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Analysing Smart City Development in india


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India’s recent stand on Smart City Development and involvement of various high income countries; initiates the talk of ideal variables for smart city evolution by our own standards. With a vision of Urban Governance for general livability, it becomes imperative to study these parameters and ensure the evolution of our own concept of a Smart City. Our spatial planning models based on unique factors such as Human Diversity, Physical-Social networks and ICT impact on urban fabric, City resilience, etc. make it all the more interesting to evolve a blueprint for Planning a Smart City.
The paper centers the infrastructural developments for the Smart Urban Development in India. The research helps us arrive at a general line of action for Urban Planning implications catering to the Infrastructure Sector, amongst others; thus affecting environmental, social and economic structure significantly. The study further finds the scope of progress, encouraged from various government policies for successful implementation of Smart City Development. It also allows a peek into future scenario of improvements and deliberations particular to Indian standards in consideration with the scenario of other countries.

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Analysing Smart City Development in india

  1. 1. Analysing the Smart City Development in India (Defining Indicators & Smart City Ratings) 5th International Conference on “Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering” (ACEE - 2014) Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 11th and 12th October, 2014 Omkar Parishwad Architect , Urban Planner- Business Analyst
  2. 2. •Smart City Concepts •Evolution •Definition •Aim of the Paper- Focus points •India’s Smart Initiatives •Phase-wise Development •Policies and Projects •ICT and Sustainable Development •Smart Service delivery areas (ICT enabled) •Water Supply Services •Waste Water Services •Solid Waste Management •Municipal Services •Revenue and Management •Smart City Rating: Factors & Indicators •Conclusions Contents
  3. 3. Logo Footer- slide no. Smart City Concept Earlier Cities: By-product of Industrialisation.. Today Cities: Nodes for Economic Growth.. Urban Development = Entrepreneurial environment + Quality of life Smart City = Human and social capital and traditional and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources through participatory governance. S = Standardizing M = Monitoring A = Accounting R = Rethinking T = Transforming
  4. 4. Smart City Concept What is a smartcity? Mobility Productivity Remote sensing Safety ICT Public Transport Urban Space Emergency response Smart metering Video surveillance Teleworking Public management E-Government Traffic control Waste Management Municipalities Universities Hospitals Transparency No queues Public services Private sectorSustainability Energy Efficiency R & D Renewable Energy Climate Change MonitoringWater management Disaster response
  5. 5. Smart City Concept 1. Indias’ Smart Urbanisation initiatives. 2. Analysing of major developments related to smart initiative in service delivery across India. 3. Establishment of elaborate sections for parameterising Smart City development, particular to Indian standards. 4. Deliberations or concise comparison of smart city development on Global scenario. 5. Basing the conclusions on general line of action for Smart Urban Planning. Analysing the Smart City Development in India (Defining Indicators & Smart City Ratings)
  6. 6. India's SMART initiatives.. Phase-wise evolution of good to Smart Indian Cities; Smart City Development; • Social Capital: Infrastructure and wired connectivity for information sharing (ICT) • Human Capital: Community intelligence, creating a competitive environment for business led urban development. • Participatory Governance: Inclusive approach towards sustainable cities.
  7. 7. India's SMART initiatives.. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM 1) B&D certification Property tax Payroll and personnel e-procurement Building plan approval Water and utility payments SWM Grievance system Trade licenses Project and ward works. National Mission Mode Project (NMMP): e-Gov guidelines were set for leading ICT enabled development. Large scale investments in the urban sector were initiated. For improving services, reducing costs, process time, productivity gains, etc. i.e. bettering urban governance and service delivery; ICT revolution had to be capitalized. ICT synergizing with the emerging technologies is transforming businesses and societies in a significant way. Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC):ongoing
  8. 8. Sustainable Development Potential savings from ICT application to energy savings in other sectors Source: Alcatel-Lucent analysis of GeSI SMART 2020 data. Cities consume 75% of the worlds energy and produce 80% of its greenhouse gas emissions. The vast majority of this comes from the burning of gasoline and diesel fuel for automobiles and trucks, with the remainder committed to the generation of electricity to heat, cool and light our homes and to run electrical appliances and other technology. How to manage this use of resources? – ICT based Energy - efficient Solutions! Energyconsumption Location &GPS Vehicle Personal and medical devices. Appliances Energy efficiency Energy Savings + Low Carbon Effect
  9. 9. Water Supply Waste water Solid Waste Management Municipal Services Revenue & Management  Water Quality Management  Billing & Collection  Grievances Handling  Grievance Handling  Attendance Monitoring  Bin Tracking System  Treatment and Disposal  Internal Business Processing  Birth & Death Certificates  Grievance Management  Utility Bills  Licenses  Property Tax  Accounting System  Personnel Management Source: Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure and Services: ASCI, Hyd. Smart Service delivery areas through ICT for Urban Management .. India’s Service Delivery Sector.
