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A Term Paper on Person-job fit: Can HRM help achieve it?       In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       Preparing a report of any sector or subject is really a challenging work for any one.Being the stude...
Table of ContentsACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY        This term paper was commissioned to examine if there is implementation of Person-jobfit theory in...
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSed.      -   Editione.g.     -   For exampleetc.     -   Et ceteraHPI      -   Hogan Personality Inve...
PART I:INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study:This project titled „Person-job fit‟ is an investigative study looking at how organizations in...
The term human resource management is emerging concept emphasis the integration of the bothstrategies and operational acti...
Researchers demonstrated that validated and structured procedures for determining P-J fit haveled to more effective select...
So the key points are:    (1) There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals,    (2) There a...
•    Spatial visualization•    Memory     The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar cha...
benifit from a greater understanding of emotional processes. At the same time, research inemotion can take advantage of ind...
1.8 Attitudes:   Attitudes are comprised of feelings, beliefs, and behaviors. One important work-related attitude   is job...
1.9 Job Satisfaction:Employees have attitudes or viewpoints about many aspects of their jobs, their careers, and theirorga...
Part II:ANALYTICAL VIEWS
2.1 REVIEW OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT AND PERSON-JOB FIT:Person-environment (PE) fit theories propose that positive respon...
organizations. As previously noted, attention in recent years has expanded to include matchingpeople to organizations as w...
to the degree that a person must work with others—clients or fellow employees—this stylematters greatly. Angry, moody, unh...
Part III:FIELD VISITS AND FINDINGS
3.1 United Nations Human Rights            The High Commissioner for Human Rights is the principal human rights official o...
 In the same way, virtual behavioral issue or framework provided and asked to solve the  problem. Reference checks are g...
 There is a policy of promotion internally and consideration for interpersonal skills and cognitive  skills is also taken...
3.3 Ideal E-Solution             Ideal e-Solutions specialize in medical transcription services. Ideal e-Solutions utilize...
Part IV:ARBITRARY
4.1 Gist of the Survey:Optimization of person job-fit has been an overarching theme of selection frameworks. Byfollowing se...
degree to which the needs, demands, goals, objectives, and/or structure of one component areconsistent with the needs, dem...
Bibliography: Adhikari, D.R (2008). Human Resource Management, Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers. Agrawal. R.D (1972...
Appendices:    1. Questionnaire    Dear Sir/Madam,        We, the MBA students of Institute of Banking & Management Studie...
2. Sample Questionnaire for Attitude   Please answer each of the following statements using the following rating scale:   ...
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  1. 1. A Term Paper on Person-job fit: Can HRM help achieve it? In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) Submitted To: Rojina Ranjit Faculty of Human Resource Department Institute of Banking and Management Studies Bharathiar University Submitted By: Sushma Joshi Tola Kant Neupane MBA II “A” Kathmandu Date: July 15, 2011
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Preparing a report of any sector or subject is really a challenging work for any one.Being the student of management and to prepare report on the specified topic, we accept it withchallenge, opportunity and also became successful to present the report with our full endeavor.This term paper has been duly prepared and submitted to meet the partial fulfillment of MBAprogramme designed by Rojina Ranjit. As being the student of MBA Level, we are so pleasedand proud for being the integral part of this report in this context. We owe a deep of gratitude to Ms. Rojina Ranjit, Lecturer of Human ResourceManagement for her constant encouragement, patient guidance and valuable supervision at everystage of our work. This work would not have been materialized at the present form without herincisive observations and intellectual directions in the course of completion. We are also gratefulto Mrs. Roshani KC, Programme Coordinator of IB&MS College. We extend our sincere thanks to the HR manager of Office of the United Nations HighCommissioner for Human Rights in Nepal, Ms. Norah Mulyagonja, and HR Manager ofNabil Bank, Mr. Roshan Koirala, and Production and Quality Manager of Ideal E-Solutions,Mr. Suman Man Baniya for their views, suggestions, and kind support in the related field. In this limited space, it is simply impossible to give the names of large number of friendsand well wishers who provided invaluable cooperation whose direct or indirect help assisted usin carrying out this venture. We are personally obliged and highly grateful to all those whoguided us properly. Sushma Joshi Tola Kant Neupane MBA II “A” Institute of Banking & Management Studies Bagbazar, Yeti Plaza II
  3. 3. Table of ContentsACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................................................................................................... IIEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................IVLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................... VPART I: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 11.1 Background of the study: .................................................................................................................... 21.2 Organization and its components: ....................................................................................................... 21.3 Concept of Person-job fit: ................................................................................................................... 31.4 Biographical Characteristics: .............................................................................................................. 51.5 Learning: ............................................................................................................................................. 61.6 Personality: ......................................................................................................................................... 61.7 Perceptions: ......................................................................................................................................... 71.8 Attitudes: ............................................................................................................................................. 81.9 Job Satisfaction: .................................................................................................................................. 9Part II: ANALYTICAL VIEWS ......................................................................................................... 102.1 REVIEW OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT AND PERSON-JOB FIT:.................................... 112.2 Job seekers fit perceptions: .............................................................................................................. 