Art1204 power to the people the art of ancient rome


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Art1204 power to the people the art of ancient rome

  1. 1. Power To The People The Art of Ancient Rome Introduction  To  Art  History  I   Professor  Will  Adams  
  2. 2. The Roman Timeline §  Roman  Republican  Period  (509-­‐27  BCE):  Begins  with  overthrowing   last  Etruscan  King  and  ends  with  Julius  Caesar.  Major  buildings  built  more  for   political  use  than  for  worship   §  KEYWORDS:    Temples,  Ara  Pacis,  homage  to  rulers   §  Early  Empire  Period  (27  BCE-­‐180  CE):   §  KEYWORDS:  Wall  paintings,  concrete,  arch,  Colosseum   §  The  High  Empire  (180-­‐195  CE):  Five  Good  Emperors  (Trajan,  Hadrian,   etc.)  kept  things  prosperous  and  peaceful.   §  KEYWORDS:  Column  of  Trajan,  Hadrian’s  Wall,  Pantheon   §  The  Late  Empire  (195-­‐400  CE):  Diocletian  had  Empire  divided  into  four   parts.   §  KEYWORDS:    Tetrarchy,  Arch  of  Constantine     2
  3. 3. The Republican Period
  4. 4. The Republican Period §  One  of  the  cultures  that  the   Etruscans  had  historically   controlled  was  a  tribe  of   people  known  as  the  Latins,   who  inhabited  the  city  of   Rome,  which  was  situated   on  the  Tiber  River  in   western-­‐central  Italy.     §  However,  in  509  BCE,  the   Etruscan  ruler  of  Rome,   Tarquin,  was  deposed  from   power  by  the  Latins.  
  5. 5. The Republican Period §  The  Latins  were  inspired  to   overthrow  their  Etruscan   leader  after  Tarquin’s  son   raped  a  famous  and   beloved  Latin  woman   named  Lucretia.   §  Her  rape  went  unpunished   and,  in  anguish  and  shame,   Lucretia  committed  suicide.   §  Lucretia’s  death  was  the   spark  needed  to  ignite  the   flame  of  revolution  in   Rome.  Titian,  The  Rape  of  Lucretia,  Oil  on   panel,  c.  1518  CE  
  6. 6. The Republican Period §  After  Tarquin’s  expulsion,   the  Romans  sought  to  create   a  new  type  of  just   government.   §  To  do  so,  they  blended  the   public  participation  of  Greek   democracy  with  the   centralized  authority  of  the   previous  Etruscans  kings.   §  The  result  was  a  res  publica,   or  republic,  a  government  of   the  people.  
  7. 7. The Republican Period §  This  new  government  had   three  branches:   §  The  Executive:  The   consulship,  headed  by   consuls   §  The  Advisory:  The  Senate,   populated  by  senators   §  The  Legislative:  The   Assembly,  which  held  two   houses:  The  Assembly  of   Centuries  &  The  Assembly  of   Tribes   §  A  great  blending  of  others’   ideas!  
  8. 8. The Republican Period The  Seven  Hills  Of   Ancient  Rome   1.  Quirinal   2.  Viminal   3.  Esquiline   4.  Capitoline   5.  Palatine   6.  Caelian   7.  Aventine  
  9. 9. The Republican Period §  In  fact,  the  Romans  were  not   just  great  adopters  and   synthesizers  of  governments  –   they  did  so  with  many  other   areas  of  culture:  mythology,   literature,  architecture,   sculpture,  or  theatre.   §  In  each  case,  the  Romans   observed  those  of  other   cultures’,  adopted  the  aspects   that  they  liked,  discarded   those  they  didn’t,  and   eventually  formed  a  blended   culture  of  their  own.   §  This  synthesizing  of  cultures   displays  itself  most   prominently  in  the  art,   sculpture,  and  architecture  of   Rome,  with  heavy  influence   coming  from  the  Greeks.   §  Many  times,  this  leads  the   viewer  of  an  artwork  to   wonder:   Is it Greek or Roman?
