LA PLANTINGNDSCA Submitted By:P PearlE Prayashi shalini
Plants are the livingorganisms present on theearth. These are identifiedby their foliage, profile,color, etc. The anatomy ofmost plants contain roots,stems, leaves, flowers, etc.
ROOTS A plant is anchored in the ground by its roots.Older roots are thick and woody, with a waterproof,corky outer layer. The youngest roots take up waterand dissolved minerals from the soil. These enterthe root through fine root hairs found just behindeach root tip. STEM Plants have stem that supports fruits and flowers. It contains xylem and phloem, called vascular tissues which carry waterLeaves and sugarsA plant makes most of its food in its green leaves. Leavesthe usually around arethin and flat, so they expose a large surface areas to the sun to plants.collect energy. A network of veins supports the leaf and carrieswater, sugar, and dissolved minerals.
BREATHING ROOTSAll parts of a plant need tobreathe, including the roots. FOODTrees that grow in swamps, Some parts ofsuch as mangroves have roots plants arethat are exposed above the swollen withwater. The roots have lenticels reserves ofFLOWERSthrough which oxygen from starches orThese are made up of sepals,air can enter. sugars .petals, stamens and carpals. These storedThese are arranged in whorls food is usedon the tip of the flower stalk. the next growing season by sprouting shoots.
GROWTH OF PLANTSPhotosynthesis – it is used by plants to convert thelight energy captured from the sun into chemicalenergy(sugar) in presence of chlorophyll that can beused to fuel the organisms activities.Respiration – The process of metabolizing (burning)sugars to yield energy for growth, reproduction, andother life processes.Transpiration – The loss of water vapour throughthe stomata of leaves.
REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANTGROWTH will not compensate for poor growing conditions Hydroponic systemssuch as improper temperature, inadequate light, or pest problems.Hydroponically grown plants have the same general requirements for goodgrowth as field-grown plants. The major difference is the method by whichthe plants are supported and the inorganic elements necessary for growthand development are supplied.TEMPERATUREPlants grow well only within alimited temperature range.Temperatures that are too high ortoo low will result in abnormaldevelopment and reducedproduction. Warm-seasonvegetables and most flowers growbest between 60 and 75 or 80F. Cool-season vegetables such aslettuce and spinach should begrown between 50 and 70 F.
LIGHT All vegetable plants and many flowers require large amounts ofsunlight. Hydroponically grown vegetables like those grown in agarden, need at least 8 to 10 hours of direct sunlight each day toproduce wells Artificial lighting is a poor substitute for sunshine, as most indoorlights do not provide enough intensity to produce a crop.Adequate spacing between plants will ensure that each plant receivessufficient light in the greenhouse.Greenhouse vegetables, whether grown in soil or in a hydroponicsystem, will not do as well during the winter as in the summer. Shorter OXYGENdays and cloudy weather reduce the light intensity and thus limitproduction. Most vegetables will do better if grown from Januaryof Plants require oxygen for respiration to carry out their functions toJune or and nutrient December In soil they are started in the usually water from July to uptake. than if adequate oxygen is fall andgrown through the midwinter months. water will quickly exhaust the available, but plant roots growing in supply of dissolved oxygen and can be damaged or killed unless additional air is provided. A common method of supplying oxygen is to bubble air through the solution. It is not usually necessary to provide supplementary oxygen in aeroponic or continuous flow
WATER Providing the plants with an adequate amount of water is not difficultin the water culture system, but it can be a problem with the aggregateculture method. During the hot summer months a large tomato plantmay use one-half gallon of water per day. If the aggregate is not keptsufficiently moist, the plant roots will dry out and some will die. Evenafter the proper moisture level has been restored, the plants will recoverslowly and production will be reduced.Water quality can be a problem in hydroponic systems. Water withexcessive alkalinity or salt content can result in a nutrient imbalance andpoor plant growth. Softened water may contain harmful amounts ofsodium. Water that tests high in total salts should not be used. Saltlevels greater than 0.5 millions or 320 parts per million are likely to Mineral Nutrientscause an imbalance of nutrients. The amateur chemist may be able to Green plants must absorb certain minerals through their roots to survive.overcome this problem by custom mixing the nutrient solutions to In the garden these minerals are supplied by the soil and by the additioncompensate for the salts in the water. of fertilizers such as manure, compost, and fertilizer salts. The essential elements needed in large quantities are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Micronutrients - iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and chlorine are also needed but in very small amounts.Support.