112.3 Arguments for and against Person-job fit in the global context: ...................................................... 12Part III: FIELD VISITS AND FINDINGS......................................................................................... 143.1 United Nation Human Rights............................................................................................................ 153.2 Nabil Bank ........................................................................................................................................ 163.3 Ideal E-Solution ................................................................................................................................ 18Part IV: ARBITRARY ......................................................................................................................... 194.1 Gist of the Survey: ............................................................................................................................ 204.2 Conclusion: ....................................................................................................................................... 20Bibliography: ......................................................................................................................................... 221. Questionnaire ...................................................................................................................................... 232. Sample Questionnaire for Attitude ..................................................................................................... 243. Sample Questionnaire for perception .................................................................................................. 24 III
  4. 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This term paper was commissioned to examine if there is implementation of Person-jobfit theory in the organizations of Nepal. Human resource have becomes strategic resource to gainsustainable competitive advantages in this age of globalization. Person-job fit is conceptualized as the match between individual knowledge, skills, andabilities and demands of the job or the needs/desires of an individual and what is provided by thejob. In this term paper, the concept of fit will be explored as well as its application and use in thefield of strategic HRM. Our survey has indicated that measuring fit is very challenging becauseof many underlying dimensions and relationships that affect the fit. The overview of fittypologies shows that the five types of fit focused on in this term paper represent bothcontingency and configuration approaches to fit. There are different ways to characterize relationships between separate HR practices inan HR system; HR practices can be additively or interactively related. On a higher level, thesetypes of relationships can also be used to describe relationships between different types of fit.For instance, combining organizational systems with a coherent system of HR practices, thuscombining organizational fit and internal fit might together form a configuration in which thewhole is more than the sum of the parts (positive synergy). Our survey aims to seek the clearer picture regarding the Person-job fit in Nepal and alsoaims to know the time frame, the responsible person who considers the implementation of suchtheory. We have adopted the methodology of direct personal interview with the help of interviewconducted with different personnels of different organizations like Ms. Norah Mulyagonja,OHCHR; Roshan Koirala, HR Manager, Nabil Bank; and Mr. Suman Man Baniya, P&QManager, Ideal E-solutions. IV
  5. 5. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSed. - Editione.g. - For exampleetc. - Et ceteraHPI - Hogan Personality InventoryHR - Human ResourceHRM - Human Resource ManagementIB&MS - Institute of Banking and Management StudiesIES - Ideal E-SolutionsLtd. - LimitedNBL - Nabil Bank limitedOHCHR - Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Human RightsPE fit - Person-environment fitPJ fit - Person-job fitPO fit - Person-organization fitP&Q - Production and QualitySHRM - Strategic Human Resource Management V
  6. 6. PART I:INTRODUCTION
  7. 7. 1.1 Background of the study:This project titled „Person-job fit‟ is an investigative study looking at how organizations in Nepalimplement person-job fit in practice or is this theory actually considered while recruitmentprocess is carried out in the organization. As the organizations being the employers, we wouldlike get the general idea about what kind of practices do the organizations take so as to recruit theemployees for their work concentrating on the cycle of the person and the job requirement. Forthis survey, we have used the interview method to get basic ideas from the officers of differentorganizations. For collecting the relevant data, primary and secondary source was used. Primarydata were collected through questionnaire method and direct interview and secondary data werecollected through the Websites and different HR books of the concerned field.1.2 Organization and its components:Organization is a social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need orto pursue collective goals on a continuing basis. All organizations have a management structurethat determines relationships between functions and positions, and subdivides and delegatesroles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out defined tasks. Organizations are open systems inthat they affect and are affected by the environment beyond their boundaries. The purpose ofunderstanding organizations from all three levels (individual, group, and structure oforganization i.e. components of it) is to develop a well-rounded view that will prepare us for thechallenges that managers face in todays business environment. Focusing on the individual levelallows us to understand individual differences, perception, motivation, and learning. Focusing onthe group level shows us how more than two people can work together in groups or teams withinan organization. Focusing on the organization level allows us to see the effects of theorganizational environment, technology, strategy, structure, and culture. Components of OrganizationEvery organization is a set of with a mission of it‟s one. Such a mission is expressed through itsobjectives or goals. Organizations‟ employees are to work to achieve these objective and goals.People working in organizations are human recourses, also referred as the most valuable resourcebecause of their talent and energies which can contribute to the creations and achievement of theorganization‟s mission, vision, strategy and goals. 2
