
  39. 39. CITY BRANDINGKavaratzis explains that the first aim was to attractinward investments and that it is why a lot of peoplecriticized acutely this procedure, arguing that citymarketing emphasizes social conflicts.City branding is understood as the means both forachieving competitive advantage in order to increaseinward investments and tourism, and also for achievingcommunity development, reinforcing local identity andidentification of the citizens with their city and activatingall social forces to avoid social exclusion and unrest.
  40. 40. CITY BRANDINGMommaas asserts that nowadays citybrands are only managed in an economicway and not to achieve social and culturalobjectives. According to him, they serveonly “external cash-groups”. He argues thatcity brands have to improve city pride andsense of community.
  41. 41. CITY BRANDINGPerception of the city: personal experienceKavaratzis and Ashworth state that “people encounterplaces through perceptions and images”. Indeed, theyargue just before, that the orientation of the residentdepends on how they experience the city, thought thephysical and symbolic elements that they encounter.The place brand manager tries to influence this image.
  42. 42. CITY BRANDINGCauses of the complexity of city branding: The city: a networking organizationThe uniqueness of a city brand lies primarily in its formas a network rather as an organization with clearboundaries and internal structures (Parkerson,Saunders) . They also argue that the interests of all thestake holders of this network are different and most ofthe time competing. They cite Castells when they arguethat the network is a “set of organizational nodes”.where its node is intelerrated to the others.
  43. 43. CITY BRANDINGThey add that the problem with the network is that theyare good in decentralizing but not at coordinating thedecision-making process or at allocating resources.Consequently, that is why they argue that “there is aninherent lack of stability and consistency in a city brand.According to these authors, the management of the citybranding has to be decided by a network of organizationinstead of one strategic decision -making body.
  44. 44. CITY BRANDING The large extent of the stakeholdersOne of the main reasons of the difficulty to brand a city is that theusers are multiple (Kavaratzis). The city is an intricate net work ofindividuals, businesses, public services, local governments andpartnership (Parkerson, Saunders). They explain that the citybrand elements can be divided into the tangibles and intagibleelements of the city. They argue that there two kinds of audienceswhich are expecting two different brand promises. The “ordinary’world of the residents and the “ordinary” world of the tourists thatthey are dialectically opposed. In opposition to a corporate brand,the targets can’t be chosen but are imposed.The question remains, can we really create a brand that cananswer to all promises?
  45. 45. CITY BRANDING Political factorsParkerson and Saunders admit that the politicaldimension is a hurdle to the strategic brandingof cities. They explain that the political processrestrains the efficiency of the strategic decision-making because of the man-making of thepolitician and the concern about their selfinterests: visible project of a good reputation,personal ambition, and so on.
  46. 46. CITY BRANDINGWhat are the risks of city branding?Mommaas argues first that the problem withbrands in general is that elevates the product about itself and gives them more importance thatthey have.Secondly, he states that the aim of the brand isto give a coherence to something which doesnot have one normally. The risk which applyingthis technique to a city is that the city canbecome subject to rationalization “cleansing”and the creation of the cliches.
  47. 47. CITY BRANDINGTherefore, he asserts that the city brandemphasizes the social inequality becauseof the economic-oriented dimension.For him the city needs an orientation moresocial in order to raise civic pride.
  56. 56. SUSTAINABLE CITYSustainability is not a uniformmodel, but multiple overlappingissues, ideas and initiatives.
  57. 57. Buildings and sustainable city
  58. 58. Buildings and sustainable city
  59. 59. Buildings and sustainable cityIn developed countries, residential andcommercial buildings account for nearly 40% ofall carbon emissions and consume as much as73% of electricity. While perhaps shocking at first,these statistics are hardly surprising when onerealizes that the average person in the developedworld spends more than 90% of his or her timeindoors. In a world that is rapidly developing andmodernising, sustainably-constructed andefficiently-used buildings are severely needed toensure a sustainable future.
  60. 60. Buildings and sustainable cityThe question is:How can we promote sustainablebuilding practices? How arefinancial, behavioural andknowledge barriers for individuals,governments and businessesovercome?
  61. 61. Buildings and sustainable cityThere are five ways of classifyingsustainable building design: renovating existing buildings, new skyscrapers and apartments, new public architecture, new low-rise houses commercial, and pre-fabricated housing.
  62. 62. Economy and sustainable city
  63. 63. Economy and sustainable cityWhat is a green economy?Although it is still debated, there is ashared understanding of the concept.At the most basic level, a green economy isone that generates increasing prosperitywhile maintaining the natural systems thatsustain us.