  10. 10. Ensuring Urban Development.. Water efficiency through SCADA – PCMC Smart toilets: sensor based community toilets - Trivandrum Water Supply Distribution and monitoring system thru GIS; Hydraulic modeling; Online water quality monitoring; Sustainable operations- metering and online billing, etc. are some of the successful systems implemented in Indian cities which can be listed under smart water supply services. Waste Water Integration and automation of water treatment plant and sewerage systems, Enterprise resource planning (Oracle) system and grievance management funded under state projects and many local bodies. Automatic meter reading Mumbai, Hyderabad ICT Development
  11. 11. Smart mobility – HTRIMS, Hyderabad; Bangalore – Bicycle sharing program, Trivandrum – Bus information system over mobile Ensuring Urban Development.. Solid waste information system GHMC Solid Waste Management Off-site real time monitoring system, GIS and GPS enabled services, biometric attendance systems for sanitary workers, sensor based applications for smart solid waste management services. GPS and GPRS technologies through cell phone images are taken and stamped with time and location and put in public domain for scrutiny on real time basis thus improving the SWM service delivery. Revenue and Management Municipal e-revenue systems using GIS linked property database, Tulana: online application for service level benchmarking,, e-tendering, Dynamic integration of property registration and land records administration system, Comprehensive Public Works Management Information and Management system for PWD’s (State level) and many more advanced applications, catering to the smart service delivery in this sector. Public Works Information and Management Services (PWIMS) in 7 States in India
  12. 12. Municipal Services Integration of all operations of municipal corporation through GIS (land based services), Computerised building plan scrutiny and approvals, Standardized online citizen administration (GIS based), Traffic information system initiative and many others as smart governance in Urban bodies. Land being the base of all operations for municipal services, GIS mapping and integration of various databases was initiated in JnNURM1 for improving the services. Building Plan scrutiny and Approvals automation on a comprehensive level and its integration with GIS database accelerated the pace of development. Building approval system – AutoDCR about 50 cities in India Ensuring Urban Development.. Integration of services and governance Hyderabad
  13. 13. SMART Indicators Smart Economy Smart Governance Smart People Smart Mobility Smart Environment Smart Living Analysis: Compiled from all references.. Innovative Spirit R&D expenditure in % GDP Employment Rate in knowledge-intensive sectors Patent applications per inhabitant Entrepreneurship Self-employment Rate New business registered Productivity GDP per employed person Flexibility of labour market Unemployment Rate Proportion in part-time employment International embeddedness Air transport of passengers Air Transport of freight
  14. 14. SMART Indicators Smart Economy Smart Governance Smart People Smart Mobility Smart Environment Smart Living Analysis: Compiled from all references.. Participation in Decision-making City Representatives per resident Political activity of inhabitants Importance of politics for inhabitants Share of female city representatives Public and Social Services Expenditure of municipal per resident in PPS Share of children in day care Satisfaction with quality of schools Transparent governance Satisfaction with transparency of bureaucracy Satisfaction with fight against corruption
  15. 15. SMART Indicators Smart Economy Smart Governance Smart People Smart Mobility Smart Environment Smart Living Analysis: Compiled from all references.. Level of Qualification Importance as knowledge centre Population qualified at various levels Foreign language skills Affinity to life long learning Book loans per resident Participation in LLL in % Participation in language courses Social and ethnic plurality Share of foreigners Share of nationals born abroad Flexibility Perception of getting a new job Creativity Share of people working in creative industries Cosmopolitanism /Open-mindedness/ Participation in public life Voters turnout at elections, Participation in voluntary work Immigration-friendly environment Knowledge about other countries (Global reach)