BUILT ENVIRONMENTEnvironment = surroundings whichcan be natural, man-made or acombination of these.Built Environment = created byman with or without the aid of thenatural environment.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS• Planning requirements.• Building Regulations.• Land restrictions by vendor or lesser.• Availability of services.• Local amenities including transport.• Subsoil conditions.• Levels and topography of land.• Adjoining buildings or land.• Use of building.• Daylight and view aspects.PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS•Natural contours of land.•Natural vegetation and trees.•Size of land and/or proposed building.•Shape of land and/or proposedbuilding.•Approach and access roads andfootpaths.•Services available.
TYPES OF PLANTS GRAS HERB SHRUBS S SCLIMBING CREEPING
APPLICATIO Their NS yields thousands of Trees have many commercial uses. wood products, including paper, medicines and other chemicals, and lumber. Trees also provide food, such as fruits, spices, and nuts. Bark from the roots of the sassafras yields a tea and oils, and various chemicals are derived from the roots of the longleaf pine. Some tree bark yields such substances as cork, tannins, and cinnamon, as well as various kinds of drugs and dyes. Some leaves, such as those of the Palma palm, provide fibers that are woven into twine, rope, and mats. Fluids from trees yield many useful products, including rubber, maple syrup, and turpentine. Trees are also valuable for ornamentation. They line streets and adorn gardens, making them
ORNAMENTA An TION plant is ornamental grown for decoration, rather than food or other by-products. Ornamental plants may be grown in a flowerbed, shaped into a hedge or placed in a sunny apartment window. They are most often intentionally planted for aesthetic appeal, but a plant that occurs naturally and enhances the landscape could also be considered ornamental
ADD BEAUTY Ornamental plants are used in and out to beautify the surroundings.A large, tropical plant in a living room provides a pop of color and helps soften harsh lines from furnitureand architectural design. Colorful flowering ornamental plants break up theCLEAN AIR that browns and greensnaturally occur outside Plants take in carbon dioxide as food and release clean oxygen, acting as natural air filters. This proves especially helpful for indoor environments, where air circulation is limited compared to outdoors. Keeping ornamental houseplants has been shown toFRAGRANCE improve indoor air quality,Many ornamental plants are chosenbecause they appeal to the sense ofsmell, in addition to their visual appeal.Lavender is widely regarded for itspleasing fragrance; although widelyharvested for lavender oil, it is
FLOWERSFlowers add another element of interest to an ornamental grass backdrop. HUA CAI COMMON CHIC ORY RANUNCULUS PEONY VINE
MEDICINAL USES The roots, leaves, bark, fruit and blossoms of plants and trees havebeen used for medicinal purposes since before recorded history. Teas,tinctures, poultices and extracts made from countless plants are used tosoothe sore throats, boost immunity, ease congestion and relieve painthroughout the world.WILLOW TREE BARKto the World Health Organization, approximately 80 In fact, according ST. JOHNS WORTpercent of people worldwide use herbal medicine in some form for at willow tree bark is used to A common herbal treatment for mild toleast some of their health care issues. treat pain and inflammation moderate depression, St. Johns wort caused by tendinitis, has been used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, bursitis and nervous disorders since the days of the lower back pain. ancient Greeks. It can also be used topically to treat wounds, burns and eczema.
