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Chapter 6 - Diplomacy and Deterrance


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Sec 3 Social Studies, Chapter 6

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Chapter 6 - Diplomacy and Deterrance

  1. 1. Chapter 6: Deterrence and diplomacy Singapore style
  2. 2. Chapter outline <ul><li>Causes of international conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore’s method of managing conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 pronged approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterrence: Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomacy: Examples </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of conflict <ul><li>S carce resources </li></ul><ul><li>C ompeting territory </li></ul><ul><li>I deological differences </li></ul><ul><li>B order </li></ul><ul><li>S anta C laus I s B oreddddd </li></ul>
  4. 4. Managing conflict and ensuring national security <ul><li>2 prong approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterrence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talk softly while carrying a big stick </li></ul>
  5. 5. Deterrence <ul><li>Measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from threats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats: countries or non-state aggressors (e.g. international terrorists) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Diplomacy <ul><li>The way in which countries manage or conduct relations with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Main aim: to promote common interests and to resolve conflicting interests in a peaceful manner </li></ul>
  7. 7. Deterrence <ul><li>Reasons for deterrence in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of deterrence in Singapore </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reasons for deterrence (pg.167) <ul><li>Singaporeans can only depend on themselves to defend Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>To give its people a sense of security and to attract and retain foreign investors [that’s why the government built its own army] </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>Citizen armed force (pg. 168-170) </li></ul><ul><li>[Elaboration] </li></ul><ul><li>Small population, with limited manpower. </li></ul><ul><li>National Service was introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>All able-bodied male citizens were called up to serve full-time NS </li></ul><ul><li>After NS, these men continue to serve in the citizen armed force as Operationally Ready NS men for another 10 yrs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>Citizen armed force (pg. 168-170) </li></ul><ul><li>[Link] </li></ul><ul><li>Singaporeans can learn to defend their country. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore is always prepared in case of war – there are trained men in the society. </li></ul><ul><li>NS also helps men to bond. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>2. 3 rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces (pg. 170) [Elaboration] </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to maximise defensive capabilities through modern technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to create an intelligent defence force where the Air Force, Navy and Army work together to destroy the enemy even before they can find us. </li></ul><ul><li>Equips soldiers to fight decisively in way and respond flexibly in peacetime. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>2. 3 rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces (pg. 170) [Link] </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare has become more complex as technology advances. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 rd Generation SAF helps SAF to keep improving and upgrading their capabilities, which will in turn deter potential enemies. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>3. Singapore’s defence industry (pg.171) [Elaboration] </li></ul><ul><li>The Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) was formed in 2000 to provide cost-effective and modern technology to the SAF’s use. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>DSTA also conducts defence-related research and development activities with other countries and local tertiary institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Defence industry improves the capability and effectiveness of the SAF. </li></ul>Methods of deterrence in Singapore
  15. 15. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>3. Singapore’s defence industry (pg.171) [Link] </li></ul><ul><li>This enables SAF to be self-reliant in important defence weapons and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore can overcome its constraints through its own innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>SAF can become an effective fighting force with the latest technology and equipment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>4. Total defence [pg.172-6] </li></ul><ul><li>[Elaboration] </li></ul><ul><li>Total Defence consists of five aspects: Military, Civil, Economic, Social and Psychological defence. </li></ul><ul><li>This provides a comprehensive and integrated response to all kinds of threats and challenges. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>4. Total defence [pg.172-6] </li></ul><ul><li>[MORE eleboration on the 5 aspects]: </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SAF, NS (the previous 3 methods) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of knowing what to do during civil emergencies </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>4. Total defence [pg.172-6] </li></ul><ul><li>[MORE eleboration on the 5 aspects]: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure that Singaporeans are able to cope with and adjust to the changing demands of the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant need to upgrade the skills of our workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure unity among Singaporeans especially when terrorists attack. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>4. Total defence [pg.172-6] </li></ul><ul><li>[MORE eleboration on the 5 aspects]: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having pride and loyalty and wanting to stand up to defend this country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having the will and mental strength to overcome challenges </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>4. Total defence [pg.172-6] </li></ul><ul><li>[Link] </li></ul><ul><li>Total Defence is about how Singaporeans can be involved in defence, by strengthening their resilience as a nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enemies would have to think twice before attacking because it is not only the soldier who will be involved in the war, but the whole of Singapore. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>5. Multi-agency coordination on security [pg. 176] [Elaboration] </li></ul><ul><li>National Security Coordination Secretariat (NSCS) was set up to coordinate the work of various ministries, such as the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Home Affairs, to further strengthen and enhance Singapore’s national security. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>5. Multi-agency coordination on security [pg. 176] [Link] </li></ul><ul><li>This integrated security approach is to prevent, protect and effectively respond to any security threats by sharing intelligence and resources. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>6. Military co-operation with other countries [pg. 176] [Elaboration] </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore actively fosters friendly ties with the armed forces of other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>This is conducted mainly through bilateral and multilateral military agreements, joint military exercises, training programmes and participation in UN peace missions. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>6. Military co-operation with other countries [pg. 176] [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral military agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military agreements with New Zealand, Australia and India, to allow Singapore troops to train in their countries. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Methods of deterrence in Singapore <ul><li>6. Military co-operation with other countries [pg. 177] [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral military agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five Power Defence Arrangement [FPDA] was established in 1971. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore, Malaysia, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These five nations conduct exercises each year to enhance their cooperation and coordination. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>6. Military co-operation with other countries [pg. 177] [Link] </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries that have military cooperation with Singapore can provide help to Singapore when Singapore is attacked. </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries that have military cooperation with Singapore will also know about Singapore’s strength and think twice about attacking Singapore. </li></ul>Methods of deterrence in Singapore
