Chapter 5 Gods, Heroes, and Athletes: The Art of Ancient Greece pp. 120-164
The Roman World
Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art <ul><li>Rise of Macedon  ...
Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art <ul><li>The gods were hum...
Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art <ul><li>In Hellenistic Gr...
Architectural Innovations <ul><li>Sasanian:  Ctesiphon –  Barrel Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian :  Gizeh – Pyramid </li>...
Architectural Innovations <ul><li>Archaic Greece:  Mycenae – Corbel Arch  </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan:  Perugia –  Keystone...
Architectural Innovations: ROME <ul><li>DEFINITIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Barrel vault :  The extension of a simple arch crea...
Architectural Innovations: ROME <ul><li>Barrel Vault     Groin Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple groin  vaults  allowed fo...
Temple of Fortunus Virilis ca. 75 BCE <ul><li>Etruscan influences? </li></ul><ul><li>The plan—the high podium is  accessib...
Temple of Vesta, Tivoli early 1st cen. BCE <ul><li>Corinthian columns </li></ul><ul><li>Podium only reachable by  narrow s...
Sanctuary of  Fortuna  Primigenia late 2 nd  cen. BCE <ul><li>1 st  grandiose complex symbolic of Roman power.  </li></ul>...
Art of The Republic (509-27 B.C.) <ul><li>The role of Portraits in  society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temples full of portrai...
Art of The Republic (509-27 B.C.) <ul><li>Republican  Verism : Influenced by Greeks, Etruscans & Egyptians, but celebrated...
Caesar Breaks the Rules –  44 BCE <ul><li>First live person to appear on a coin in Roman [before that distinguished ancest...
The Early Empire (27 B.C. – 98 A.D.) <ul><li>Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture. </li></...
Roman Architecture in Pompeii <ul><li>August 24, 79 CE Pompeii was buried by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, thus preserving...
Roman Architecture in Pompeii <ul><li>Earliest amphitheater known. [double theater] ca. 7- BCE – modeled on Greek. </li></...
Amphitheater Pompeii, Italy ca. 80 B.C.E.
The Roman House <ul><li>Inward looking. </li></ul><ul><li>Had similar elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Were the focus of the so...
First Style wall painting fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy late 2nd century B.C.E. fresco , Figure 10-17 Th...
Cubiculum (bedroom) Second Style from the villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale, Italy ca. 40-30 B.C.E. fresco, figure 1...
In the second style Roman wall painting, called the &quot;architectural style,&quot; space extends beyond the room with va...
Dionysiac mystery frieze Room 5, Pompeii, Italy ca. 60-50 B.C.E. fresco frieze approximately 64 in. high
Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.E. fresco  approximately 79 in. high, Figure 10-20
Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.E. fresco  approximately 79 in. high
still life with peaches Detail of 4th style wall painting from Herculaneum, Italy ca. 62-79 C.E. fresco  approximately 1 f...
Third Style <ul><li>In the Third Style Roman Wall Painting, called the &quot;Ornate Style,&quot; pictorial illusion is con...
The Fourth Style Roman Wall Painting, called the &quot;Intricate Style,&quot; confines full three-dimensional illusion to ...
Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, Italy ca. 20 B.C.E. marble 80 in. high Figure 10-27
This depiction of Augustus has subtle political expressions in it. He has pictures of his victories at war written on his ...
Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E. The aqueducts and bridges in Roman period exist in Rome, Merida, Segovia, Tarrago...
Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E.
Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy ca. 50 CE <ul><li>The double gateway, which supports the water channels of two important aqued...
Colosseum, Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E. The columns of the ground floor are the Doric, the first floor are Ionic, the second...
Colosseum Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E.
Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75-79 CE <ul><li>Vespasian’s sculpture revived the veristic tradition of the Republic to unders...
Portrait bust of a Flavian woman from Rome, Italy ca. 90 C.E. marble 25 in. high Figure 10-38
Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy,  81 C.E. This arch commemorates Titus' conquest of Judea which ended the Jewish Wars (66-70). ...
Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE <ul><li>The spiral frieze of Trajan’s column tells the st...
Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114-118 CE <ul><li>Unlike Titus’s arch, Trajan has relief panels covering both facad...
Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E. Figure 10-49
Pantheon, Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E. The Pantheon reveals the full potential of concrete, both as a building material an...
Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.
Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.
Al-Khazneh Petra, Jordan 2nd century C.E. Al Khazneh, also known as the Treasury, is one of the most impressive sites of a...
Model of an Insula, Ostia, Italy 2nd century C.E. After the great fire under Nero, the emperor restricted their height. Ev...