ALOE EUCALYPTUSUsed to treat an array The leaves of eucalyptusof skin ailments, trees and shrubs areincluding burns, commonly used to treatwounds, psoriasis and numerous congestioneven genital herpes, and coughs. Eucalyptusaloe can also be used is found in coughas a laxative and may syrups, vapor rubs andhelp lower blood sugar lozenges. It can also bein patients with brewed into teas ordiabetes. Aloe is SAW PALMETTO taken as gargles tocommonly kept as a relieve sore throat pain.houseplant. It is most often used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, or benign enlargement of the prostate gland. It
FUNCTIONAL USES OF PLANTS IN THE LANDSCAPE Considering the functional use of plants is a new approach to solvinglandscape problems. Traditionally, plants have been used for beautificationdue to their aesthetic qualities. The expression "functional use of plants"helps to explain that plants can perform other functions in the landscapeand still beautify.ARCHITECTURAL USES Rarely should plants be AESTHETIC USES simply ornamental;Plants can be used to form rather, they shouldwalls, canopies, or floors serve multiple roles,by taking advantage of making the moderntheir different growth landscape bothhabits and foliage attractive andcharacteristics. A stand of Groups of plants may functional.trees or shrubs can create be usedwalls to filter or block architecturally to formviews, or a canopy of tree walls, canopies orbranches can provide a floors. Plants can form a livingsense of shelter. Ground sculpture on their own, or helpcover planting with soften surroundinguniform foliage and architecture.
ENGINEERING USESTrees can stop or diffuse light before it reaches the ground. Engineeringfunctions of plants include using them to screen or soften the suns glareon the water or smooth shiny surfaces or to block car lights or street lights. For climate control, deciduous CLIMATE CONTROL USES OF PLANTS shade trees might be used to screen the hot summer sun or in winter permit the solar radiation to penetrate to the ground, or to the walls and windows of a building. Large shrubs can serve asPlants can be used to screen windbreaks to reduce windthe hot summer sun while velocities. Changes in solar radiation This design,allowing sunlight through bare employing light levels are also possible with or plantsbranches in winter for a type of shading. and pavements,climate control. emphasizes a functional and important entryThis engineering with plant approach bydesign reduces light glare. directing traffic to
HAT ARE ADAPTATIONS? Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat. Earth is a beautiful place to live in. Each and every place in this world has its own significance and is unique in its own water. It consists of plains, meadows, coastlines, rivers, ponds, forests, vegetation areas. Each and every area when looked individually is known as landscape. There are various kinds of landscapes depending on its formations. Landscapes also include building structures, transitory elements like the thunder, lightning and storm as well. Depending on the area and various forms of living identities and cultural practices landscapes
The earth has different kinds of landscapes that also includes icylandscapes of polar regions,•mountainous landscapes,•ast arid desert landscapes,•islands and coastal landscapes,•densely forested or•wooded landscapespast boreal forests and tropical rainforests, and agricultural landscapesof temperate and tropical regions. Likewise there are numerousclassifications and are separated through different categories like
THE DESERT sandy or rocky and unable to hold much water. Winds are • The desert is very dry and often hot. There is a lot of direct sunlight shining on the plants. The soil is often often strong, and dry out plants. Plants are exposed to extreme temperatures and drought conditions.• Plants must cope with extensive water loss.• Desert Plant Adaptations• Some plants, called succulents, store water in their stems or leaves;• Some plants have no leaves or small seasonal leaves that only grow after it rains. The lack of leaves helps reduce water loss during photosynthesis. Leafless plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stems.• Long root systems spread out wide or go deep into the ground to absorb water;• Some plants have a short life cycle, germinating in response to rain, growing, flowering, and dying within one year. These plants can evade drought.• Leaves with hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss. Other plants have leaves that turn throughout the day to expose a minimum surface area to the heat.• Spines to discourage animals from eating plants for water;• Waxy coating on stems and leaves help reduce water loss.• Flowers that open at night lure pollinators who are more likely to be active during the cooler night.• Slower growing requires less energy. The plants dont have to make as much food and therefore do not lose as much water.