  16. 16. SMART Indicators Smart Economy Smart Governance Smart People Smart Mobility Smart Environment Smart Living Analysis: Compiled from all references.. Local/ International accessibility Public transport network per inhabitant Satisfaction with access/Quality - public transport International accessibility Availibility of ICT infrastructure Computers in household Broadband internet access in households Sustainable, innovative and safe transport systems Green mobility share (NMT) Traffic safety Use of economic cars
  17. 17. SMART Indicators Smart Economy Smart Governance Smart People Smart Mobility Smart Environment Smart Living Analysis: Compiled from all references.. Attractive natural conditions Sunshine hours Green space share Pollution Summer Smog (Ozone) Particulate matter Lower fatal chronic respiratory diseases per inhabitant Environmental protection Individual efforts on protecting nature Opinions and awareness about nature Sustainable resource management Efficient use of water (per GDP) Efficient use of electricity (per GDP)
  18. 18. SMART Indicators Smart Economy Smart Governance Smart People Smart Mobility Smart Environment Smart Living Analysis: Compiled from all references.. Cultural facilities Cinema attendance per inhabitant Museum visits per inhabitant Theatre attendance per inhabitant Health conditions Life expectancy Hospital beds per inhabitant Doctors per inhabitant Satisfaction with quality of health system Individual Safety Crime rate Death rate by assault Satisfaction with personal safety Housing Quality Share of housing fulfilling minimal standards Average living area per inhabitant Students per inhabitant Satisfaction with access/quality- educational system Touristic attractivity Importance as tourist location (overnight, sights) Overnights per year per resident Social cohesion Perception on personal risk of poverty
  19. 19. Inferences The smart city development is more concerned with making progress as concerns the smart indicators rather than rating a city, which inevitably is a snapshot in time. Consideration of different characteristics, factors and parameters in a non-weighted way expresses that the Urban Development is a complex process in different dimensions and evaluation, finally depends on the actors, their preferences and individual objectives. A truly smart city may use the parameters and rating as a tool to benchmark with other cities, and draw lessons from better performing cities, perhaps resulting in policy transfer. Smart city concept and rating presented in this paper requires further research, alterations and improvements.
  20. 20. References [1] Szczech-Pietkiewicz, E., "Poland’s urban competitiveness in the European context", The Polish Review, University of Illinois Press, vol. 58 no. 2, pp. 15-36, 2013. [2] OECD, “Better Understanding our Cities", The Role of Urban Indicators, OECD Territorial Development: Paris, 1997. [3] Goldstein, S., Sly, D., Basic data needed for the study of urbanization, IUSSP Committee on Urbanization and Population Redistribution, Dolhain: Ordina Editions, 1974. [4] Taylor, P.J., Ni, P., Deruder, B., Hoyer, M., Huang, J., Witlox, F., Global Urban Analysis. A Survey of Cities in Globalization, London, Washington D.C.: Earthscan, 2011. [5] Taylor, P.J., 'So-called ‘world cities'; the evidential structure within a literature’, Environment and Planning, Vol. 31, pp. 1901 – 1904. [6] Lombardi, P., Giordano, S., Farouh, H., Yousef, W. (2012) "Modelling the smart city performance”, Innovation – The European Journal of Social Science Research, vol. 25, no. 2, June 2012, pp. 137-149. [7] ASCI, Hyderabad, "Use of effective Urban Governance and service delivery in India: A selection of cases", in collaboration with MoUD: GoI, 2012. [8] Thornley A., Strategic Planning in the Face of Urban Competition, The Revival of Strategic Spatial Planning. Proceedings of colloquim. Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, 2000. [9] Begg I., "Cities and Competitiveness" in Urban Studies, Vol. 36, Nos 5-6, S. 795-810, 1999. [10] Parkinson, M., Hutchins, M., Simmie, J., Clark, G. and Verdonk, H. (Eds.), Competitive European Cities: Where Do The Core Cities Stand?, 2003. Thank you for your attention..