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high Figure 10-59
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high
Asiatic Sarcophagus with kline portrait of a woman 165-170 C.E. marble approximately 5 ft. 7 in. high Sarcophagi were prod...
Sarcophagus of a Philosopher 270-280 C.E. marble 4 ft. 11 in. high Figure 10-71
Mummy portrait from Faiyum, Egypt ca. 160-170 C.E. encaustic on wood
Portrait of Carcalla ca. 211-217 C.E. marble 14 in. high Figure 10-64
Portrait Bust of Trajan Decius Capitolino, Rome 249-251 C.E. marble 2 ft. 7 in. high This portrait of a short-lived “soldi...
Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy,  ca. 251-253 CE Bronze   Figure 10-69
Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Mark’s, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high Diocletian established the tetrarchy ...
Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Mark’s, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high
Palace of Diocletian (model) Split, Croatia ca. 300 - 305 C.E.
Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E. The reuse of statues and reliefs on the Arch has often been cited as evid...
Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E.
Portrait of Constantine from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy ca. 315-330 C.E. marble head approximately 8 ft. 6 in. high Co...
Basilica Nova reconstruction drawing Rome, Italy 306-312 C.E.
Roman Art
Roman Art
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Roman Art

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Chapter 10

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Roman Art

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Gods, Heroes, and Athletes: The Art of Ancient Greece pp. 120-164
  2. 2. The Roman World
  3. 3. Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art <ul><li>Rise of Macedon – after the defeat of Athens in 404 BCE, the Greeks were weakened, and then overcome by Philip II of Macedon, then succeeded by Alexander the Great. </li></ul><ul><li>The political upheaval challenged the notion that rational human beings could impose order on their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Refocused on individual rather than the ideal and on the real world of appearances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gods were humanized. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art <ul><li>The gods were humanized. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility in defeat. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Historical & Cultural influences on the transition from Classical Greek to Hellenistic Greek Art <ul><li>In Hellenistic Greece the center was not Athens, but Antioch, Alexandria and Pergamon. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much richer, more cosmopolitan culture emerged after Alexander the Great. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2 Aphrodites tell the story </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 2 nd cen. BCE the Greeks are under the control of the Romans. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Architectural Innovations <ul><li>Sasanian: Ctesiphon – Barrel Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian : Gizeh – Pyramid </li></ul>
  7. 7. Architectural Innovations <ul><li>Archaic Greece: Mycenae – Corbel Arch </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan: Perugia – Keystone Arch </li></ul>
  8. 8. Architectural Innovations: ROME <ul><li>DEFINITIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Barrel vault : The extension of a simple arch creating a semi-cylindrical ceiling over parallel walls. It requires buttressing of the walls below the vaults to counteract their downward and outward thrust. </li></ul><ul><li>Groin or cross vault : Formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults of equal size. Needs less buttressing and appears lighter than barrel vaults . </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo-peripteral : A series of engaged columns that run around the sides and back of the cella to give the appearance of a peripteral colonnade. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Architectural Innovations: ROME <ul><li>Barrel Vault  Groin Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple groin vaults allowed for clerestories </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of cement made possible an Architecture of Space, not Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemispheric Dome with Oculus  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Temple of Fortunus Virilis ca. 75 BCE <ul><li>Etruscan influences? </li></ul><ul><li>The plan—the high podium is accessible only by the front via a wide flight of steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Columns are confined to the porch. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek influences ? </li></ul><ul><li>The Ionic features—the fluted columns with bases and the Ionic frieze. </li></ul><ul><li>It is built of stone overlaid with stucco in imitation of Greek marble temples. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman element ? </li></ul><ul><li>A series of engaged Ionic half-columns on the sides and back of the cella ( pseudo-peripteral ). </li></ul>Figure 10.3
  11. 11. Temple of Vesta, Tivoli early 1st cen. BCE <ul><li>Corinthian columns </li></ul><ul><li>Podium only reachable by narrow staircase leading to cella door. </li></ul><ul><li>Used concrete for cella wall. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia late 2 nd cen. BCE <ul><li>1 st grandiose complex symbolic of Roman power. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered a hillside </li></ul><ul><li>Made possible by cement and massive concrete barrel vaults. </li></ul><ul><li>Terraces led to central tholos </li></ul>Figure 10.5