This cactus displays several desertadaptations: it has spines rather thanleaves and it stores water in its stem.This cactus displays light-colored hairthat helps shade the plant. This plant has a waxy coating on its leaves.
THE TEMPERATE GRASSLANDSTemperate Grassland The temperate grasslands, also(Prairie) Plant Adaptations called prairie, feature hot summers•During a fire, while above-ground and cold winters. Rainfall is uncertainportions of grasses may perish, the and drought is common. Theroot portions survive to sprout again temperate grasslands usually receive•Some prairie trees have thick bark to about 10 to 30 inches of precipitationresist fire per year. The soil is extremely rich in organic material due to the fact that•Prairie shrubs readily resprout after the above-ground portions of grassesfire die off annually, enriching the•Roots of prairie grasses extend deep soil. The area is well-suited tointo the ground to absorb as much agriculture and few original prairiesmoisture as they can•Extensive root systems prevent survive today.grazing animals from pulling rootsout of the ground•Prairie grasses have narrow leaveswhich lose less water than broadleaves
Soft stems enable prairie grassesto bend in the wind. Narrowleaves minimize water loss.Many grasses are wind pollinatedand are well-suited to the exposed,windy conditions of the grasslands.
THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST The tropical rainforest is hot and it rains a lot, about 80 to 180 inches per year. This abundance of water can cause problems such as promoting the growth of bacteria and fungi which could be harmful to plants. Heavy rainfall also increases the risk of flooding, soil erosion, and rapid leaching of nutrients from the soil (leaching occurs when the minerals and organic nutrients of the soil are "washed" out of the soil by rainfall as the water soaks into the ground). Plants grow rapidly and quickly use up any organic material left from decomposing plants and animals. This results is a soil that is poor. The tropical rainforest is very thick, and not much sunlight is able to penetrate to the forest floor. However, the plants at the top of the rainforest in the canopy, must be able to survive 12 hours of intense sunlight every day of the year. There is a great amount of diversity in plant species in the tropical rainforest. Tropical Rainforest Plant Adaptations• drip tips and waxy surfaces allow water to run off, to discourage growth of bacteria and fungi• buttresses and prop and stilt roots help hold up plants in the shallow soil• some plants climb on others to reach the sunlight• some plants grow on other plants to reach the sunlight• flowers on the forest floor are designed to lure animal pollinators since there is relatively no wind on the forest floor to aid in pollination• smooth bark and smooth or waxy flowers speed the run off of water• plants have shallow roots to help capture nutrients from the top level of
Drip-tips on leaves help shed excess water.Some plants collect rainwater into acentral reservoir.Prop roots help support plants in theshallow soil.
THE TEMPERATE RAINFORESTThe temperate rain forest features minimalseasonal fluctuation of temperature: the wintersare mild and the summers cool. The temperaterain forest receives a lot of precipitation, about 80to 152 inches per year. Condensation fromcoastal fogs also add to the dampness. The soilis poor in nutrients. Large evergreen trees, somereaching 300 feet in height, are the dominantplant species.Temperate Rain Forest Plant Adaptations epiphytes such as mosses and ferns grow atopother plants to reach light. cool temperatures lead to slow decompositionbut seedlings grow on "nurse logs" to takeadvantage of the nutrients from the decomposingfallen logs. trees can grow very tall due to amount of
Epiphytes live on other plants to reachthe sunlight.Trees can grow very tall in this verymoist environment.
