Etruscan to early christian

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  • On parade passing by people Benignly authoritative Rider larger than horse Start to see less individuality in later sculpture
  • Etruscan to early christian

    1. 1. Etruscan to Early Christian
    2. 2. Etruscan Art <ul><li>Capitoline Wolf </li></ul><ul><li>Tense, watchful animal </li></ul><ul><li>Spare flanks, gaunt ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Alert eyes and ears, fierce and protective </li></ul><ul><li>May not have had children; current children made in the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses defiance, snarls </li></ul><ul><li>Not wolf-like: wolves have no manes nor locks shaped like hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Wolf-like in its long pointed nose, small head, short ears, and strong forelegs </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo from Veii </li></ul><ul><li>Terracotta </li></ul><ul><li>Stood on the roof of a temple </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Archaic in inspiration, but having a warmer sense of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to be seen from below </li></ul><ul><li>Strides forward </li></ul><ul><li>Tightly fitted drapery </li></ul>http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/aplu.html
    3. 4. <ul><li>Sarcophagus from Cerveteri </li></ul><ul><li>Banquet scene </li></ul><ul><li>Made of separate terracotta pieces then joined together </li></ul><ul><li>Ashes buried inside </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic relationship emphasized: man protects woman with a gentle hand on shoulder; woman feeds man with her gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Familial union </li></ul><ul><li>Broad shoulders, large chests of men, legs seem neglected </li></ul><ul><li>Strange turn of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Archaic smile </li></ul><ul><li>C. 520 BCE </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Apollo from Veii </li></ul><ul><li>Terracotta </li></ul><ul><li>Stood on the roof of a temple </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Archaic in inspiration, but having a warmer sense of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to be seen from below </li></ul><ul><li>Strides forward </li></ul><ul><li>Tightly fitted drapery </li></ul>
    5. 6. The inside of the lid of the tomb, a man diving into the water from a tall structure. What does it represent? The diving into the world of the dead (into the Okeanos)? Another interpretation is that the columns represent the Pillars of Hercules as a symbol of the end of the world maybe a symbol of the end of life
    6. 7. <ul><li>Tomb of the Leopards and Tomb of the Reliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Underground tomb chambers reflect homes of the living </li></ul><ul><li>Buried in necropolises </li></ul><ul><li>Brightly painted walls, or high relief carving of walls </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday items on walls </li></ul><ul><li>Carved stone seats to sit on </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings of banquets and entertainment </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Circa 30 CE – Jesus Crucified </li></ul><ul><li>65 CE – Peter and Paul executed </li></ul><ul><li>312 – Constantine Converts after the Battle of the Mulvian Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>313 –Edict of Milan (a legal religion) </li></ul><ul><li>325 – Council of Nicea </li></ul><ul><li>381 – The co-emperors Gratian and Theodosius publish their edict that the doctrine of the Trinity is  to be the official state religion. </li></ul><ul><li>410 – Rome is Sacked </li></ul><ul><li>430 - St. Augustine Dies </li></ul><ul><li>476 – Last Western Emperor – Romulus Augustus </li></ul>
    8. 9. Rome, c. 80 B.C. <ul><li>Head of a Roman Patrician </li></ul><ul><li>Bust </li></ul><ul><li>Severe, unwavering, resolute </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable, respected </li></ul><ul><li>Romans felt the head was a good enough representation of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional family values </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Hellenistic Greek art </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the virtues of old age </li></ul><ul><li>Was old age enhanced on the figure? </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Temple Virilis, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Temple to the Roman god of harbors, Portunus </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan influence in the elevation of the temple on a pedestal </li></ul><ul><li>One main entrance in the front </li></ul><ul><li>Wide flight of stairs </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic columns </li></ul><ul><li>Roman desire for big interiors pushes the walls out to meet the columns </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Greeks in overall design </li></ul>
    10. 12. Forum at Pompeii c. 79 AD
    11. 13. Pompeii <ul><li>Explosion by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD buried Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Large rectangular public square in center of town </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by a colonnade </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Jupiter focus of forum </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding the forum are the buildings that housed the business, government and religious activities of Pompeii </li></ul>