  8. 8. The term human resource management is emerging concept emphasis the integration of the bothstrategies and operational activities to achieve the desire results. HRM practices- recruitment andselection, training and development, performance evaluation and reward system are essential toachieve this result. Human Resource Management is the most critical function of anyorganization as it deals with the most complicated problems - the people problems, especiallywhen the organizations are operating in highly competitive and uncertain environments. StrategicHRM lays emphasis on developing and implementing policies and strategies in order to get thedesired output. Therefore, person-job fit analysis and strategic HRM are inter-related. In fact, wecan say, establishing a person-job-environment fit is the basic function of SHRM. Effective organization1.3 Concept of Person-job fit:Twenty years ago, organizations were concerned with personality primarily because they wantedto match individuals to specific jobs. That concern still exists. But, in recent years, interest hasexpanded to include the individual-organization fit. Why? Because todays managers are lessinterested in an applicants ability to perform a specific job than with his or her flexibility to meetchanging situations.Thus we can say person-job fit is the concept that recognizes the requirements of the jobmoderated by the relationship between possession of the personality characteristic and jobperformance or in order words matching the job requirements with personality characteristics.The theory is based on the notion of fit between an individuals personality characteristics and hisor her occupational environment. There presents six personality types and proposes thatsatisfaction and the propensity to leave a job depend on the degree to which individualssuccessfully match their personalities to an occupational environment.The P-J fit identifies job satisfaction, low job stress, motivation, performance, attendance, andretention as outcomes that are positively affected by P-J fit. When P-J fit is assessed as the matchbetween what an employee wants and receives from performing job, it is correlated withimproved job satisfaction, adjustment, and organizational commitment, as well as reducedintentions to quit. Additional benefits for task performance have been demonstrated when thedefinition of PJ fit is expanded to include the match between abilities and their job demands. 3
  9. 9. Researchers demonstrated that validated and structured procedures for determining P-J fit haveled to more effective selection of employees in comparison to unstructured techniques.We all know that from person to person, interests, desires and abilities can vary substantially.Extensive research has shown that there are consistent patterns in the way that one interacts withhis or her environment across situations and time. Person-Job fit analysis demonstrates who canfit at a particular place and why. The process promotes the alignment of other HR processes andfunctions. Additionally, it supports the organizational strategy to deal with talent crisis andmarket competition. The process of person-job fit analysis involves collecting job-relatedinformation and assembling it together to design a corporate strategy that helps HR managers indetermining whom to target and how to fill a particular job vacancy.It also creates linkages between other HR verticals including recruitment and selection, trainingneeds analysis, performance evaluation and appraisal, entry and exit of talent and many more.Strategic Human Resource Management endeavors to connect all these HR functions withorganizational goals, work quality, organizational culture, annual turnover and profit and tappingresources for future organizational needs.SHRM is basically concerned with the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats of anorganization. The identification of organization‟s competencies and flaws is extremely crucialfor its success. It provides a clear vision to managers to source, recruit and retain people, developtheir skills and competency, address their issues and concerns, motivate people to producedesired output and ensure future planning.Person-Job fit analysis, being an integral part of strategic planning, provides a detailed analysisof tasks and responsibilities, risks and hazards, functions and duties, tools and equipments to beused and the expected output. The main objective of conducting the process is to understand whoto fit at a particular place to get the work done. Whereas, the fundamental aim of StrategicHuman Resource Management is to determine how to exploit human capital to achieveorganizational goals.Person-Job fit analysis deals in determining the training needs analysis of employees to get thedesired output whereas SHRM decides upon the training content, when and how to train theemployees to increase the output to achieve higher business profits. To successfully plan thefuture strategies of a company, the process of person-job fit analysis serves as the basis. Ifinformation collected during the process is genuine, managers can make effective strategies andpolicies in advance and can remain pro-active to deal with unforeseen situations.The main aim of conducting person-job fit analysis process is to determine the things affectinghuman behavior in an organization. The idea is to find out if they are competent enough toperform the assigned job successfully or they need to be placed somewhere else. StrategicHuman Resource Management is all about making strategies and policies to place right person atthe right place and at the right time to get the maximum out of an employee. In other way, it isconcerned about optimal utilization of human resources. 4
  10. 10. So the key points are: (1) There do appear to be intrinsic differences in personality among individuals, (2) There are different types of jobs, and (3) People in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied and less likely to voluntarily resign than should people in incongruent jobs. 1.4 Biographical Characteristics: As we have already mentioned above that different characteristics of an individual acts as the contributing factor for the output of his job, so the individual as well as the employer should consider the job fit theory during the recruitment process. Talking about the biographical characteristics, these are the personal characteristics—such as age, gender, and marital status that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. No single measure of individual differences can provide a complete understanding of an individual or predict all the behaviors of an individual. It is therefore more useful to consider a variety of differences that explain aspects of employee behavior. These can be • Skills & Abilities • Personality • Perceptions • Attitudes • Values • Ethics Relationship of Personal characteristics and job Ability: An individual‟s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. The capacity to do mental activities is intellectual ability where as intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural know as multiple intelligence. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability:• Number aptitude• Verbal comprehension• Perceptual speed• Inductive reasoning• Deductive reasoning 5
