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Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management

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Presentation PDW, Academy of Management Annual, 2012
Eric Barends, Wendy Carroll, Blake Jelley, Denise Rousseau

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Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management

  1. 1. PDW, Annual AOM 2012, BostonPostgraduate Course Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management Denise Blake Wendy Eric Rousseau Jelley Carroll Barends
  2. 2. PDW, Annual AOM 2012, BostonPostgraduate Course 1.Denise Rousseau: Introduction 2.Wendy Carroll & Blake Jelley: Push Approach Subgroups 3. Eric Barends: Pull approach 4.Video (9 min) Subgroups 5.Denise Rousseau: Process Approach
  3. 3. DefinitionPostgraduate Course Evidence-based management means making decisions about the management of employees, teams or organizations through the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of four sources of information: 1. The best available scientific evidence 2. Organizational facts, metrics and characteristics 3. Stakeholders’ values and concerns 4. Practitioner expertise and judgment
  4. 4. Four sourcesPostgraduate Course
  5. 5. Barends, Rousseau, Carroll, & Jelley2012 Academy of Management PDWEvidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management Teaching EBMgt: The “Push” Approach R. Blake Jelley & Wendy R. Carroll
  6. 6. Overview• Our Perspectives and Context• Importance of the “Push” Approach• Principles and Resources
  7. 7. Our Perspectives and Context• Our backgrounds – Education – Applied experiences• Teaching in the UPEI School of Business – Undergraduate – EMBA (launched 2008)• Oxford Handbook of EBMgt chapter – Jelley, Carroll, & Rousseau (2012). Reflections on teaching evidence- based management. • Less about the “push” approach
  8. 8. Importance of the “Push” Approach• Bounded Rationality, Heuristics, Biases• Kahneman (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow – “System 1” (fast; automatic) – “System 2” (slow; deliberate)• See also Kahneman & Klein (2009). Conditions for Intuitive Expertise: A Failure to Disagree (2009, American Psychologist)
  9. 9. Importance of the “Push” Approach• A path toward the development of expertise in management? • Developing expert skill and intuition (see Kahneman & Klein, 2009; Kahneman, 2011) – A sufficiently regular, predictable environment – Opportunities to learn regularities through prolonged practice and feedback • The management domain is not highly favourable to skilled intuition – Intuition is an important consideration, not the final word – Managers need to avoid overconfidence in intuition
  10. 10. Importance of the “Push” Approach• System 1 will engage!• Expert intuition is not magic…– “You can feel [Herbert] Simon’s impatience with the mythologizing of expert intuition when he writes: ‘The situation has provided a cue; this cue has given the expert access to information stored in memory, and the information provides the answer. Intuition is nothing more and nothing less than recognition’” (Kahneman, 2011, p. 11).
  11. 11. Importance of the “Push” Approach• Making intuition more friendly to EBMgt. – “You do as much homework as possible beforehand so that the intuition is as informed as it can be” (Kahneman, In Kahneman & Klein, 2010, McKinsey Quarterly). – “It is easier to make good decisions quickly if managers are educated and evidence savvy” (John Zanardelli, 2012, p. 196; President & CEO, Ashbury Heights). – Program System 1 with evidence-based principles. • Think fast, well, and set triggers for System 2. • Bolster, not replace, more deliberate processing.
  12. 12. Importance of the “Push” Approach• Practitioners are not well-informed about management- related knowledge – E.g., Senior SHRM members = 57% correct (Rynes et al., 2002)• Are educators much better?• Various ways to “push” EB knowledge. – Management education as a key. • Also, ME can integrate push, pull, and process approaches
  13. 13. Principles and Resources• Use of Diagnostic Quizzes – Examples… • HRM (Rynes et al., 2002) • “100 things… & 50 more things you need to know” books • Advertising (Armstrong & Green’s adprin.com) – Discussion of dissemination vs. exposing students as uninformed – Links to critical thinking and the “pull” approach
  14. 14. Principles and Resources• Concerns about what and how we teach… and who does the teaching – Our body of knowledge • Benefits of systematic research • Volume of research • Focus on novelty over integration, etc. • Pluralism – Textbooks – Instructors – Teaching methods
  15. 15. Principles and Resources Other References: • Existing research syntheses; • Individual synthesis and translation articles – E.g., Allen, Bryant, & Vardaman (2010). Retaining Talent: Replacing Misconceptions with Evidence-based Strategies. AOM Perspectives [Best Paper] • SHRM Effective Practice Guidelines; • SHRM-SIOP’s new collaborative series.