    12. 14. Pompeii <ul><li>Roman Houses </li></ul><ul><li>Faced inward </li></ul><ul><li>Interiors lit from atrium, few windows on exterior </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium formed the opening for rainwater to fall in the impluvium </li></ul><ul><li>Columns surround impluvium </li></ul><ul><li>Interiors of rooms are painted; open up interior space </li></ul><ul><li>Shops are outside the house facing the street </li></ul><ul><li>Windows are small and limited in number </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Ixion Room </li></ul><ul><li>Fresco, linear perspective, atmospheric perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshortening </li></ul><ul><li>Ixion murdered his father-in-law and planned to seduce Hera </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus struck him with a thunderbolt and ordered him to be tied to a wheel in hell </li></ul><ul><li>Scheme of red and white fields </li></ul><ul><li>On bottom painted to resemble marble slabs </li></ul><ul><li>On top, architectural vistas that do not align to a single viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Thin delicate motifs alternate with framed mythological scenes </li></ul>
    14. 16. Villa of the Mysteries <ul><li>Dionysiac Mystery Frieze </li></ul><ul><li>Fresco, Foreshortening </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Pompeian Style painting </li></ul><ul><li>Large figures in a frieze-like format </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation rites into the female cult of Dionysos </li></ul><ul><li>Figures act out mystery rites </li></ul><ul><li>Painted marble panels at bottom, from the First Pompeian style of painting </li></ul><ul><li>Bright Pompeian red background pushes figures forward </li></ul><ul><li>No linear perspective, but three dimensional illusionism </li></ul><ul><li>Figures interact with each other on adjacent wall spaces </li></ul>4 th Pompeian Style
    15. 17. Head of Emperor Augustus First half of the 1st century A.D.; Roman; Marble; 48.3 cm (19 in.); Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James S. Holden; 24.101 This portrait of Rome's first emperor is an idealized, youthful image, which harks back to the representation of athletes and heroes of 5th-century B.C. Greece. It follows the portrait well known from a marble statue of Augustus, discovered in the villa of Augustus's wife Livia outside of Rome. That handsome likeness was the source of inspiration for hundreds of portraits of the emperor all over the expanding Roman Empire. The statue may have served as the cult figure in a temple to the deified emperor, or stood in a public or private place of honor.
    16. 18. Roman Early Imperial Art <ul><li>Augustus of Primaporta </li></ul><ul><li>Idealization, generalized face </li></ul><ul><li>No personal idiosyncrasies </li></ul><ul><li>Contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests a god and a man </li></ul><ul><li>Bare feet gives him heroic stature </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp eyebrow edges </li></ul><ul><li>Oratorical pose </li></ul><ul><li>On military breastplate, the return of a Roman standard from Parthia </li></ul><ul><li>Back not carved, placed in a niche </li></ul><ul><li>Cupid riding on a dolphin is a reference to Venus, Augustus ’ great ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Sword in hand is modern </li></ul><ul><li>He was 76 when it was carved </li></ul>
    17. 20. Rome, c.15 CE <ul><li>Augustus of Primaporta </li></ul><ul><li>Idealization, generalized face </li></ul><ul><li>No personal idiosyncrasies </li></ul><ul><li>Contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests a god and a man </li></ul><ul><li>Bare feet gives him heroic stature </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp eyebrow edges </li></ul><ul><li>Oratorical pose </li></ul><ul><li>On military breastplate, the return of a Roman standard from Parthia </li></ul><ul><li>Back not carved, placed in a niche </li></ul><ul><li>Cupid riding on a dolphin is a reference to Venus, Augustus ’ great ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Sword in hand is modern </li></ul><ul><li>He was 76 when it was carved </li></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><li>Ara Pacis and Procession of the Imperial Family </li></ul><ul><li>Altar of Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Delicately carved acanthus leaf patterns on the exterior </li></ul><ul><li>Altar connected with Augustus ’ homecoming after a long absence </li></ul><ul><li>Romans appear as a ruling class, not as gods </li></ul><ul><li>Actual identifiable Romans depicted </li></ul><ul><li>Children are depicted as children, not shown as small adults </li></ul><ul><li>Crowding of figures in processional, not classically dispersed </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus passed laws to promote family values </li></ul><ul><li>Tellus Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Mother Earth suckles her children </li></ul><ul><li>Personifications of earth, wind, fire and water rest at peace around her </li></ul><ul><li>Roman peace brings bounty to all </li></ul>