  11. 11. • Spatial visualization• Memory The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics is one‟s physical ability and there are nine physical abilities depending on strength, flexibility and other factors. Strength Factors1. Dynamic strength2. Trunk strength3. Static strength4. Explosive strength Flexibility Factors5. Extent flexibility6. Dynamic flexibility Other Factors7. Body coordination8. Balance9. Stamina Ability-job fit 1.5 Learning: Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience is learning and it involves change, is relatively permanent and is acquired through experience. There is a type of conditioning of learning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Also, a type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment, and people can also learn through observation and direct experience. Thus, reinforcing systematically each of these successive steps that move an individual closer to the desired response is shaping the behavior. 1.6 Personality: Personality is the coherent patterning of affect, behavior, cognition, and desires (goals) over time and space. Just as a full blown emotion represents an integration of feeling, action, appraisal and wants at a particular time and location so does personality represent integration over time and space of these components? A helpful analogy is to consider that personality is to emotion as climate is to weather. That is, what one expects is personality, what one observes at any particular moment is emotion. To understand the personality-affect link it is necessary to consider the ways in which personality may be described. Personality represents the integration over time of feelings, actions, thoughts and desires, theoretical developments in personality 6
  12. 12. benifit from a greater understanding of emotional processes. At the same time, research inemotion can take advantage of individual differences in sensitivities to situational cues andpredispositions to emotional states. The questions of why some people become angry, whileothers become frightened or depressed in response to threats, and why some become elated whileothers seem unaffected when given rewards will be better understood by jointly studying theproblem of long term coherence (personality) with short term fluctuations in affect, behavior,cognition and desire (emotion).Research has shown five major dimensions to be consistent components of personality. The BigFive personality dimensions are conscientiousness, extroversion/introversion, and openness toexperience, emotional stability, and agreeableness.Conscientiousness - defined as being reliable and dependable, being careful and organized, andbeing a person who plans - is the dimension most strongly correlated to job performance.Extroversion/introversion refers to the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, assertive,active, and ambitious.Openness to experience is the degree to which someone is imaginative, broad-minded, curious,and seeks new experiences.Emotional stability is the degree to which someone is anxious, depressed, angry, and insecure.Agreeableness refers to the degree to which a person is courteous, likable, good-natured, andflexible. Managers must remember that the relevance of any personality dimension depends onthe situation, the type of job, and the level at which a person is working.Four personality traits that have been consistently related to work-related behavior are locus ofcontrol, Type-A behavior, self-monitoring, and Machiavellianism. Locus of control indicates anindividuals sense of control over his/her life, the environment, and external events. Those withan internal locus of control believe that their actions affect what happens to them, while thosewith an external locus of control believe that outside factors affect what happens to them. Peoplewho exhibit Type-A behavior try to do more in less and less time in an apparently tirelesspursuit of everything. Type-A people feel great time urgency, are very competitive, try to domany things at once, and are hostile. Self-monitoring, the fourth personality trait is the degree towhich people are capable of reading and using cues from the environment to determine their ownbehavior. Strong self-monitoring skills can help managers and employees read environmentaland individual cues quickly and accurately and adjust behavior accordingly. People withelements of a Machiavellian personality put self-interest above the groups interests andmanipulate others for personal gain.1.7 Perceptions:We use the mental process of perception to pay attention selectively to some stimuli and cues inour environment. There are two types of perception. The process of gathering, selecting, andinterpreting information about how we view themselves and others called social perceptionprocess. In contrast, physical perception focuses on gathering and interpreting information aboutphysical objects rather than people. Closure permits us to interpret a stimulus by filling inmissing information based on our experiences and assumption. 7
  13. 13. 1.8 Attitudes: Attitudes are comprised of feelings, beliefs, and behaviors. One important work-related attitude is job satisfaction, the general attitude that people have toward their jobs. Main five factors contribute to job satisfaction: pay; the job itself; promotion opportunities; the supervisor; and relations with co-workers. The relationship between job satisfaction and work performance is complex and influenced by multiple organizational and personal factors. Managers have more influence over job satisfaction than any other individual difference discussed. It is our attitude that tells the world what we expect in return. A cheerful expectant attitude communicates to everyone we come in contact with that we EXPECT THE BEST in our dealings with our customers. Attitudes have three evaluative components: Cognitive component of an attitude is the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective component is the emotion or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral component is the intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Values: Values are long-lasting beliefs about what is important, worthwhile, and desirable. A persons value system is the way he/she organizes and prioritizes values. Terminal values are goals for behavior or for a certain result that someone wants to achieve. Instrumental values are the means the instruments that people believe they should use to attain their goals. Cultural values can affect personal values. Values generally influence attitudes and behavior. Value system is a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual‟s values in terms of one‟s intensity. Ethics: A key work-related value is the employees ethics. Those who hold a relativists view of ethics believe that what is right or wrong depends on the situation or culture. Those with a Universalist‟s view believe that ethical standards should be applied consistently in all situations and cultures. Value conflict occurs when there is disagreement among values that an individual holds or between individual and organizational values. To avoid value conflict, managers should work toward integrating and fitting the values of different employees with the values of the organization. 8
  14. 14. 1.9 Job Satisfaction:Employees have attitudes or viewpoints about many aspects of their jobs, their careers, and theirorganizations. However, from the perspective of research and practice, the most focal employeeattitude is job satisfaction. The most-used research definition of job satisfaction is “. . . apleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one‟s job or jobexperiences.”When we think, we have feelings about what we think. Conversely, when we have feelings, wethink about what we feel. Cognition and affect are thus inextricably linked, in our psychologyand even in our biology. Thus, when evaluating our jobs, as when we assess most anythingimportant to us, both thinking and feeling are involved. So job satisfaction is in regard to onesfeelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced bya variety of factors, e.g., the quality of ones relationship with their supervisor, the quality of thephysical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier peopleare within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same asmotivation or aptitude, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfactionand performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment and job re-engineering. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture,employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position. Job satisfaction is a veryimportant attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way ofmeasurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs.Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities,the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to ratesatisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremelysatisfied"). Job satisfaction 9