  16. 16. Principles and Resources• Identify and teach the “core” management body of knowledge; less content, more practice• Focus on topics, theories, and principles that: – (a) Have a solid evidence-base – (b) Are practical to apply • Are role-relevant • Have implications for practice; address important practice issues • Involve procedural as well as declarative knowledge – (c) Are durable • Over time • Applicable in various situations (Miner, 2003; Rousseau & McCarthy, 2007)
  17. 17. Since we can’t teach everything,what are the most important evidence-based things we need to program intoour students?
  18. 18. ReferencesAllen, D. G., Bryant, P. C., & Vardaman, J. M. (2010). Retaining talent: Replacing misconceptions with evidence-based strategies. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(2), 48-64.Armstrong, J. S., & Green, K. C. (2012). Advertising principles: Evidence-based knowledge on persuasion through advertising. Retrieved from http://advertisingprinciples.com/ [see http://advertisingprinciples.com/en/try/test-your-advertising-iq]Charlier, S. D., Brown, K. G., & Rynes, S. L. (2011). Teaching evidence-based management in MBA programs: What evidence is there? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(2), 222-236.Eichinger, R. W., Lombardo, M. M., & Ulrich, D. (2004). 100 things you need to know: Best people practices for managers & HR (Vol. 1). Minneapolis, MN: Lominger.Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux.Kahneman, D. & Klein, G. (2009). Conditions for intuitive expertise: A failure to disagree. American Psychologist, 64(6), 515-526.Kahneman, D. & Klein, G. (2010). When can you trust your gut? McKinsey Quarterly, Issue 2, 58-67. Jelley, R. B., Carroll, W. R., & Rousseau, D. M. (2012). Reflections on teaching evidence-based management. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Evidence-Based Management (pp. 337-355). New York: Oxford University Press.Latham, G. P. (2009). Becoming the evidence-based manager: Making the science of management work for you. Boston: Davies- Black.Locke, E. A. (2009). Handbook of principles of organizational behavior: Indispensable knowledge for evidence-based management (2nd ed.). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Miner, J. B. (2003). The rated importance, scientific validity, and practical usefulness of organizational behavior theories: A quantitative review. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2(3), 250-268.Pearce, J. L. (2009). Organizational behavior: Real research for real managers. Irvine, CA: Melvin & Leigh.
  19. 19. ReferencesPearce, J. L. (2012). Creating evidence-based management textbooks. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Evidence- Based Management (pp. 377-386). New York: Oxford University Press.Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. I. (2006). Hard facts, dangerous half-truths, and total nonsense. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Rousseau, D. M. (Ed.) (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Evidence-Based Management. New York: Oxford University Press.Rousseau, D. M. (2012). Designing a better business school: Channelling Herbert Simon, addressing the critics, and developing actionable knowledge for professionalizing managers. Journal of Management Studies, 49(3), 600-618.Rousseau, D. M., & McCarthy, S. (2007). Educating managers from an evidence-based perspective. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6, 84–101.Rynes, S. L., Colbert, A. E., & Brown, K. G. (2002). HR professionals’ beliefs about effective human resource practices: Correspondence between research and practice. Human Resource Management, 41(2), 149–174.Society for Human Resource Management Foundation (2012). Effective practice guidelines series. http://www.shrm.org/about/foundation/products/pages/default.aspxSociety for Industrial and Organizational Psychology & Society for Human Resource Management (2012). Publication and dissemination of science to practice: A research collaboration between the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). http://www.siop.org/SIOP-SHRM%5Cdefault.aspxUlrich, D., Eichinger, R., Kulas, J., & De Meuse, K. (2007). 50 more things you need to know: The science behind best people practices for managers & HR professionals (Vol. 2). Minneapolis, MN: Lominger.Zanardelli, J. (2012). At the intersection of the academy and practice at Ashbury Heights. In D. M. Rousseau (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Evidence-Based Management (pp. 191-197). New York: Oxford University Press.
  20. 20. PDW, Annual AOM 2012, BostonPostgraduate Course Evidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management Part 2: The 5-step pull approach Eric Barends
  21. 21. Postgraduate Course Trust me, I’m a manager.
  22. 22. Push vs PullPostgraduate Course Push: teaching management principles based upon a convergent body of research and telling students what to do. Pull: teaching students how to find, appraise and apply the outcome of research (evidence) by themselves
  23. 23. Postgraduate Course Why do we need a pull approach?