  13. 13. Art of The Republic (509-27 B.C.) <ul><li>The role of Portraits in society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temples full of portraits of men from old & distinguished Roman families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves/former slaves had no ancestor portraits as slaves were property. </li></ul></ul>Gesii funerary relief ca, 30 BCE Certified their status as Roman citizens
  14. 14. Art of The Republic (509-27 B.C.) <ul><li>Republican Verism : Influenced by Greeks, Etruscans & Egyptians, but celebrated their elevated position in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought head was enough, vs. the Greeks who wanted the whole body. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted brutal realism, yet would put old head on young body. </li></ul>Figure 10.7 Figure 10.8
  15. 15. Caesar Breaks the Rules – 44 BCE <ul><li>First live person to appear on a coin in Roman [before that distinguished ancestors] </li></ul>Figure 10.11
  16. 16. The Early Empire (27 B.C. – 98 A.D.) <ul><li>Explore Pompeii for its information about Roman art and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the role of the Colosseum and amphitheater in Roman life. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concepts, methods and materials of Roman house construction and why it is significant. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the types, methods, and subject matter of Roman wall painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the development of Roman art and architecture as the empire expands and develops. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Roman Architecture in Pompeii <ul><li>August 24, 79 CE Pompeii was buried by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, thus preserving it for us to see. </li></ul><ul><li>Forum: Center of civic life, usually closed to traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>2 story colonnades on 3 sides </li></ul><ul><li>“ Capitoline ”: Temple to Jupiter, Juno & Minerva. </li></ul><ul><li>Temple faced into the civic center, not isolated on a hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Republican build – tufa covered in stucco. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Roman Architecture in Pompeii <ul><li>Earliest amphitheater known. [double theater] ca. 7- BCE – modeled on Greek. </li></ul><ul><li>Radial barrel vaults form a retaining wall & support the earthen mound and the seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Painting : Record of a brawl between Pompeians and their neighbors in 59 CE. </li></ul>Figure 10.13
  19. 19. Amphitheater Pompeii, Italy ca. 80 B.C.E.
  20. 20. The Roman House <ul><li>Inward looking. </li></ul><ul><li>Had similar elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Were the focus of the social structure of a Roman city </li></ul><ul><li>House of Vetti – rebuilt 62-79 CE </li></ul>Figure 10.15
  21. 21. First Style wall painting fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy late 2nd century B.C.E. fresco , Figure 10-17 The First Style Roman wall painting, &quot;Incrustation&quot; (right) is thought to imitate Greek painting that created flat areas of color and 'faux&quot; finishes (like a fake marble or oak finish)
  22. 22. Cubiculum (bedroom) Second Style from the villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale, Italy ca. 40-30 B.C.E. fresco, figure 10-19
  23. 23. In the second style Roman wall painting, called the &quot;architectural style,&quot; space extends beyond the room with various perspective (&quot;illusion of three-dimensional space on a flat two-dimensional surface)  devices.  Roman artists came close to developing a true linear perspective. Figure 10-18
  24. 24. Dionysiac mystery frieze Room 5, Pompeii, Italy ca. 60-50 B.C.E. fresco frieze approximately 64 in. high
  25. 25. Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.E. fresco approximately 79 in. high, Figure 10-20
  26. 26. Gardenscape from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy ca. 30-20 B.C.E. fresco approximately 79 in. high
  27. 27. still life with peaches Detail of 4th style wall painting from Herculaneum, Italy ca. 62-79 C.E. fresco approximately 1 ft. 2 in. x 1 ft. 1 1/2 in. Figure 10-26
  28. 28. Third Style <ul><li>In the Third Style Roman Wall Painting, called the &quot;Ornate Style,&quot; pictorial illusion is confined to &quot;framed&quot; images, where even the &quot;framing&quot; is painted on.  The overall appearance is flat rather than a 3-d illusion of space. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Fourth Style Roman Wall Painting, called the &quot;Intricate Style,&quot; confines full three-dimensional illusion to the &quot;framed images,&quot; which are placed like pictures in an exhibition.  The images themselves do not relate to one another nor do they present a narrative, as in the Second Style. The Fourth Style is also characterized by the open vistas and the use of aerial perspective, as well as the elaborate architectural framing.
  30. 30. Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, Italy ca. 20 B.C.E. marble 80 in. high Figure 10-27
  31. 31. This depiction of Augustus has subtle political expressions in it. He has pictures of his victories at war written on his chest, and he also holds a staff. Cupid is at his feet, which tells that he is a descendent of deities.
  32. 32. Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E. The aqueducts and bridges in Roman period exist in Rome, Merida, Segovia, Tarragon in Spain and Nimes in France. Pont du Gard in Nimes is one of the famous one which preserve original style of Augustus era. Figure 10-33
  33. 33. Pont-du-Gard Nimes, France ca. 16 B.C.E.