  15. 15. Part II:ANALYTICAL VIEWS
  16. 16. 2.1 REVIEW OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT AND PERSON-JOB FIT:Person-environment (PE) fit theories propose that positive responses occur when individuals fitor match the environment. For example, PE fit theories of vocational choice propose that higherlevels of satisfaction and mental and physical well-being will occur when there is a good fitbetween the person and the environment. Individuals are satisfied with and adjust most easily tojobs that are congruent with their own career-relevant personality types.The notion of PE fit is conceptualized as a general term, under which fall more specific notionsof fit. In the recruitment and selection domain, two common forms of fit have been identified:person-job fit (PJ fit), or the match between an individual and the requirements of a specific job;and person-organization fit (PO fit), or the match between an individual and broaderorganizational attributes. Job openings vary on a range of dimensions, including knowledge,skills and abilities requirements, and organizational attributes. It is probable that job seekersevaluate the magnitude of overlap between their own characteristics and those of the job andorganization conjointly. Hence, assessing PJ and PO fit simultaneously provides a more realisticaccount of their relative influence.2.2 Job seekers fit perceptions:2.2.1 PO fit:The compatibility between people and organizations that occurs when (a) at least one entityprovides what the other needs, or (b) they share similar fundamental characteristics, or (c) both.Taking this approach recognizes the distinction between supplementary and complementary fit.Supplementary fit occurs when a person has similar characteristics to other individuals, andcomplementary fit occurs when the individual and the situation meet each others needs.The application of PO fit to recruitment and selection has emerged. This application proposedthat attraction to, selection into, and remaining in an organization is all determined by theperceived similarity between the person and her/his work environment (i.e. PO fit). Specifically,individuals estimate the match between their personality, attitudes and values and theorganizations values, goals, structures, processes, and culture.2.2.2 PJ fit:PJ fit is conceptualized as the match between individual knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA)and demands of the job or the needs/desires of an individual and what is provided by the job.Accurate and realistic job information enables applicants to assess the degree of congruencebetween their KSA and the job requirements (i.e. PJ fit. Applicants who perceive a fit betweentheir KSA and the job requirements are probable to remain in the selection process and accept ajob offer. Accurate and realistic job information during recruitment and selection is associatedwith positive work outcomes (e.g. low attrition from recruitment process, high job satisfaction,low voluntary turnover, high work performance.Peoples preferences for particular organizations are based upon an implicit estimate of thecongruence of their own personal characteristics and the attributes of potential work 11
  17. 17. organizations. As previously noted, attention in recent years has expanded to include matchingpeople to organizations as well as jobs. To the degree that an organization faces a dynamic andchanging environment and requires employees who are able to readily change tasks and movefluidly between teams, its probably more important that employees personalities fit with theoverall organizations culture than with the characteristics of any specific job. The person-organization fit essentially argues that people leave jobs that are not compatiblewith their personalities. Using the Big Five terminology, for instance, we could expect thatpeople high on extraversion fit better with aggressive and team-oriented cultures; people high onagreeableness will match up better with a supportive organizational climate than one that focuseson aggressiveness; and that people high on openness to experience fit better into organizationsthat emphasize innovation rather than standardization. Following these guidelines at the time ofhiring should lead to selecting new employees who fit better with the organizations culture,which, in turn, should result in higher employee satisfaction and reduced turnover.2.3 Arguments for and against Person-job fit in the global context:On the above factual basis, we can hereby say that Person-job fit is really very important in theorganization in this global context. This theory has different attributes that influences theindividual‟s work capability simultaneously helping the organization to step ahead in thedevelopment path.Effective recruiters use personality assessment to enhance their decision-making about thepotential of applicants. No recruiter wants to spend time on a low potential applicant. The moreinformation available, the more efficient and accurate a recruiter can be with referrals. Forexample, screening candidates with the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) in a retail companyreduced turnover by 50%, improved productivity in an insurance company by 48%, decreasedlost time accidents among hospital workers by 20%, and increased financial sales in a bank by$308,000.00 per year per sales representative. A major telecommunications company used theHPI to hire technical support personnel. Using an HPI-based profile of high performers, personswho fit the profile were two times more likely to be receive high ratings for customer focus, andover two times more likely to receive high ratings for overall performance; conversely, 38% ofincumbents who did not meet the profile soon left the company.Cognitive test scores tell us how quickly a person can learn. They tell us nothing about aperson‟s integrity, creativity, punctuality, interpersonal style or ability to provide customerservice, handle pressure, or work as part of a team. Two large, peer reviewed, meta-analyticstudies of leadership report a correlation of .27 between intelligence and leadership, and acorrelation of .48 between personality and leadership. In a famous review of over 85 years ofselection research, Schmidt and Hunter show that adding a measure of Conscientiousness to ameasure of cognitive ability improves validity by 18%; adding a measure of integrity improvesvalidity by 27%; conversely, adding a measure of cognitive ability to a measure ofConscientiousness yields very little increase in validity.Personality predicts how a person will work—diligently, intelligently, cheerfully, andcooperatively. Personality affects the style or manner in which a person approaches his/her work; 12