  24. 24. Problem I: too much ‘evidence’Postgraduate Course  HRM: 1,400 articles in 2011 (ABI/INFORM). For an HR manager to keep up this means reading 3 to 4 articles every day (for a ‘general’ manager more than 50!)
  25. 25. Problem II: false informationPostgraduate Course  Half of what you learn will be shown to be either dead wrong or out-of-date within 7 years of your graduation; the trouble is
  26. 26. Problem III: half time valuePostgraduate Course 5 years? 7 years? 10 years?
  27. 27. PullPostgraduate Course Pull: teaching students how to find, appraise and apply evidence by themselves
  28. 28. Starting pointPostgraduate Course Start with a practical question, (not with an academic answer)  Problem based  Real live case  Just in time
  29. 29. The 5 steps of ‘pull’ EBPPostgraduate Course 1. Formulate a focused question (Ask) 2. Search for the best available evidence (Acquire) 3. Critically appraise the evidence (Appraise) 4. Integrate the evidence with your managerial expertise and organisational concerns and apply (Apply) 5. Monitor the outcome (Assess)
  30. 30. Postgraduate Course 1. Formulate a focused question
  31. 31. Asking the right question?Postgraduate Course  Does team-building work?  Does the introduction of self-steering teams work?  Does management development improve the performance of managers?  Does employee participation prevent resistance to change?  Is 360 degree feedback effective?
  32. 32. Focused question?Postgraduate Course  Does team-building work?  What is a ‘team’?  What kind of team?  In what contexts/ settings?  What counts as ‘team-building’?  What does ‘work’ mean?  What outcomes are relevant?  Over what time periods?
  33. 33. Answerable question: PICOCPostgraduate Course P = Population I = Intervention or success factor C = Comparison O = Outcome C = Context
  34. 34. Focused question: PICOCPostgraduate Course P = Population I = Intervention or successfactor C = Comparison  Employee productivity?  Job satisfaction? O = Outcome  Return on investment? C = Context  Market share?  Organizational commitment?
  35. 35. Postgraduate Course 2. Finding the best available evidence
  36. 36. Searching evidencePostgraduate Course Where do we search?
  37. 37. DatabasesPostgraduate Course  ABI/INFORM  Business Source Elite  PsycINFO  Web of Knowledge  ERIC  Google Scholar
  38. 38. Searching evidencePostgraduate Course How do we search? Search Strategy
  39. 39. Search strategyPostgraduate Course Two types of search strategies Snowball method Building blocks method
  40. 40. Hands on instructionPostgraduate Course
  41. 41. Postgraduate Course 3. Critical appraisal of studies Making sense of evidence
  42. 42. Postgraduate Course The best available evidence = Studies with the highest internal validity (does it work?) Studies with the highest external validity (does it work for my employees / my organization?)
  43. 43. Research designsPostgraduate Course Which study for which question? The “best” evidence depends on the question type !
  44. 44. Which design for which question?Postgraduate Course Explanation
  45. 45. Postgraduate Course Best research design?
  46. 46. Critical appraisalPostgraduate Course
  47. 47. Critical appraisalPostgraduate Course 1. Is the study design appropriate to the stated aims? 2. Was a control group used? 3. Was a pretest used? 4. Are the measurements likely to be valid and reliable? 5. Could bias or confounding have occurred? 6. How large was the effect size?
  48. 48. Postgraduate Course Step 4: Turning evidence into practice
  49. 49. Organization concernsPostgraduate Course Always ask yourself to what extent the evidence is applicable in your situation: 1. Is your organization / population so different from those in the study that its results are difficult to apply? 2. How relevant is the study (or outcome) to what you are seeking to understand or decide? 3. What are your organization’s potential benefits and harms from the intervention? 4. Is the intervention feasible in your setting?
  50. 50. Four sourcesPostgraduate Course
  51. 51. Feasible?Postgraduate Course  organizational facts and characteristics  cultural aspects  stakeholders’ values and concerns  political aspects  financial aspects /cost-effectiveness / ROI  priorities  change readiness / resistance to change  implementation capacity  timing
  52. 52. Exercises / AssignmentsPostgraduate Course  Popular management book / guided field trip  Surfacing assumptions  Needle & haystack assignment  Myth busters, snake oil symposium  Find the Flaws  Persuasive paper / presentation  CAT
  53. 53. CAT: Critically Appraised TopicPostgraduate Course
  54. 54. CAT: Critically Appraised TopicPostgraduate Course A critically appraised topic (CAT) is a structured, short (2 pages max) summary of evidence on a topic of interest, usually focused around a practical problem or question..