  34. 34. Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy ca. 50 CE <ul><li>The double gateway, which supports the water channels of two important aqueducts, is the outstanding example of Roman rusticated masonry, which was especially popular under Claudius. </li></ul>Figure 10-34
  35. 35. Colosseum, Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E. The columns of the ground floor are the Doric, the first floor are Ionic, the second floor are Corinthian and the top of floor are Corinthian pilaster.
  36. 36. Colosseum Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 C.E.
  37. 37. Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75-79 CE <ul><li>Vespasian’s sculpture revived the veristic tradition of the Republic to underscore the elderly new emperor's Republican values in contrast to Nero’s self-indulgence and extravagance. </li></ul>Figure 10-37
  38. 38. Portrait bust of a Flavian woman from Rome, Italy ca. 90 C.E. marble 25 in. high Figure 10-38
  39. 39. Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, 81 C.E. This arch commemorates Titus' conquest of Judea which ended the Jewish Wars (66-70). The arch was erected posthumously, after Titus had already become a &quot;god.&quot; Figures 10-39-41
  40. 40. Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE <ul><li>The spiral frieze of Trajan’s column tells the story of the Dacian Wars in 150 episodes. All aspects of the campaigns were represented, from battles to sacrifices to road and fort construction. </li></ul>Figure 10-44
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, ca. 114-118 CE <ul><li>Unlike Titus’s arch, Trajan has relief panels covering both facades, transforming it into a kind of advertising billboard featuring the emperor's many achievements on and off the battlefield. </li></ul>Figure 10-47
  43. 43. Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E. Figure 10-49
  44. 44. Pantheon, Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E. The Pantheon reveals the full potential of concrete, both as a building material and as a means for shaping architectural space.
  45. 45. Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.
  46. 46. Pantheon Rome, Italy ca. 118-125 C.E.
  47. 47. Al-Khazneh Petra, Jordan 2nd century C.E. Al Khazneh, also known as the Treasury, is one of the most impressive sites of ancient Petra in Jordan. Al Khazneh was hand carved from the beautiful red sandstone mountain. Figure 10-54
  48. 48. Model of an Insula, Ostia, Italy 2nd century C.E. After the great fire under Nero, the emperor restricted their height. Even if the insulae didn't burn, they might collapse from bad construction. Light came from openings we refer to as windows, although they would not have contained panes of glass. Figure 10-54
  49. 49. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high Figure 10-59
  50. 50. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius from Rome, Italy ca. 175 C.E. bronze 11 ft. 6 in. high
  51. 51. Asiatic Sarcophagus with kline portrait of a woman 165-170 C.E. marble approximately 5 ft. 7 in. high Sarcophagi were produced in several regional centers. Western sarcophagi were decorated only on the front. Eastern sarcophagi, like this one, have reliefs on all four sides. Figure 10-61
  52. 52. Sarcophagus of a Philosopher 270-280 C.E. marble 4 ft. 11 in. high Figure 10-71
  53. 53. Mummy portrait from Faiyum, Egypt ca. 160-170 C.E. encaustic on wood
  54. 54. Portrait of Carcalla ca. 211-217 C.E. marble 14 in. high Figure 10-64
  55. 55. Portrait Bust of Trajan Decius Capitolino, Rome 249-251 C.E. marble 2 ft. 7 in. high This portrait of a short-lived “soldier emperor” depicts an older man with bags under his eyes and a sad expression. The eyes glance away nervously, reflecting the anxiety of an insecure ruler. Figure 10-68
  56. 56. Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, ca. 251-253 CE Bronze Figure 10-69
  57. 57. Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Mark’s, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high Diocletian established the tetrarchy to bring order to the Roman world. In group portraits, artists always portray the four co-rulers as nearly identical partners in power, not as distinct individuals. Figure 10-73
  58. 58. Portraits of the four tetrarchs St. Mark’s, Venice ca. 305 C.E. porphyry 51 in. high
  59. 59. Palace of Diocletian (model) Split, Croatia ca. 300 - 305 C.E.
  60. 60. Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E. The reuse of statues and reliefs on the Arch has often been cited as evidence of a decline in creativity and technical skill in the waning years of the Roman Empire. Figure 10-75
  61. 61. Arch of Constantine Rome, Italy ca. 312-315 C.E.
  62. 62.
  63. 63. Portrait of Constantine from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy ca. 315-330 C.E. marble head approximately 8 ft. 6 in. high Constantine’s portraits revive the Augustian image of an eternally youthful ruler.
  64. 64. Basilica Nova reconstruction drawing Rome, Italy 306-312 C.E.

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