  18. 18. to the degree that a person must work with others—clients or fellow employees—this stylematters greatly. Angry, moody, unhappy, stress prone employees contaminate the work place andruin staff morale.The alternatives to using a personality test to screen job applicants—job interviews, backgroundchecks, resumes—yield random results. One might as well evaluate applicants using a coin flip.For example, a large logistics company hired 2200 employees using a recruiter and 2200employees using the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) which is high-quality psychometricevaluation of the personality characteristics necessary for success in careers, relationships,education, and life. Those employees who were not screened were two times more likely to befired for improper conduct, four times more like to be fired for fighting, five times more like tobe fired for insubordination, and ten times more like to be fired for theft.2.4 Criticism of the person-job fit test:About 30 years ago in the U.S., lawyers challenged the use of cognitive ability tests forpersonnel selection because certain minority groups receive systematically lower scores.Employers began using personality measures for selection because they are race and genderneutral. Hundreds of test publishers brought poor quality tests to the market—there are nobarriers to entry and clients are rarely able to evaluate the psychometric qualities of tests—creating a commodity market stocked with products that don‟t predict job performance. Thereare two key criticisms of personality testing: (1) The tests don‟t predict job performance; and (2)The tests are easily faked. Because there are so many bad tests on the market, the criticism thatthe tests don‟t predict job performance is partially true—there are thousands of publishers sellingtests that are technically incompetent, which means they don‟t predict job performance. Thereare only three or four technically competent tests on the market; these tests predict jobperformance quite well.Test construction and validation is a technical process. The best way to choose a test with theappropriate psychometric qualities is to ask an expert in personnel selection—usually a personwith an advanced degree in I/O psychology—for advice such that we can escape all the blackshades but just enlightening positive and meaningful prospects of the person-job fit theory to beimplemented in each and every organization of the world. 13
  19. 19. Part III:FIELD VISITS AND FINDINGS
  20. 20. 3.1 United Nations Human Rights The High Commissioner for Human Rights is the principal human rights official of the United Nations. It represents the worlds commitment to universal ideals of human dignity. They have a unique mandate from the international community to promote and protect all human rights. The High Commissioner heads OHCHR and spearheads the United Nations human rights efforts. They offer leadership, work objectively, educate and take action to empower individuals and assist States in upholding human rights. They are a part of the United Nations Secretariat with our headquarters in Geneva. The Offices priorities are set out in two key strategic documents: the OHCHR Plan of Action and its Strategic Management Plan 2010-2011. These priorities include greater country engagement, working closely with our partners at the country and local levels, in order to ensure that international human rights standards are implemented on the ground; a stronger leadership role for the High Commissioner; and closer partnerships with civil society and United Nations agencies. They also support the work of the United Nations human rights mechanisms, such as the Human Rights Council and the core treaty bodies set up for monitoring State Parties compliance with international human rights treaties, promote the right to development, coordinate United Nations human rights education and public information activities, and strengthens human rights across the United Nations system. They work to ensure the enforcement of universally recognized human rights norms, including through promoting both the universal ratification and implementation of the major human rights treaties and respect for the rule of law. They have an office at United Nations headquarters in New York and offices in numerous countries and regions. In addition to the Executive Office of the High Commissioner and a number of units that report to the Deputy High Commissioner, OHCHR has two major divisions and four branches. To implement our comprehensive mandate, they employ more than 850 staff (last update in April 2007), based in Geneva and New York and in 11 country offices and seven regional offices around the world, including a workforce of some 240 international human rights officers serving in UN peace missions. They are funded from the United Nations regular budget and from voluntary contributions from Member States, intergovernmental organizations, foundations and individuals. Findings: Selection process starts by vacancy announcements with the clearly stated criterias like activities, skill and experience required. Interview Do consider physical appearance, gestures, body language, tones Mostly concentrate on communication skills. Basically interviews are situational and behavioral. Virtual situation like some type of virtual office outlet is provided and asked to tackle the situation 15
  21. 21.  In the same way, virtual behavioral issue or framework provided and asked to solve the problem. Reference checks are given greater importance. Consideration taken for competency Due to the workforce diversity of the organization, different kind of people approach for the job from different ethnicity, origins, cultures, etc., so it would follow the recruitment pattern accordingly depending upon the region of the work. It would not have any problem recruiting the competent person despite of having a lot of attitude problem irresponsible of job fit theory. Analysis: The organization does follow the person-job fit theory but not in generalized pattern as studied in academic session but they do modify the theory and apply it on an as needed basis. As it conducts the learning-based programs, it generally seeks for learning capability and motivation as well and each and every project is training centered. 3.2 Nabil Bank Nabil Bank Limited, the first foreign joint venture bank of Nepal, started operations in July 1984. Nabil was incorporated with the objective of extending international standard modern banking services to various sectors of the society. Pursuing its objective, Nabil provides a full range of commercial banking services through its 47 points of representation across the kingdom and over 170 reputed correspondent banks across the globe. Nabil, as a pioneer in introducing many innovative products and marketing concepts in the domestic banking sector, represents a milestone in the banking history of Nepal as it started an era of modern banking with customer satisfaction measured as a focal objective while doing business. Operations of the bank including day-to-day operations and risk management are managed by highly qualified and experienced management team. Bank is fully equipped with modern technology which includes ATMs, credit cards, state-of-art, world-renowned software from Infosys Technologies System, Bangalore, India, Internet banking system and Tele-banking system. Findings: Selection for the higher level is mandatory Physical appearance, body language, gesture, tones is obviously taken into consideration in recruitment process There is application of person-job fit theory in the process of placement 16
