Metadata lecture 1, intro


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  • Warning: I may do a lot of the talking today, but that won’t always be the case
  • How many of you know the term metadata? What does it mean to you? (write on board)
  • Data about data – too vague IFLA def.- only for describing electronic resources? Since many electronic resources were originally print or artifactual (a physical object), would the data describing the physical object not be metadata, but the description of the electronic would? AAP definition includes metadata that is not in electronic form itself WWW Consortium: very restrictive – both the metadata and the object described are electronic in nature
  • Caplan – 1. Must be structured, not random; recorded according to a documented scheme 2. Must describe an info resource (but doesn’t define what that means) Vellucci – acknowledges that no metadata schemes accomplish all of these goals; again, electronic environment is mentioned as the place where the metadata exists, not necessarily the described resource; many focus on discovery and retrieval, not the kind of description that traditional cataloging provides Vellucci: metadata is a term common to librarianship, computer scientists, and information specialists (broader than the term “cataloging or bibliographic data”
  • (All metadata is descriptive, really) Discovery = finding a resource Identification=distinguishing between resources Selection=determining that a resource fills a particular need
  • Linkage may include other editions/translations/abridgements/versions or digital content may be derived from physical objects. These can all be expressed via descriptive metadata. When relationship is expressed with another resource that is itself electronic, the linkage can include a direct link to that related resource.
  • Most of the metadata in these records, etc., is descriptive
  • While there is overlap with descriptive metadata, administrative metadata is often of importance primarily to staff, not users.
  • Metadata lecture 1, intro

    1. 1. Metadata for Description andRetrieval of Online Resources University of Warsaw February 18, 2012 Richard Sapon-White 1
    2. 2. OverviewDefining metadataThe types of metadataCharacteristics of metadataFunctions of metadataWhy is metadata important? 2
    3. 3. Defining MetadataData about data???“Metadata is information that describes content” –Assoc. of American Publishers“Data used to aid in the identification, descriptionand location of networked electronic resources” –IFLA“Metadata is machine-understandable informationabout the Web or other things”--WWWConsortium 3
    4. 4. Font of All Knowledge (Wikipedia)The term metadata is ambiguous, as it is used for twofundamentally different concepts. Although the expression“data about data" is often used, it does not apply to both inthe same way. Structural metadata, the design andspecification of data structures, cannot be about the data,because at design time the application contains no data. Inthis case the correct description would be "data about thecontainers of data". Descriptive metadata, on the otherhand, is about individual instances of application data, thedata content. In this case, a useful description would be"data about data content" or "content about content" thusmetacontent. 4
    5. 5. Defining Metadata (cont.)Structured information about an informationresource of any media type or format –CaplanData that describe the attributes of aresource; characterize its relationships;support its discovery, management, andeffective use; and exist in an electronicenvironment - Vellucci 5
    6. 6. From our textbook…Anne J. Gilliland (from intro. to Introduction toMetadata, ed. by Murtha Baca.): “…the sum total of what one can say about any information object at any level of aggregation. In this context, an information object is anything that can be addressed and manipulated as a discrete entity by a human being or an information system” 6
    7. 7. Examples of metadataMS Word file: Name, size, date of lastmodification, and type of fileCatalog cardBibliographic record in MARC formatArchival finding aid in EAD formatMetadata embedded in a digitizedphotograph using Dublin Core 7
    8. 8. Types of MetadataDescriptiveAdministrativePreservationTechnicalUse 8
    9. 9. Descriptive metadataPurposes: Discovery Identification Selection 9
    10. 10. Descriptive metadata (cont.)Other functions: Evaluation – reviews, ratings Linkage – relationship to other resources Usability – data that enables or enhances the ability to use the resource (e.g., required hardware, structure of a dataset) 10
    11. 11. Descriptive metadata (cont.)• Cataloging records• Finding aids• Specialized indexes• Annotations by creators and users 11
    12. 12. Administrative metadataFacilitates the management of electronic objects,such as: When or how an object was created Acquisition information Location information Who may have access to an object and who controls that access Restrictions on use 12
    13. 13. Administrative metadata (cont.)Example:Archival collection notes:  only open to researchers with written letters of introduction  Archival staff must approve access  When and how digital reproductions were created Example: Guide to the Thomas Charles Power papers (N 13
    14. 14. Preservation MetadataInformation related to the preservationmanagement of digital resourcesMay include: Condition of original resource before digitization Actions taken to preserve the original or digitized resource 14
    15. 15. Technical MetadataDescribes how a system functions or howmetadata behavesExamples: Technical details of the digitization process: scanning density, date of scanning, compression ratios, hardware and software used Authentication and security data 15
    16. 16. Use MetadataInformation related to the level and type ofuse of the information resourceExamples: Circulation data Search logs Rights metadata Use and user tracking 16