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01 intro-computer-pascal
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  • 1. 204111 Computers and Programming อนันต์ ผลเพิ่ม Anan Phonphoem http://www.cpe.ku.ac.th/~anan [email_address]
  • 2. Outline
    • Intro to computer
    • Computer components
    • How can we load and run program?
    • Programming languages
    • Problem solving and programming
    • Programming strategy
    • Intro to Pascal
      • Program structure
      • Basic elements (reserved words, identifiers)
  • 3. Categories of Computers
    • Microcomputer
      • Personal Computer, Desktop computer
      • Notebook, Laptop, Palmtop
      • Use by one person at a time
    • Minicomputer
      • Faster speed
      • Many users at the same time
    • Mainframe -> Supercomputer
      • High computation power
  • 4. Categories of Computers
    • Workstation
      • CAD Workstation
      • Unix Workstation
    • Server
      • Client /Server (Networks)
  • 5. Computer Components
  • 6. Computer Components HD CPU Main Memory Secondary Memory Input Devices Output Devices
  • 7. Computer Memory
    • 1. Main Memory
    • 2. Secondary Memory
  • 8. 1. Main Memory
    • Store information
    100 -34.9 A 23 W 000 001 002 003 ... 999 Memory Cell Memory Address
  • 9. 1. Main Memory
    • Memory Cell  Byte  Bit
    • 1 Byte = 8 bits
    • Can be divided into 2 Categories
      • RAM (Random Access Memory)
      • ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • 10. 2. Secondary Memory (Storage)
    • Floppy disk
    • Hard disk
    • CD-ROM
    • Tape
    • Information called “file” (data file, output file, program file)
    • 1 Kbyte = 2 10 = 1024 bytes
    • 1 Mbyte = 2 20 = 1,048,576 bytes
    • 1 Gbyte = 2 30 = 1,073,741,824 bytes
  • 11. Main VS. Secondary Memory
    • Main Memory
      • Much faster
      • More expensive
      • Volatile (RAM)
    • Secondary Memory
      • Slower
      • Less expensive
      • Permanent
  • 12. Computer Components HD CPU Main Memory Secondary Memory Input Devices Output Devices
  • 13. Central Processor Unit (CPU)
    • Retrieve information from memory
    • Calculate
    • Put back results to memory
    • Intel / AMD (Pentium / Athlon)
  • 14. How can we load and run program?
    • Boot process
      • Load OS into Memory
    • Tell user to load and run Program “p1”
    • User start using program
    HW OS Secondary Storage p1 USER
  • 15. Programming Language
    • Machine Language
    • Assembly Language
    • High-Level Language
    • CPU can execute only the machine language
  • 16. How can a non-machine language program be executed?
    • 2 methods
      • Interpretation
      • Translation
  • 17. The interpretation Process Source Program Input Data Interpreter (on computer) Output
  • 18. Translation Process
    • Translation Phase
    • Link Phase
    • Execute Phase
    Source Program Translator Object Program Library Linker Execute Program Output CPU Input Data
  • 19. Translators
    • Assembler (assembly)
    • Compiler (High-level language)
  • 20. High-Level Languages
    • Procedural Language
      • Fortran
      • Cobol
      • Basic
      • C
      • Pascal
    • Object-Oriented Language
      • C++
    • Functional Language
      • Lisp
    • Logic Language
      • Prolog
  • 21. Problem Solving and Programming
    • Solve Problems
    • Combine art and science
    • Art
      • Transform a description (word to equation)
      • Difficult (problem is not clear, input, output)
    • Science
      • Knowledge of problems
      • Equation and formula
  • 22. Programming Strategy
    • Don’t rush to key in the computer
    • Think carefully about the problem
    • Try to solve by hand
    • Plan your program
    • Test by hand if possible
    • Start programming
    • Program Compilation
    • Testing / Debug
    • Documentation
    • Maintenance
  • 23. Introduction to Pascal
    • Procedural programming language
    • Developed by Prof.Niklaus Wirth (Switzerland, 1970s)
    • Named in honor to mathematician, Blaise Pascal
    • Most popular -> Turbo Pascal
  • 24. Pascal Program Structure
    • Program Heading
    • Declarations
    • Main Routine (Program body)
  • 25. Pascal Program Structure
    • program myFirstProgram;
    • const
    • myStudentId = 1234567;
    • var
    • courseTaken: integer;
    • begin
    • write(‘Please Enter a number of courses’);
    • read(‘courseTaken’);
    • writeln(‘Student’, myStudentId, ‘ takes ’, courseTaken, ‘ courses in this semester’);
    • end.
    Program Heading Declarations Program Body
  • 26. Basic Elements of Pascal
    • Character set
    • Reserved words
    • Identifiers
    • Constants / Variables
    • Statement / Expression
    • Function / Procedure
  • 27. Character Set
    • Three categories
      • Letter (A…Z, a…z)
      • Digit (0…9)
      • Special character (+ - * / _ = ! <> []{})
  • 28. Reserved Words ( คำสงวน )
    • Predefined meaning and usage
    • Cannot be redefined by the programmer
    • Examples
      • program
      • begin / end
      • const / var
      • etc.
  • 29. Reserved Words ( คำสงวน )
    • program myFirstProgram;
    • const
    • myStudentId = 1234567;
    • var
    • courseTaken: integer;
    • begin
    • write(‘Please Enter a number of courses’);
    • read(‘courseTaken’);
    • writeln(‘Student’, myStudentId, ‘ takes ’, courseTaken, ‘ courses in this semester’);
    • end.
  • 30. Identifiers ( คำบ่งช ี้ )
    • Symbolic names for program elements
      • Program name
      • Variable name
      • Data Type name
      • Etc.
    • Rules for constructing identifiers
      • Letters, digits, and under score (_)
      • First character  letter
      • Can be long (63 char)
      • Reserved words are not allowed
  • 31. Identifiers ( คำบ่งช ี้ )
    • program myFirstProgram;
    • const
    • myStudentId = 1234567;
    • var
    • courseTaken: integer;
    • begin
    • write(‘Please Enter a number of courses’);
    • read(‘courseTaken’);
    • writeln(‘Student’, myStudentId, ‘ takes ’, courseTaken, ‘ courses in this semester’);
    • end.
  • 32. Identifier examples
    • Valid examples
      • score, count, total
      • score1, count99, total09
      • score_1, count_99, total_99
      • myStudentId
      • my_student_id
    • Invalid examples
      • point&score
      • total-number
      • 9points
  • 33. Notes for Identifiers
    • Identifiers are case-insensitive
      • mystudentId
      • Mystudentid
      • MYSTUDENTID
    • Some identifiers are predefined meanings (Standard Identifiers )
      • interger, real
      • write, writeln, read, readln
  • 34. Standard Identifiers
    • program myFirstProgram;
    • const
    • myStudentId = 1234567;
    • var
    • courseTaken: integer;
    • begin
    • write(‘Please Enter a number of courses’);
    • read(‘courseTaken’);
    • writeln(‘Student’, myStudentId, ‘ takes ’, courseTaken, ‘ courses in this semester’);
    • end.