  22. 22.  There is a policy of promotion internally and consideration for interpersonal skills and cognitive skills is also taken. While departmentalizing the person, introvert person with less communication skill is selected for audit and back office type of jobs whereas extroverts with good communication skills are selected for front desk officer, Public Relation (PR) officers. No specific type of personality or attitude tests operated but general aptitude test and skill tests are configured. There used to be the training of 1 year for officer and 6 months for assistant during which time there will be the performance appraisal and personal characteristics influencing the assigned job is also evaluated. In the big organizations, there used to be the psychologist and different sets of questionnaire are provided to measure the job satisfaction and other factors, but they do not have such pattern or any structured psychometric test They have 360-degree feedback procedure. Believes in practical intelligence thus preference given for managing people acquiring knowledge Training and development programs conducted for the enhancement of biographical characteristics as well as weakness and strength that are contributing to the efficient outcome. Basically concentrate in A, B, C assumptiono A- Antecedento B-Behavioro C-Consequence Believes that antecedent governs the behavior and gives the consequences. For e.g. Hot stove. Focused to go beyond the person concentrating on all the contributing factors like human characteristics. Job is made most learning based. Analysis: Nabil Bank also applies the person-job fit theory before and after the recruitment process but it is according to the bank‟s own policies but not the structured sets of questionnaire to test the different characteristics as in international market, but they do follow this theory in their own way and believes that there is a greater scope in its application for further development of the bank. 17
  23. 23. 3.3 Ideal E-Solution Ideal e-Solutions specialize in medical transcription services. Ideal e-Solutions utilize the latest technologies in data transfer and conversion methods, secure as well as efficient, to provide a comprehensive and swift solution to the customers transcription needs. Ideal e-Solutions were founded in 2004, as a full-fledged Transcription Service Provider, with a mission to deliver reliable transcriptions without sacrificing top-notch quality and security. The dawn of Ideal e-Solutions hurled from the well-trained and well-experienced MTs working together in Kathmandu, Nepal. This propelled Ideal e-Solutions into maturity in its early stages. Ideal e-Solutions has been a leader in the transcription services area ever since. The company is a professionally managed provider of offshore medical transcription and general transcription services maintaining high quality and confidentiality to US clinics and hospitals. We utilize state-of-the-art infrastructure, dictation technology, well-qualified and experienced transcriptionists, and latest technologies to provide accurate reports. Findings: Being the small-scaled IT company, there is not any heavy recruitment or placement process but while recruiting the person, they surely do check for the Cognitive skills Interpersonal skills Presentation as in physical appearance, dress up, gesture, tones Capability to catch the questions and ways of answering them Better communication skills Cohesiveness to work in the team Attitude towards the preferred job Knowledge about the chosen job Future analysis of the job His/her competencies Analysis: Despite being the small company, there is also seen a great application and scope of person-job fit theory. People now have acquired knowledge that for the effective and efficient output, consideration should be taken for all subunits of job that are affecting it directly or indirectly like personal traits and characteristics and enhancing them can give best fit person for the right job. 18
  24. 24. Part IV:ARBITRARY
  25. 25. 4.1 Gist of the Survey:Optimization of person job-fit has been an overarching theme of selection frameworks. Byfollowing selection and placement strategies that optimize person-job fit, an organization canpopulate its workforce with motivated and committed employees. It assumes that individuals willrespond more favorably to jobs that are congruent with their personalities. All that is reallymatters in selection is the scope of the concept „job‟. Selection frameworks refer to the fitbetween an individual and a job; they are usually targeting a single, near-term position.„Fit‟ (or „congruence‟) is a cornerstone principle of selection frameworks. Vocationalsatisfaction, stability and achievement depend on the congruence between one‟s personality andthe environment in which one works. Fit or congruence may be realized when the behavioralexpectations of a work role synchronize with the behavioral inclinations of a particularpersonality type. If, for example, an extroverted individual finds outlets for his/her expressivenature in the customer contact aspects of sales work, „congruence‟, has been achieved.Traditionally, there was application of self-reports of personal interests as markers ofoccupational preference. However, organizational scholars have become increasingly inclined toview occupational interests as components of personality. Empirical findings have been fuellinga rapprochement between the personality literature and the occupational-interest literature.Several studies have shown that occupational interest significantly overlap personalitydimensions. More recently, researchers have been combining broad-spectrum personalitymeasures (e.g. „Big Five‟ personality dimensions) with narrow spectrum personality measures(e.g. optimism) to assess fit. A general consensus in research on personality has emergedthat all normal personality traits can be parsimoniously described by five broad traits, termed the„Big Five‟ model of personality (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional resilience,extraversion and openness), which has been found to generalize across a wide range of social-cultural settings and validated against many different criteria, including job performance, jobsatisfaction, career success, life satisfaction, career Satisfaction, and academic performance.In the recent days, human resource managers have started utilizing different biographicalcharacteristics measure as a means of investigating the person-job fit of a specific occupationalgroup. This is an important aspect of study because HR managers are often responsible foroverseeing the general well-being and satisfaction of the workforce.4.2 Conclusion:People are increasingly considered as important assets for organizations. Therefore, themanagement of the employment relationship in organizations can be considered a keymanagement task. An important development has been the integration of HRM into the strategicmanagement process.Without a precise definition of what „fit‟ is, it becomes very difficult to determine whether anorganization achieves a fit or not. So in this term paper, the concept of fit is explored, as well asits application and use in the field of HRM, providing the theoretical basis defining fit as “the 20