  55. 55. CAT: structurePostgraduate Course 1) Background / context 2) Question (PICOC) 3) Search strategy 4) Results / evidence summary 5) Findings 6) Limitations 7) Recommendation
  56. 56. CAT-walkPostgraduate Course
  57. 57. CAT: examplePostgraduate Course See: www.cebma.org/presentations (CAT Organizational Trust and Job Satisfaction)
  58. 58. Postgraduate Course What are the skills that are manifest in this video that are relevant to what you are trying to teach at your classes?
  59. 59. Denise M. RousseauBarends, Rousseau, Carroll, & Jelley2012 Academy of Management PDWEvidence-Based Management: Three New Approaches to Teaching the Practice of Management
  60. 60.  Bounded Rationality  Critical Thinking The Small Numbers  Decision Supports Problem of Individual Experience  Research • Large Ns > individual Prone to See Patterns experience Even in Random Data • Controls reduce biasThe “Human” Problem Evidence-Based Practice
  61. 61.  Bounded Rationality  Critical Thinking The Small Numbers  Decision Supports Problem of Individual Experience  Research • Large Ns > individual Prone to See Patterns experience Even in Random Data • Controls reduce biasThe “Human” Problem Evidence-Based Practice
  62. 62. Get critical “evidence” in advance • Prime your KSAsMake the right decision as fast as needed • Not necessarily “as fast as possible”Learn best (evidence-based) strategies fordifferent decision types • Identify the type of decision you face • Then, engage the right decision strategy
  63. 63.  Routine decisions for which there is a “best evidence-based way” to do things • Hiring call center workers, management trainees • Giving periodic performance feedback • Running a geographically distributed meeting Acquire science-based evidence and org facts to identify effective practices Develop standard operating procedures with users Gather org-evidence to evaluate SOP effects Modify as needed Put in user-friendly form (Checklist, Diagram)
  64. 64.  Non-routine Decisions (# Stakeholders & Goals)• New facility start up• Solving space problem in existing building• Developing a company-wide performance management system Evidence-Based Pull Approach Yates’s Cardinal RulesNote: What is non-routine to one organization may be routine in another (e.g., new store start ups are routine in McDonald’s )
  65. 65. Beneficiary Interests/Values OtherA Big Picture Decision Contributors Decision Processes: Cardinal Issue Resolution Preliminaries Core Aftermath 1—Need 4—Options 9—Acceptability 2—Mode 5—Possibilities 10—Implementation3—Investment 6—Judgment 7—Value 8—TradeoffsResolution Contributors: E.g., Resources, Tools, Biology, Habits, “Natural” Experiences, Training, History, Culture
  66. 66.  Hypercomplex Decision with High Risk and Many Unknowns (i.e. Black Swans) Use Sensemaking Weick and Sutcliffe’s Resilience Process• Gather information and check assumptions• Run experiments (in parallel if several alternatives are identified)• Multiple trials to learn by doing• Build on small wins• Continue to question assumptions
  67. 67.  Routine Decisions • Atul Gawande Novel Decisions (due # Stakeholders & Goals) • Frank Yates Hypercomplex with Many Unknowns/Risky Decisions • Karl Weick & Kathleen Sutcliffe
  68. 68.  What type of decision situation do you face? DIAGNOSIS: Appropriate decision strategy? Product of this is critical thinking that overtime helps you become more aware of assumptions and gaps in logic
  69. 69.  Heath, C., Larrick, R. P., & Klayman, J. (1998) Cognitive repairs: How organizational practices can compensate for individual shortcomings. Review of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1–38. Gawande, A. (2009). Checklist manifesto: How to get things right. New York: Henry Holt. Larrick, R.K. (2009/) Broaden the decision frame to make effective decisions. In E.A. Locke (ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior: Indispensable knowledge for evidence-based management . New York: Wiley (pp. 461-515). Taleb, N. N. (2010). The black swan: The impact of the highly improbable. (2 nd ed.) New York:: Penguin. Weick, K.E, & Sutcliffe, K. (2007). Managing the Unexpected: Resilient Performance in an Age of Uncertainty. New York: Wiley. Yates, J. F. (2003). Decision management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Yates, J.F. & Potwoworski, G. (2012). Evidence-based decision management. In D,M, Rousseau (ed): Handbook of Evidence-Based Management: New York: Oxford University Press, this volume.

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