    19. 22. Roman Emperors <ul><li>Ceasar Augustus </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius </li></ul><ul><li>Nero </li></ul><ul><li>Vespasian </li></ul><ul><li>Titus </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><li>Diocletian </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine </li></ul><ul><li>27 BC – 14AD </li></ul><ul><li>14 – 37 </li></ul><ul><li>54-68 </li></ul><ul><li>69 – 79 </li></ul><ul><li>79 – 81 </li></ul><ul><li>98 – 117 </li></ul><ul><li>117 -138 </li></ul><ul><li>161 – 180 </li></ul><ul><li>284 – 305 </li></ul><ul><li>306 - 337 </li></ul>
    20. 23. Roman Architecture: Colosseum <ul><li>Colosseum, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Real name, Flavian Ampitheatre </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodates 50,000 spectators </li></ul><ul><li>Miles of vaulted spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Barrel vaults, groin vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical form </li></ul><ul><li>80 entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Top floor flat columns in Corinthian style, most decorative </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial box opposite gladiator entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Small rectangular windows on fourth floor let in light into upper corridors </li></ul><ul><li>Façade of travertine blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Flagstaffs balanced on marble buttresses visible on fourth floor held up a sunshield for the spectators </li></ul><ul><li>Used for gladiator combat, naval battles </li></ul>
    21. 24. Roman High Imperial Art <ul><li>Column of Trajan </li></ul><ul><li>Ashes of Trajan placed at base </li></ul><ul><li>Stood in Trajan ’ s Forum, surrounded by buildings so that the reliefs could be read </li></ul><ul><li>Low relief, no shadows to enhance visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Originally painted </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous narrative around column </li></ul><ul><li>2,500 figures in all, 150 separate episodes </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts the war against the Dacians </li></ul>
    22. 25. Roman Architecture <ul><li>Pantheon, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to all the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Porch has 16 columns </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the Parthenon </li></ul><ul><li>Corinthian capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Two pediments </li></ul><ul><li>Dome made of concrete, at base 20 feet thick </li></ul><ul><li>Interior height equals width </li></ul><ul><li>A hemisphere shape </li></ul><ul><li>Coffers relieve concrete stress on dome: each contains four recesses except the top contains three </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient metal roof almost gone </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition of square and circle </li></ul>
    23. 26. Roman Architecture <ul><li>Pantheon, Rome (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Original dome decorated with stucco and painting </li></ul><ul><li>Original marble walls survive </li></ul><ul><li>Floor has drainage system </li></ul><ul><li>Oculus allows light and air in </li></ul><ul><li>Light from oculus symbolizes sun ’ s movement through the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Base of building made of concrete </li></ul>
    24. 27. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius ca. 175 AD <ul><li>Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><li>Mistaken for Constantine, which is why it survives </li></ul><ul><li>Appears as head priest: Pontifex Maximus </li></ul><ul><li>Wears a toga </li></ul><ul><li>Passing before people </li></ul><ul><li>Gesture is oratorical </li></ul><ul><li>Horse is spirited, difficult to control, but Marcus controls him effortlessly </li></ul><ul><li>Rider is larger than horse </li></ul>
    25. 28. Roman Late Imperial Art <ul><li>The Tetrarchs </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts four emperors who ruled at once </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are cylinders, lack body articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Same gestures, a Roman salute </li></ul><ul><li>Done in porphyry, a purple stone symbolizing royalty </li></ul><ul><li>Stubby proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Squat bodies </li></ul><ul><li>No emotion on faces </li></ul><ul><li>Deeply furrowed lines on foreheads </li></ul>
    26. 29. Roman Late Imperial Art <ul><li>Head of Constantine </li></ul><ul><li>8 ½ foot head </li></ul><ul><li>Part of a seated statue that must have been 30 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Enthroned in the Basilica of Constantine </li></ul><ul><li>Metal crown was attached to brow </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged and detailed carving of eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of individuality </li></ul>
    27. 30. Roman Late Imperial Art <ul><li>Arch of Constantine, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Commemorates Constantine ’ s victory at the Milvian Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Friezes and sculptures taken from the monuments of Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius </li></ul><ul><li>New friezes done in situ </li></ul><ul><li>Renunciation of classical images </li></ul><ul><li>Heads are larger than bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of space, very crowded composition </li></ul><ul><li>Figures face center </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical and repeated stances </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow relief </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully modeled </li></ul><ul><li>Details not incised </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid and formal composition </li></ul>