  26. 26. degree to which the needs, demands, goals, objectives, and/or structure of one component areconsistent with the needs, demands, goals, objectives, and/or structure of another component.”The premise underlying the concept of fit is that organizations are more efficient and effectiveWhen they achieve fit than in a situation of a lack of fit. Thus, according to the fit concept, anorganization is most effective when all its pieces fit together. All elements, like situationalfactors, strategy, coordinating mechanisms seem “to fall into natural clusters or configurations.”In the same manner, there should also be implementation of person-job fit theory in each andevery organization in order to compete in this globalized world. In case of Nepal also, HRM isactually taking its step ahead to achieve all the requirements for global competition as it hasalready started implementing the person-job fit in the organizations. 21
  27. 27. Bibliography: Adhikari, D.R (2008). Human Resource Management, Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers. Agrawal. R.D (1972). Dynamics of personal Management in India, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, Publishing Company Agrawal, Govinda Ram (2009).Dynamics of Human Resource Management in Nepal, Kathmandu: M.K. Publication & Distribution. Armstrong M., A (1996). Handbook of Personnel Management. Dhahal, Bhuvan and Sarita (2002). A Handbook to Banking. (2nd Ed.). Kathmandu: Asmita Books and Stationery Pvt. Ltd. Gary Dessler (2011). Human Resource management. (11th Ed.) India: Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd Handbook of distance learning for Human Resource Management. (2010). Bharatihar University. Robbins, Stephen P.(2010). Organizational behavior, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, Publishing Company. E-book for Human Resource Management for university of Pakistan Websites www.ohchr.org.np www.nbl.com.np www.idealesolutions.com http://www.wikihow.com/Write-a-Term-Paper http://www.hoganassessments.com/hogan-personality-inventory www.slideshare.com www.HRcity.com 22
  28. 28. Appendices: 1. Questionnaire Dear Sir/Madam, We, the MBA students of Institute of Banking & Management Studies (IB&MS) are working in a project based on the “Person job fit: Can HRM help achieve it??” We request you to provide details regarding the topic that is considered in your organization and other relevant information. For simplicity, we have furnished the following questions and we think that the answers will be really helpful and valuable in accomplishing the objective of this project.1. What is the process of recruitment and selection in your organization? During the selection interview, what are the best ways in which an interviewee should elaborate his strength and weaknesses?2. What are the points that are looked while employing people?3. During an interview how much importance do you give to things such as snap judgment, non-verbal behavior and impression management?4. What are some of the most important aspects you observe in an interview?5. Is there any procedure used in your organization to use standardize forms for conducting the interview?6. Does the organization implement Person-job fit theory during the placement or recruitment?7. How are the staffs categorized in the specific areas according to this theory?8. Is it necessary to evaluate for such theory for the employees?9. Why is it important to effectively go through this significant theory?10. Problems that may arise inhibiting Person job fit theory.11. Methods for person-job fit theory implementation:12. Basis of evaluation: Personality, Attitude, Behavior, Job satisfaction, perception13. Theory implementation process: Formal or Informal:14. What corrective measures do the company takes through the recruitment process?15. Is such theory consideration while recruitment in higher level is mandatory or according to the specific rules?16. Do the characteristics like interpersonal and cognitive skills really matter in your field?17. How would you differentiate introvert and extrovert people for the tasks in the job?18. Does the organization conduct general aptitude, skill and attitude tests during the employment or before recruiting the people?19. How the organization does decides that which person is fit for which job?20. Are the physical appearance, his way of answering asked questions, attitude, behavior, perception, etc are noticed during the interview only or any set of questionnaire is given to know the personality and all other levels of the person in this organization?21. As everyone knows that practical intelligence is very important in each and every field, so if a person having good practical intelligence but having lots of attitude, pretending nature, then would you consider him a perfect fit for the job or how would you help him to be perfect in the organization‟s scenario?22. Are there any cases in your organization, that a person felt fit for certain task by the organization but the person being capable in another thing as well, he is not satisfied with the job he is assigned? As we know that job satisfaction has a greater value, would that person be able to give his output effectively and efficiently?23. Does this organization ignore the person‟s problematic attitude and behavior in the work field if he is just giving maximum output for the organization?24. Do you personally think that Person-job fit theory should strictly be implemented in every organization?25. Do you think that Human Resource Management will help achieve this person-job fit theory?26. What will be the future challenges of HR in Nepal and especially today‟s in corporate world if such theory implemented? 23
  29. 29. 2. Sample Questionnaire for Attitude Please answer each of the following statements using the following rating scale: 5 = Strongly agree, 4 = Agree, 3 = Undecided, 2 = Disagree, 1 = Strongly disagree Statement Rating 1. This company is a pretty good place to work. ____ 2. I can get ahead in this company if I make the effort. ____ 3. This company‟s wage rates are competitive. ____ 4. Employee promotion decisions are handled fairly. ____ 5 I understand the fringe benefits the company offers. ____ 6. My job makes the best use of my abilities. ____ 7. My workload is challenging but not burdensome. ____ 8. I have trust and confidence in my boss. ____ 9. I feel free to tell my boss what I think. ____ 10. I know what my boss expects of me. ____3. Sample Questionnaire for perception I see myself as someone who... 1. ...Is talkative Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 2. ...Tends to find fault with others Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 3. ...Does a thorough job Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 4. ...Is depressed, blue Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 5. ...Is original, comes up with new ideas Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 6. ...Is reserved Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 7. ...Is helpful and unselfish with others Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 8. ...Can be somewhat careless Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 9. ...Is relaxed, handles stress well Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 10. ...Is curious about many different things Strongly Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree 24

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