THE TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTThere are four distinct seasons in the temperate deciduous forest:spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The temperature varies fromhot in the summer to below freezing in the winter. Rain is plentiful,about 30 to 50 inches per year. The temperate deciduous forest ismade up of layers of plants; the number of layers depends uponfactors such as climate, soil, and the age of the forest. The tallesttrees make up the forest canopy which can be 100 feet or moreabove the ground. Beneath the canopy, the understory containssmaller trees and young trees. These understory trees are moreshade tolerant than canopy trees. Below the understory is a shrublayer. Carpeting the forest floor is the herb layer made up ofwildflowers, mosses, and ferns. Fallen leaves, twigs, and driedplants cover the ground, decompose, and help add nutrients to thetopsoil. TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST PLANT ADAPTATIONS wildflowers grow on forest floor early in the spring before treesleaf-out and shade the forest floor
Broad leaves can capture a lot ofsunlight for a tree. Many trees have thick bark to protect against the cold winters in the temperate deciduous forest. In the autumn, deciduous trees drop their leaves to minimize water loss
PLANT ADAPTATIONS IN WATER underwater leaves and stems are flexible to move with water currents some plants have air spaces in their stems to help hold the plant up in the water submerged plants lack strong water transport system (in stems); instead water, nutrients, and dissolved gases are absorbed through the leaves directly from the water. roots and root hairs reduced or absent; roots only needed for anchorage, not for absorption of nutrients and water some plants have leaves that float atop the water, exposing themselves to the sunlight in floating plants chlorophyll is restricted to upper surface of leaves (part that the sunlight willAquatic hit) and the upper surface is waxy to repel water. Some plants produce seeds that plants can float must be flexible to withstan d the pressureIn floating plants, chlorophyll is restricted to the s ofupper surface. Note the green color on the top of the movingleaves and the reddish underside of the overturned water.
THE TUNDRA The tundra is cold year-round—it has short cool summers and long, severe winters. The tundra has a permanently frozen sublayer of soil called permafrost. Drainage is poor due to the permafrost and because of the cold, evaporation is slow. The tundra receives little precipitation, about 4 to 10 inches per year, and what it does receive is usually in the form of snow or ice. It has long days during the growing season, sometimes with 24 hours of daylight, and long nights during the winter. There is little diversity of species. Plant life is dominated by mosses, grasses, and sedges. TUNDRA PLANT ADAPTATIONS• Tundra plants are small (usually less than 12 inches tall) and low- growing due to lack of nutrients, because being close to the ground helps keep the plants from freezing, and because the roots cannot penetrate the permafrost.• Plants are dark in color—some are even red—this helps them absorb solar heat.• Some plants are covered with hair which helps keep them warm.• Some plants grow in clumps to protect one another from the wind and
These tundra plants are low-growingThis plant grows in a clump tohelp conserve heat.
PROTECTION OF EXISTING TREE DURING CONSTRUCTION
TYPICAL MULTI-STEM TREE PLANTING
TYPICAL TREE PLANTING(12FT HEIGHT AND LARGER)
TYPICAL CONIFEROUS TREE PLANTING(6FT HEIGHT AND SMALLER)
Typical shrub planting(bare root)
CUTTING OR LOWERING A GRADE NEAR AN EXISTING TREE
PALM TREE PLANTING IN PAVING
URBAN TREE PLANTING
DECIDUOUS TREE IN PLANTER ON STRUCTURE
SHRUB PLANTING – BALL ANDBURLAP
CONCLUSIVE NOTE• Plants in landscape play a prominent role, they form a pioneer position whenever landscape is talked.• From the huge variety of plants available it becomes important to choose so that the existing or to be designed spaces /structures may not look odd.• The spaces should show good coordination and harmony with plants.• Plants give authenticity to a building/space to be a part of earth.
• Landscape architecture is to shape and protect the physical environment in which we live, work and enjoy. Landscape architects design and plan campuses, residential communities, golf courses, neighbourhood and national parks, roadways, bike and pedestrian trails, urban plazas, and are engaged in large scale environmental planning.• The outcome needs to be beautiful and satisfying for users.
Landscape should be designed according to the environmenti.e. according to the adaptation and standards so that thegrowth and foliage become adequate throughout. It should gel up with the environment around. Plants shouldbe given due respect and importance while designing landscapeas they form a crucial part in our daily life.