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Sgml and xml

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  • SGML describes the syntax for encoding documents, but not specific tags.
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    • 1. SGML and XMLSGML and XMLRichard Sapon-WhiteIntroduction to MetadataMay 13, 2013
    • 2. SGMLSGMLStandardized General Markup Language, ametalanguageDTD (Document Type Definition) –identifies the scheme used to define tagsand the rules for using themDTDs: EAD, HTML, DTD for MARC212
    • 3. SGML (cont.)SGML (cont.)Uses start and end tags; attribute namesand valuesElements may include text, text +attribute, attributeElements (wrappers) may include otherelements (subelements)3
    • 4. SGML Advantages and DisadvantagesSGML Advantages and DisadvantagesAdvantages◦ Element names can be mnemonic, e.g. EADelement <titleproper> (compare with 245 $a)◦ Hierarchical: can inherit data encoded athigher levelsDisadvantage◦ Difficult for programs to process; softwareapplications are complex4
    • 5. XMLXMLType of SGML with fewer features andoptions, for example:◦ End tags must be used◦ Attribute values always in quotation marksEasier to process◦ Tags are case-sensitive◦ Attributes may contain UNICODE characters5
    • 6. Examples: LC DTD for MARC21Examples: LC DTD for MARC21<mrcb245 i1=0 i2=4><mrcb245-a>Thehealth of dairy cattle /<mrcb245-c>editedby Anthony H. Andrews. [SGML]<mrcb245 i1=“0” i2=“4”><mrcb245-a>The health of dairy cattle/</mrcb245-a><mrcb245-c>edited by Anthony H.Andrews.</mrcb245-c></mrcb245>[XML]6
    • 7. XML DevelopmentXML DevelopmentWorld Wide Web Consortium (W3C)actively developing XMLXML linking language, query language,stylesheet language, etc.XML Schema are an alternative to DTDsLC has developed MARCXML, an XMLSchema for MARC21 records7
    • 8. XML: TodayXML: TodayThe language of the WebWeb browsers and other applicationssupport XML-encoded documents8