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  1. 1. Presented By :- Kunal Roy Subranjoy Debnath
  2. 2. XML TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Contents :- </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to XML </li></ul><ul><li>How XML Works </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure of XML </li></ul><ul><li>Where XML is Used </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages & Disadvantages of XML </li></ul>
  3. 3. e X tensible M arkup L anguage <ul><li>File extension : .xml </li></ul><ul><li>MIME type : application/xml , </li></ul><ul><li>text/xml </li></ul><ul><li>(deprecated) </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Type : public.xml </li></ul><ul><li>Identifier </li></ul><ul><li>Type of format : Markup Language </li></ul><ul><li>Extended form : SGML </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is XML ? <ul><li>e X tensible M arkup L anguage (XML) </li></ul><ul><li>Markup Language for documents containing structured information </li></ul><ul><li>Defined by four specifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML , the eXtensible Markup Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XLL , the eXtensible Linking Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XSL , the eXtensible Style Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XUA , the XML User Agent </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. XML… <ul><li>Based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) ISO-8879 . </li></ul><ul><li>Version 1.0 introduced by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1998 . </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge for data exchange on the Web . </li></ul><ul><li>XML is cross platform , hardware & software independent language . </li></ul><ul><li>An XML document is attached </li></ul><ul><li>to a Document Type Definition </li></ul><ul><li>which describes its structure . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Comparisons XML & HTML XML HTML <ul><li>Extensible set of tags </li></ul><ul><li>Content oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Data infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Allows multiple output forms </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed set of tags </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation oriented </li></ul><ul><li>No data validation capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Single presentation </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Processing Instruction : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML document usually begins with the Processing Instruction(PI). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of a PI statement - </li></ul></ul><ul><li><?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> </li></ul><ul><li>Tags : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags are used to identifying data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is marked-up by using tags. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening & Closing angular bracket(<>) are enclose the name of the Tags. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><NAME>Rajesh Mittal</NAME> </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Elements : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic units used to identify and describe data . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements are represented by using tags . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML document must have a root element . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of a content – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><BOOKNAME> The Painted House</BOOKNAME> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information represented by the element is referred as the content of that element . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents are further divided into :- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Element Content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Attributes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes provide additional information . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements can have one or more attributes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute consists of a name value pair . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comments : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a good programming practice . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of comment entry – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><!– PRODUCTDATA is the root element --> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments are used to explain the code . </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Document Type Definition (DTD) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DTD defines the structure of the content of an XML document . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It specifies the elements along with their attributes that can be present in the XML document . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of DTD – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal DTD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External DTD </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>XML Schema : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is used to define the structure of XML document. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It defines the list if elements & attributes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An XML Schema also specifies the order in which the elements appear & also their data types . </li></ul></ul>Feature DTD Schema Syntax Non – XML syntax XML syntax Namespaces No Support Supports Namespaces Inheritance No Support Supports Inheritance Data Type Support Limited to String format Wide range of data types including , string , real , etc. Applicability Wide spread due to many years of practical application Comparatively New
  12. 13. <ul><li>XML is used to exchange structured documents over internet . </li></ul><ul><li>XML can be used as a format to transfer structured data between heterogeneous systems as it is platform independent . </li></ul><ul><li>XML can be used effectively with applications like Java . </li></ul><ul><li>XML can be used to create new languages e.g. WML , VRML . </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Advantages :- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is based on International Standards . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has User Specific Vocabulary , i.e. user defined tags can be created . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hierarchical Structure is suitable for almost all types of documents . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is platform independent , thus relatively immune to changes in technology . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>XML provides the feature of conditional formatting of a document which HTML does not provide . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward & backward compatibility are easy to maintain despite the changes in DTD or Schema . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages :- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition : In XML every element and attribute name for every element and attribute instance has to be repeated . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External References : The biggest performance risk for XML comes from the fact that it can include external files . </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Thank You