  64. 64. Economy and sustainable city
  65. 65. Economy and sustainable cityWe essentially face a twin challenge.We need to focus on the economy, finding ways toincrease our prosperity without increasing resource useand environmental impacts. Put simply, we need tobecome more resource efficient.Effecting changes of this sort requires the engagementof all sectors, including policymakers, businesses andindividual citizens. And that in turn implies the need for amass of information to guide and inform decision-making.
  66. 66. Education and sustainable city
  67. 67. Education and sustainable cityEducation and urban learning is sharingknowledge and creating systematic learningabout sustainability. It focuses on puttingknowledge into systems and disseminatingit to relevant target groups whether it isschool children, local residents, companies,business associations or municipaladministrations.
  68. 68. Education and sustainable cityThe question is:How can we make use of knowledge toinvest in our future citizens and cities?How do we ensure that best practiceexamples of sustainable practices willbe disseminated? How do we developintelligent ways of sharing knowledge soall parties gain from it?
  69. 69. Food and sustainable cityToday modern western populations expectto be able to eat large varieties of differentproducts from all over the world, all yearround.
  70. 70. Food and sustainable cityA tremendous amount of fossil fuel is usedto transport food such long distances. Evenwhen you set aside the environmental harmresulting from processing, packaging andlong-distance-transport, the industrial farmsare major sources of air and waterpollution.
  71. 71. Food and sustainable city
  72. 72. Food and sustainable cityThe question is:How can cities produce food locally and in asustainable way?Urban agriculture should preferably be seen ascomplimenting rather than competing with ruralagriculture. Sustainable cities explores thepossibility for sustainable food cultivation andproduction in cities by selecting cases fromcities that have already taken action towardsthese means.
  73. 73. Food and sustainable cityIn future, the planning of cities might thenalso take into account the importance ofsetting aside land for agricultural purposes.
  74. 74. Green and sustainable city
  75. 75. Green and sustainable cityThe world is in the midst of a disturbingperiod of population growth, growingconsumption and environmentaldegradation. From global warming tobiodiversity loss to patterns of sprawlingland consumption, the environmental trendsare dire. Cities will by necessity play anincreasingly important role in addressingthese issues.
  76. 76. Green and sustainable cityParks and gardens, green roofs and walls,green streets and corridors, urban nature,sports and play spaces and surplus land.Cities must focus on the planning, designand management of urban green asessential for both our individual wellbeingand the future of our planet.
  77. 77. Green and sustainable cityThe question is:How can we support the creation of sustainablecities that provide recreational green space,contact with nature and relief from the extremeweather conditions caused by climate changes?How can we re-envision cities to be restorativeand replenishing of nature - instead of extractiveand damaging?
  78. 78. Health and sustainable city
  79. 79. Health and sustainable cityHealth is one of the fundamentalprerequisites for a sustainable lifestyle inthe cities. Cities provide the physical, socialand environmental framework for themajority of the planets population and havean important role in promoting a healthylifestyle.
  80. 80. Health and sustainable cityA healthy city is therefore not only aboutminimizing the adverse health factors suchas pollution or social problems. It is aboutactively creating some conditions thatpromote health, safety and wellbeing ofpeople in the city.
  81. 81. Health and sustainable cityA healthy city means that the basicenvironmental conditions - air, soil, water,purified water, etc. is in order and undercontrol. The healthy city has minimizedtraffic and recreational accidents, andprovides easy access and opportunities forphysical activity, also for the disabled.
  82. 82. Health and sustainable cityA healthy city is designed to be a beautifulexperience for people to move in, since thecitys sensual interior design can influenceour behaviour and movement.
  83. 83. Health and sustainable cityThe question is:How do we plan urban traffic network and thesurrounding countryside, so they can contribute to ahealthier life for city residents? How do we develop abalance between closely concentrated buildings andmore green spaces? How do we create the citysphysical environment, so that it encouragesmovement, sports and activities? How do we arrangea healthy, safe and diverse city that offers room fordifferent lifestyles and groups, for example, young,elderly, socially disadvantaged and people withdisabilities or mental illness?
  84. 84. Energy and sustainable city
  85. 85. Energy and sustainable cityMost of the worlds energy is used in cities. Localtransport, electricity supply, home living, servicesprovision and manufacturing crucially depend onfossil fuels.Without routine use of coal, oil and gas, thegrowth of megacities would never have occurred,all the internal activities - local transport,electricity supply, home living, services provisionand manufacturing - crucially depend on fossilfuels.
  86. 86. Energy and sustainable cityIn a world in which climate change isbecoming an ever-growing concern and inwhich oil and other fossil fuels arebecoming scarce resources, we need tofind other ways to power our cities.
  87. 87. Energy and sustainable cityThese resources and technologies are:Wind power, solar energy, biomass,geothermal energy, wave power, insulationand cooling and fuel cell technology.Besides energy resources we have chosento also take a look at insulation and cooling.
