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Chapter 4 Choice, Deterrence, Biological, and Psychological Theories
Chapter Outline <ul><li>Theories of Juvenile Delinquency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical and Positive Schools of Thought <...
Chapter Outline  Continued <ul><li>Biological Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Chapter Outline  Continued <ul><li>Psychological Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic Approach </li></ul></ul><ul...
Classical School of Criminology <ul><li>Theory – a formalized idea or set of principles that attempt to define and explain...
Classical School of Criminology  Continued <ul><li>Hedonistic calculus (pleasure pain principle) – people attempt to maxim...
Positive School of Criminology <ul><li>Cesare Lombroso – Father of the Positive School of Criminology.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Choice Theory <ul><li>Basically, individuals commit crime because they make a rational choice to do so by weighing the ris...
Routine Activities Theory <ul><li>Crime occurs when there is a convergence in time and space of three factors: </li></ul><...
Deterrence Theory <ul><li>Juveniles commit crime because they make a choice to do so and this choice is based on the perce...
Assumptions of Deterrence <ul><li>Individuals are rational actors </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles are aware of the penalty for...
Failure of Deterrence <ul><li>Juveniles are not rational actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles do not perceive the risk of a...
Cesare Lombroso  <ul><li>Atavism – reversion to a primitive type, the brains of criminals were biological throwbacks to pr...
Atavistic Anomalies  <ul><li>Skulls that were noticeable larger or smaller than others </li></ul><ul><li>Large protruding ...
William Sheldon’s Somatotype Theory  <ul><li>Endomorph – body structure that is soft, round, and fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Me...
Karl O. Christiansen  <ul><li>Monozygotic/Identical Twins – twins that develop from one egg and one sperm. </li></ul><ul><...
Adoption Studies <ul><li>When the biological and adoptive parents had no criminal record, 13.5% of the adopted children ha...
Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Id – the part of one’s personality that is comprised of unconscious biological and psychological des...
Defense Mechanisms to Conflict <ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><l...
Six Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg  <ul><li>Punishment and Obedience Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Hedonist...
Characteristics of Antisocial Personality  <ul><li>Repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest  </li></ul><ul><...
Learning Theories <ul><li>Classical Conditioning – a learning theory that states people learn by associating stimuli with ...
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Taylor2 ppt ch4

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  1. 1. Chapter 4 Choice, Deterrence, Biological, and Psychological Theories
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Theories of Juvenile Delinquency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical and Positive Schools of Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive School </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deterrence Theory </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Biological Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lombroso’s Atavism Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheldon’s Somatotype Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics and Inherited Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical and Neurological Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical Factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Disabilities </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Psychological Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral Development and Delinquency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antisocial Personality Disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Classical School of Criminology <ul><li>Theory – a formalized idea or set of principles that attempt to define and explain a phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Cesare Beccaria, 1738-1794 – Father of the Classical School. </li></ul><ul><li>Free will </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to make a choice among various alternatives. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Classical School of Criminology Continued <ul><li>Hedonistic calculus (pleasure pain principle) – people attempt to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrence </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the offense committed, rather than on the offender. </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge of law and society is to make the punishment fit the crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Positive School of Criminology <ul><li>Cesare Lombroso – Father of the Positive School of Criminology. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of the scientific method as a means to study phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on rehabilitation rather than on punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Determinism </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the offender, not the offense. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Choice Theory <ul><li>Basically, individuals commit crime because they make a rational choice to do so by weighing the risks and benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Choice Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminologists questioned the belief on which the Positive School was based. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime rate in the sixties and seventies increased significantly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The practice of rehabilitation came under attack. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Routine Activities Theory <ul><li>Crime occurs when there is a convergence in time and space of three factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A motivated offender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A suitable target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of a capable guardian </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Deterrence Theory <ul><li>Juveniles commit crime because they make a choice to do so and this choice is based on the perceived risks and benefits of committing the delinquent act. </li></ul><ul><li>General deterrence – seeks to discourage would-be delinquents from committing delinquent acts because of the threat of punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific deterrence – a sanction imposed on adjudicated delinquents in order to prevent them from continuing to commit delinquent acts in the future. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Assumptions of Deterrence <ul><li>Individuals are rational actors </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles are aware of the penalty for crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles view the risk as unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>For deterrence to be effective, the sanction must be swift, certain, and severe. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Failure of Deterrence <ul><li>Juveniles are not rational actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Juveniles do not perceive the risk of apprehension and punishment to be high. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Cesare Lombroso <ul><li>Atavism – reversion to a primitive type, the brains of criminals were biological throwbacks to primitive man, making criminals both more aggressive and savage. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Atavistic Anomalies <ul><li>Skulls that were noticeable larger or smaller than others </li></ul><ul><li>Large protruding jaw </li></ul><ul><li>Canine teeth </li></ul><ul><li>High foreheads </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened noses </li></ul><ul><li>Deep, close-set eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Especially large or small ears </li></ul><ul><li>Very long arms or legs </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical face </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. William Sheldon’s Somatotype Theory <ul><li>Endomorph – body structure that is soft, round, and fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Mesomorph – body structure that is firm, muscular, and strong. </li></ul><ul><li>Ectomorph – body structure that is thin and frail. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Karl O. Christiansen <ul><li>Monozygotic/Identical Twins – twins that develop from one egg and one sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>Dizygotic/Fraternal Twins – twins that develop from two eggs and two sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>Concordance Rate – the similarity of delinquent behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The concordance rate for identical twins was 35% and for fraternal twins was 12%. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Adoption Studies <ul><li>When the biological and adoptive parents had no criminal record, 13.5% of the adopted children had a criminal record. </li></ul><ul><li>When the biological parents had a criminal record, but the adoptive parents did not, 20% of the adopted children had a criminal record. </li></ul><ul><li>When the biological parents did not have a criminal record but the adoptive parents did, about 15% of the adopted children had a criminal record. </li></ul><ul><li>When both biological and adoptive parents had a criminal record, almost 25% of the adopted children had a criminal record. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Id – the part of one’s personality that is comprised of unconscious biological and psychological desires and instincts. </li></ul><ul><li>Ego – the part of one’s personality that represents the identity of the individual and actual behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Superego – the part of one’s personality that represents the conscience and moral character of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime may be the result of the conflict between the id and the superego. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Defense Mechanisms to Conflict <ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Six Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg <ul><li>Punishment and Obedience Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Hedonistic Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Concordance </li></ul><ul><li>Law and Order Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Social Contract, Legalistic Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to Universal Ethical Principles </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Characteristics of Antisocial Personality <ul><li>Repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Deceitfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability and aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Reckless disregard for safety of self or others </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent irresponsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of remorse </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Learning Theories <ul><li>Classical Conditioning – a learning theory that states people learn by associating stimuli with certain responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling – a learning theory that states people learn by imitating the behavior of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning– a learning theory that states people learn based on the con- sequences of their behavior. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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