    28. 32. <ul><li>Catacombs, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Four million buried under Rome alone </li></ul><ul><li>Galleries are 1 meter wide and 2-3 meters high </li></ul><ul><li>Loculi, cubiculum </li></ul><ul><li>Burial underground cheaper than surface burials </li></ul><ul><li>Christian belief in burial because Christ was buried </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.catacombe.roma.it/ </li></ul>Early Christian Art
    29. 33. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus in the Vatican, Rome, 359 A.D. <ul><li>Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus </li></ul><ul><li>Christ in the center seated as an emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Sits on a personification of the sky: Jupiter/Poseidon? with a veil over his head </li></ul><ul><li>Christ seated in a heavenly Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes not in narrative order </li></ul><ul><li>Classical elements in pediments, arches and columns </li></ul><ul><li>Figures much larger than animals they are next to </li></ul>
    30. 34. Early Christian Art in the Age of Constantine <ul><li>Old Saint Peter ’ s, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Placed over the site where Saint Peter may have been buried in a pagan cemetery </li></ul><ul><li>Roman basilica </li></ul><ul><li>Axial plan </li></ul><ul><li>Atrium, narthex, nave, transept, apse: each has a function </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal orientation with entrance at one end leading directly to the apse, unlike Basilica of Constantine </li></ul><ul><li>Roman arch over the altar </li></ul><ul><li>Wall space has arches, transept, clerestory </li></ul><ul><li>Timber Roof </li></ul><ul><li>Lavish mosaics decorated interior </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced in the 16th Century </li></ul>
    31. 35. Early Christian Art in the Age of Constantine <ul><li>Santa Costanza, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Centrally planned building with Tholos structure </li></ul><ul><li>Altar in center </li></ul><ul><li>Aisles surround the altar and are barrel vaulted </li></ul><ul><li>12 column pairs and 12 clerestory windows symbolize the apostles </li></ul><ul><li>Austere interior not original </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic subjects stress salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Interlace patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Classical subjects incorporated into Christian context </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaics adorn ceiling, in Roman period they were used on floors </li></ul>
    32. 36. <ul><li>Contains shading to indicate depth & light source </li></ul><ul><li>Hint of landscape and rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Young adult with a halo </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial gold and purple </li></ul><ul><li>Long golden staff that ends wit a cross </li></ul>The Good Shepherd Galla Placidia, Ravena c. 425-26
    33. 38. In the late Fifth and early Sixth Centuries, the Western half of The Roman Empire fell into a shambles. Even Italy was under the control of feuding barbarians.The Emporer Justinian rallied his forces and Recoverred Ravenna. For a short time Ravena became the byzantine capital in the West and a number of important early Byzantine monuments are preserved there today. The church of San Vitale in Ravenna is one of these monuments. SanVitale's humble exterior protects a glistening interior full of glass mosaics and sumptuous deccorative marble. Emperor Justinian and Attendants, Saint Vitale, Ravenna, c.547
    34. 39. Early Byzantine Art in the Age of Justinian <ul><li>Hagia Sophia, Istanbul </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of central plan and axial plan </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: plain and massive, little decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Altar at far end, but emphasis placed over the area covered by the dome </li></ul><ul><li>Dome supported by pendentives </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful central dome, with forty windows at base </li></ul><ul><li>Cornice unifies space </li></ul><ul><li>Arcade decoration: wall and capitals are flat and thin but richly ornamented </li></ul><ul><li>Great fields for mosaic decoration </li></ul><ul><li>At one time had four acres of gold mosaics on walls </li></ul><ul><li>Many windows punctuate wall space </li></ul><ul><li>Minarets added in Islamic period </li></ul>
    35. 40. Built during the city’s rebuilding after riots of 532 “ Purple makes a fine shroud” – attributed to Theodora
    36. 41. Hagia Sophia <ul><li>Designed by 2 scholar-theoreticians: </li></ul><ul><li>Anthemius of Tralles (geometry and optics) & Isisorus of Miletus (physics) </li></ul><ul><li>Rumored to have been constructed by angels in 5 years (532 – 537) </li></ul><ul><li>Massiveness of piers and walls disguised by mosaics </li></ul><ul><li>Dome has a band of 40 windows around the top making it appear to float (first one fell in 558) </li></ul>