  88. 88. Energy and sustainable city
  89. 89. Energy and sustainable cityThe question is:How do we make cities run on renewableenergy?By taking a look in cities and presentingcase material on cities that had takenaction towards this question.
  90. 90. Social city and sustainable city
  91. 91. Social city and sustainable cityA community is composed of people as well asthe places where they live; it is as much a socialenvironment as a physical environment.Communities must not only be environmentallyand economically sustainable. They must alsobe socially sustainable. In creating sustainablecities and communities, citizen participationbecomes of great importance since maintainingand supporting sustainability, needs theengagement of people.
  92. 92. Social city and sustainable cityThe question is:How do we create livable and diverse cities?By exploring the possibility for engaging andcommitting inhabitants in creating andmaintaining sustainable cities. The overall issueis finding ways to create an ownership to thecity and its neighborhoods while simultaneouslysupporting the creation of social sustainablecommunities.
  93. 93. Transport and sustainable city
  94. 94. Transport and sustainable cityDuring the past fifty years, there has been anexponential growth in transport of both peopleand goods.This growth has several unintendedconsequences - and is now increasingly erodingsome of the very benefits transport has broughtabout. It is now evident that current trends posesevere challenges for societies aiming to movetowards sustainable city development.
  95. 95. Transport and sustainable cityThus we need to consider planning citiesproviding and favoring alternative modes oftransport as well as limiting the massiveuse of fossil fuel based transport.Cities must focus on intermodality, bikelanes, mobility management, road pricing,public transport as well as democratic andsocial aspects of transport.
  96. 96. Transport and sustainable cityThe question is:How can cities support the development ofsustainable transport while also creatingequal rights and possibilities for people tobe mobile?
  97. 97. Waste and sustainable city
  98. 98. Waste and sustainable cityFrom 1950 to 2000 the worlds economic activitiesincreased fifteen fold. The growth of consumersocieties all over the world has seen a largeincrease in solid waste produced per head, andthe waste mix has also become ever morecomplex. For more than 50 years we have takenfor granted that our waste could be deposited inholes in the ground or incinerated. In theurbanized world cities use the bulk of the worldsresources and discharge most waste.
  99. 99. Waste and sustainable cityToday cities are running out of landfills. Evenwhen they incinerate, they cannot keep up withthe piles of waste created everyday. Conventionallinear waste disposal is not a sustainable option.New circular systems have emerged all aroundthe world, in which waste is seen as a resource tobe reused. Many new jobs have been created inthis recycling industry. Would it be possible toimagine a world were the concept of waste iseliminated?
  100. 100. Waste and sustainable cityThe question is:How do we create cities with a morecircular view on waste?
  101. 101. Water and sustainable city
  102. 102. Water and sustainable cityPopulation growth has huge implications forall aspects of resource use, including water.Although water is a renewable resource, itis only renewable within limits.
  103. 103. Water and sustainable cityToday, more than 50% of the worlds populationlives in cities. As a result competing demandsfrom domestic, commercial, industrial and peri-urban agriculture are putting enormous pressureon freshwater resources. In their bid to meetsoaring demand cities are going deeper intoground water sources and farther to surface watersources, at costs - including environmental costs -which are clearly unsustainable.
  104. 104. Water and sustainable cityThere are four ways of looking at water in relationto sustainable urban planning: Water supply,urban storm water management, urban wastewater management and the amenity value ofwater. With the above-mentioned perspectives,we recognize that urban water use andmanagement is closely linked to the economicsituation of the cities in question.
  105. 105. Water and sustainable cityHow can cities implement watertechnologies and approaches that arefinancially, socially and environmentallysustainable?
  106. 106. Lean StartupThe Lean Startup provides a scientificapproach to creating and managingstartups and get a desired product tocustomers hands faster. The Lean Startupmethod teaches you how to drive a startup-how to steer, when to turn, and when topersevere-and grow a business withmaximum acceleration. It is a principledapproach to new product development.
  107. 107. Lean StartupFOUR STEPS Eliminate Uncertainty Work Smarter not Harder Develop a Minimum Viable Product MVP Validated Learning
  108. 108. Lean Startup
  109. 109. Πηγές:
  110. 110.
  111. 111. Thank you for your attention!T. Androutsopoulos Giannibasdgiannibas@gmail.comV. Kasvikivkasviki1@gmail.comK. Kentrou@kentroukEl. Michalaki SmartCityTeam
  112. 112. PANTEION UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCESDepartment of Communication, Media and CultureMA in Cultural ManagementCourse: Cultural Marketing and CommunicationCourse Instructor: Betty Tsakarestou, Assistant Professor and Head ofAdvertising and Public Relations LabAthensCoCreation BrandingProjectMay, 2013