  10. 10. Is It Greek Or Roman? 11 ELEMENT GREEK ROMAN Preferred  Structure   Temples  to  Glorify  Gods   Civic  Buildings  to  honor   Empire   Walls   Made  of  cut  stone  blocks   Concrete  with  Ornamental   facing   Trademark  Forms   Rectangles,  Straight  Lines   Circles,  Curved  Lines   Support  System   Post  and  Lintel   Rounded  Arch   Column  Style   Doric  &  Ionic   Corinthian   Sculpture   Idealized  Gods  &  Goddesses   Realistic  (Verism)  humans,   idealized  officials   Painting   Stylized  figures  floating  in   Space   Realistic  images  with   perspective   Subject  of  Art   Mythology   Civic  Leaders,  military   triumphs  
  11. 11. Is It Greek Or Roman? 12 Temple  of  Athena  Nike   Classical  Greek;  c.  427  BCE   Temple  of  Portunus   Rome,  Italy;  c.  75  BCE  
  12. 12. Is It Greek Or Roman? 13 The  Parthenon   Athens,  Greece;  c.   420  BCE   The  Pantheon   Rome,  Italy;  c.   126  CE  
  13. 13. Is It Greek Or Roman? 14 Polykleitos,  Doryphoros,   High  Classical  Greek   Augustus  Of  Primaporta,   Pax  Romana  (Roman)  
  14. 14. Is It Greek Or Roman? 15 Athena  and  Alcyoneus  Frieze   from  the  Altar  of  Zeus  at   Pergamon,  c.180  BCE,   Hellenistic  Greek   Spoils  from  the  Temple   of  Solomon,  Jerusalem   Relief  on  the  Arch  of   Titus;  81  CE,  Early   Empire  Rome  
  15. 15. Roman Revolution: The Arch Plinth   Pier   Impost   Springer   Voussoirs   Keystone   Spandrel   Intrados  
  16. 16. Roman Revolution: The Arch 17 The  Roman    invention  of  the  true  arch  with  its  voussoirs  and  central  keystone   allowed  the  Romans  to  create  grander  arcuated  structures  than  the  Greeks   had  ever  conceived  of  building  with  their  trabeated  style.   Barrel  Vault   Groin  Vault   Fenestrated  Groin   Vault  Sequence   Hemispherical  Dome   With  Central  Oculus  
  17. 17. Republican Art §  The  Temple  of  Portunus  is  an   example  of  Roman  synthesis.     §  It  follows  the  Etruscan  design   pattern:   §  High  podium  is  accessible   only  at  the  front,  with  its   wide  flight  of  steps.   §  Freestanding  columns  are   confined  to  the  deep  porch.     §  The  structure  is  built  of  stone   and  was  originally    overlaid   with  stucco  in  imitation  of  the   white  marble  temples  of  the   Greeks.   18 Temple  of  Portunus   Rome,  Italy;    ca.  75  BCE  
  18. 18. Republican Art §  The  columns  are  Ionic,   complete  with  flutes  and   bases.     §  In  an  effort  to  approximate  a   peripteral  Greek  temple  -­‐   while  maintaining  the   Etruscan  plan  -­‐  the  architect   added  a  series  of  engaged   Ionic  half-­‐columns  around   the  cella’s  sides  and  back.       §  The  result  was  a   pseudoperipteral   (“peripteral-­‐like”)  temple.  
  19. 19. Republican Art §  The  Romans’  admiration  for   the  Greek  temples  they   encountered  in  their   conquests  also  led  to  the   importation  of  the  round,  or   monopteral,  temple  type.   §  The  travertine  columns  are   Corinthian.   §  In  contrast  with  Greek   practice,  the  cella  wall  was   constructed  not  of  masonry   blocks  but  of  a  new   invention:  concrete.   20 Temple  of  the  Sibyl  (or  Vesta)   Tivoli,  Italy;  c.  90  BCE  
  20. 20. Republican Art
  21. 21. Republican Art §  L’Arringatore  (Aulus   Metellus),  Hollow-­‐cast   bronze,  c.  75  BCE   §  Artists  of  the  Republican   Period  sought  to  create   very  realistic  images  of   their  rulers.     §  Dressed  in  the  traditional   draped  toga,  Aulus   Metellus  poses  with   authority  and   persuasiveness.  
  22. 22. Republican Art! §  The  sculptural  portraits  of   prominent  Roman  Republican   figures  are  literal  reproductions  of   individual  faces.   §  Republican  portraits  are  one  way   the  patrician  class  celebrated  its   elevated  status.       §  Yet  when  freed  slaves  died,  they   often  ordered  portraits  for  their   tombs.       §  This  image  depicts  former  slaves   who  have  gained  their  freedom   and  right  to  have  their  portraits   created.   Funerary  Relief  with  Portraits  of  the  Gessii;  Rome,  Italy;    c.  30  BCE   §  Slaves  could  not   have  portraits,   because,  under   Roman  law,   they  were   property.  
  23. 23. Republican Art §  Patrician  portraits  were   typically  of  men  of  advanced   age  (generally  these  elders   held  the  power  in  the  state).   §  One  of  the  most  striking  of   these  so-­‐called  veristic  (super-­‐ realistic)  portraits  is  of  an   unidentified  patrician.     §  We  are  able  to  see  this  man’s   personality:  serious,   experienced,  determined-­‐   virtues  that  were  admired   during  the  Republic.   Head  of  a  Roman  Patrician,   from  Otricoli,  Italy;  c.  75-­‐50  BCE