    37. 42. Early Byzantine Art in the Age of Justinian <ul><li>San Vitale, Ravenna (c. 547) </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine forces capture Ravenna in 540 </li></ul><ul><li>8 sided structure </li></ul><ul><li>Plain exterior except porch added later in Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Large windows for illuminating interior designs </li></ul><ul><li>Interior has thin columns and open arched spaces, complex spatial system </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of mystery in the space </li></ul>
    38. 43. <ul><li>Justinian and Attendants </li></ul><ul><li>To his left the clergy, to his right the military </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed in royal purple and gold </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetry, frontality </li></ul><ul><li>Holds a plate for the host, or perhaps a golden bowl </li></ul><ul><li>Slight impression of procession forward </li></ul><ul><li>No volume of figures, seem to float, and yet step on each other ’ s feet </li></ul><ul><li>No background to set the figures in space </li></ul><ul><li>No landscape, gold background indicates timelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Maximianus identified, patron of San Vitale </li></ul><ul><li>Halo indicates saintliness </li></ul>Pictorial space not depicted as a window to the natural world (i.e. Romans)
    39. 44. <ul><li>Theodora and Attendants </li></ul><ul><li>Hieratic composition </li></ul><ul><li>Slight displacement of absolute symmetry with Theodora </li></ul><ul><li>Sumptuously executed </li></ul><ul><li>She holds a chalice for the ceremony and is about to go behind the curtain </li></ul><ul><li>Altar boys and ladies at court accompany her </li></ul>
    40. 45. <ul><li>Transfiguration of Christ with Sant’Apollinare, 1 st Bishop of Ravenna (549) </li></ul><ul><li>Revelation of Christ’s divinity </li></ul><ul><li>12 sheep surround Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing essential spiritual meaning rather than the material world </li></ul>
    41. 46. Byzantine Icons <ul><li>How Icons Are Made </li></ul><ul><li>Made of rectangular wooden panels </li></ul><ul><li>Painters were monks and worked with humility, rarely signing anything </li></ul><ul><li>Wood prepared by covering the surface with fish glue and then a layer of putty </li></ul><ul><li>Cloth placed on top and successive layers of stucco are laid over the cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Paper sketch is placed over and lines are traced on the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Gilded, then painted </li></ul><ul><li>Varnish applied last to make it shine and protect the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Icons were often handled and kissed </li></ul>
    42. 47. Byzantine Icons <ul><li>Iconoclastic Controversy: icons prohibited as sacrilegious and pagan between 726-843 </li></ul><ul><li>Pronounced by Leo III and caused widespread destruction, destroying most icons </li></ul><ul><li>Thought to have miraculous powers </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus sent a portait to King Abgar of Edessa, known as the Mandylion. In Constantinople and taken by Crusaders in 10 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Church ar firt was uneasy about the power of images, but accepted as aids to meditation and prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Created aneed for more immediate and personal religion </li></ul>
    43. 48. <ul><li>Virgin and Child Enthroned between Saints Theodore and George (c. 600) </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore and George, two military saints, have rigid frontal poses, as befits the military </li></ul><ul><li>Archangels painted with free open brushwork </li></ul><ul><li>Devoid of depth </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin relatively solid and three-dimensional, her knees to the right </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin ’ s head frontal, but eyes averted </li></ul><ul><li>Christ convincingly rendered as a child </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps executed by three different artists in different styles </li></ul>Byzantine Icons
    44. 49. <ul><li>Annunciation (c. 1300) </li></ul><ul><li>Classical looking angel with heavy modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Strong line surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Mary sits enthroned </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic setting contrasts with golden background </li></ul><ul><li>Small squashed figures hold up canopy </li></ul>
    45. 50. <ul><li>R ü blev, Old Testament Trinity </li></ul><ul><li>(Three Angels Visiting Abraham) </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1410 - 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine affinity for repeating forms from older art </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of angels are traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Heads of angels nearly identical </li></ul><ul><li>Poses are mirror images </li></ul><ul><li>Luminous appeal of colors </li></ul><ul><li>Deep color harmonies of draperies </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of gold </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly spaceless background </li></ul>

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