  27. 27. Deterrence Reason Methods <ul><li>Self-reliance! </li></ul><ul><li>Safe country </li></ul><ul><li>Help the economy of Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>C itizen armed force </li></ul><ul><li>T hird Generation Singapore Armed Forces </li></ul><ul><li>S ingapore’s Defence Industry </li></ul><ul><li>T otal Defence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M ulti-agency Coordination on Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Security Coordination Secretariat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M ilitary cooperation with other country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilateral </li></ul></ul>C hocolate s alad t hat m akes m oney!
  28. 28. <ul><li>Reasons for diplomacy in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of diplomacy in Singapore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Countries are interconnected through trade, political, historical and cultural relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomacy provides an opportunity for countries to pursue mutual interests , cooperate to solve common problems and resolve conflicts, differences and disagreements peacefully . </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Bilateral relations [pg. 179] [Elaboration/example] </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral relations: when a country forms diplomatic relations with another country </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral relations has allowed Singapore to acquire advanced technological skills from developed countries such as USA and Japan; promote political, economic and cultural ties with neighbouring countries. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Bilateral relations [pg. 180] [Elaboration/example] </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore also helps out with other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, doctors, nurses and teachers were sent to countries such as Vietnam and Nepal. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral relations have helped Singapore to gain world recognition. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Bilateral relations [Link] </li></ul><ul><li>With bilateral relations, it is easier to understand each other and hence, lesser chances of conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, this makes it easier to resolve conflicts when there are disagreements. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [pg. 181] </li></ul><ul><li>Regional relations: countries of a particular region forming diplomatic relations with each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. European Union, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [pg. 181] [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in 1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 founding members: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently: 10 members (Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN (background) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s: Southeast Asian countries were having conflicts and disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southeast Asian political leaders saw a need for a regional organisation to maintain stability and build trust. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims (pg. 182) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote economic, social and cultural development of the region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the peace and stability of the region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for member countries to discuss and resolve differences peacefully. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to the changing conditions of the world by introducing new initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative: action taken </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiatives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) (pg. 183) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove import taxes among Southeast Asian countries and create a regional market to boost economic growth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) (pg.183) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To maintain peace by promoting political and security dialogue and cooperate among countries in the Asia-Pacific region </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [Example] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributions by Singapore (pg.184-185) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education and professional exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided training on information technology skills, English language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarships (Singapore Cooperation Programme) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic cooperation and assistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial aid provided to selected ASEAN members </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperating with Indonesia to monitor forest fires to tackle the haze problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [Link] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided Singapore with opportunities to strengthen relations with her neighbours [hence, lower chances of getting into a conflict with other countries = peace in SG] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided Singapore a role to play in maintaining regional peace and promoting economic development. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>2. Regional relations [pg. 181] </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><li>By combining the strength of member countries, the association becomes stronger. This way, the association will be in a better position when dealing with other countries or associations. </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 185] </li></ul><ul><li>International relations: involves ties among many countries and grouping throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations is an international organisation that represents all countries in the world. </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain world peace and security </li></ul><ul><li>Solve international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights and freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Misc. Info </li></ul><ul><li>Formed after World War 2, in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>192 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore’s role in UN </li></ul><ul><li>UN Law of the Sea Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>UN Peacekeeping operations </li></ul>United Nations
  44. 46. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 185] </li></ul><ul><li>UN [ example] </li></ul><ul><li>Background: UN was formed after WW2 to maintain peace and prevent another war from happening. </li></ul><ul><li>192 members, who pledged to obey the UN Charter [an international treaty] </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 186] </li></ul><ul><li>UN [ example] </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore and UN: Singapore has benefited much from joining the UN. It has allowed Singapore to gain recognition as a sovereign state. UN sent experts to help Singapore in the economic and social development of the country, e.g. Dr Albert Winsemius. </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 187] </li></ul><ul><li>UN [ example] </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore and UN: UN Law of the Sea Conference: - Conferences to decide on the territorial rights of a country over its waters. - Prof. Tommy Koh from Singapore, was the President of the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea. </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 187] </li></ul><ul><li>UN [ example] </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore and UN: Security Council - Singapore was elected to serve as a non-permanent Security Council member for 2 years from 2001-2002, and served as the President of the Council! </li></ul><ul><li>Election shows the confidence that member countries have in Singapore. </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 188] </li></ul><ul><li>UN [ example] </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore and UN: UN Peacekeeping - peacekeeping: a way to help countries with conflict, to create an environment for long-term peace. - peace keeping operations are authorised by the UN Security Council - UN Peacekeepers: come from many countries </li></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 188] </li></ul><ul><li>UN [ example] </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore and UN: UN Peacekeeping - Singapore has participated in 13 operations in 11 countries, and contributed 1500 personnels for these UN missions. </li></ul>
  50. 53. <ul><li>3. International relations [pg. 187] </li></ul><ul><li>UN [ link] </li></ul><ul><li>UN has played a major role in managing international crises and resolving conflicts, which has improved diplomacy and relations between countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore’s relations with the world has been strengthened and improved by her membership and involvement in UN. </li></ul>