Wasteful World


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EDEXCEL GCSE Geography Unit 2

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Wasteful World

  1. 1. Wasteful WorldWasteful World Thursday 22nd May
  2. 2. Types of WasteTypes of Waste • Biodegradable - will rot away like a banana skin • Non-biodegradable - sits in the ground for years without breaking down, like plastic • Domestic – waste produced in peoples houses • Industrial – waste produced by factories • Hazardous and non-hazardous • Toxic – poisonous to humans and the environment • Recyclable and non-recyclable • Electrical
  3. 3. Difference in Waste ProductionDifference in Waste Production between LICs and HICsbetween LICs and HICs HICs produce more waste because: • We are a consumer society – more money to spend on things so more things to throw away. • We are a throw away society – we don’t reuse or repair we just buy something new. LICs produce less waste because: They do not have the money to buy as many things Less packaging is used especially single use drinks cans and disposable nappies A lower literacy rate means that they do not use as much paper because people cant read.
  4. 4. Types of Domestic WasteTypes of Domestic Waste • E Waste – that’s mobile phones, computers and other electronic equipment • White goods – fridges, freezers and cookers • Packaging – primary, secondary, transit packaging.
  5. 5. Packaging • Paper and cardboard – used widely but not as much as plastic because it is heavier. Can be recycled. • Plastic packaging – used more than paper because is lighter, stronger and lasts better. Very difficult to dispose of.
  6. 6. Local Recycling in SomersetLocal Recycling in Somerset • Somerset Waste Partnership • Weekly food and recycling collection • Fortnightly refuse and garden waste collection. • Amount of waste going into landfill now less than 40% • 27% of all recycling now food waste • Waste then goes to Viridors in Castle Cary – Refuse goes into landfill – Recycling is separated into different categories and remade into new products – Food and garden waste mixed 50/50 and composed for 6-10 weeks – Compost then sold back to local farmers.
  7. 7. Example of Waste Disposal in anExample of Waste Disposal in an HIC - GermanyHIC - Germany • Landfill – has 160 landfill sites, waste is processed before landfill to reduce its impact. • Incineration – has 68 incinerators, plans to build more, some are mini power plants producing electricity. • Recycling – strict laws on recycling, companies can display the Green Dot emblem to show the packaging is recyclable, exports waste be recycled, recycles 60% of its waste. • Nuclear waste – Germany does not have a deep mine or reprocessing plant, has to sent waste to UK or France for reprocessing – expensive, sends waste to Siberia to be buried in deep mines, they are planning to build a reprocessing plant and convert a deep mine in the future. • Toxic waste – they export much of this as it is expensive to deal with in Germany, 6000 litres of toxic waste was sent to Albania disguised as humanitarian aid where it leaked into a lake killing all aquatic life.
  8. 8. Non-Renewable EnergyNon-Renewable Energy Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, Nuclear Advantages: • Much cheaper way of producing electricity • Coal is easy to transport and there is still lots left Disadvantages: • Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide and contributes to global warming • Non-renewable fuels will eventually run out
  9. 9. Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy Biofuels e.g. wood and straw, biogas (methane) from manure, bioethanol (from processing plants ad waste vegetable oil. Advantages: • Biofuels reduce the amount of greenhouse gases • Biofuels will never run out Disadvantages: • Farming and processing the crops uses energy so the benefits are cancelled out • Asian countries may replace rainforest with biofuel plantations in an attempt to make money
  10. 10. Energy MixEnergy Mix Countries rely on lots of different ways to get their energy, it is never just from one source. The different types of energy a country uses is called its ENERGY MIX. For example, this pie chart shows India’s energy mix. You can see that they mostly use coal and oil with a smaller amount of gas and renewables and a tiny amount of nuclear. A countries energy mix depends on what resources they have available, how big their population is, how rich and country is (HIC or LIC)
  11. 11. India or Iceland? Why such different energy mixes India • Relies heavily on non-renewable energy sources such as coal and oil • Incomes are very low and government has very little money too. Needs to use the cheapest forms of energy. • There are about 5.6 billion barrels of oil reserves. This is therefore the cheapest source of energy for India • Also rely on wood and animal manure in poor rural areas • Has a population of 1.2 billion which means the government has to use whatever energy sources are available to supply its people. Iceland • Has a population of 320,000. Less people means Iceland can use sources of energy that they have less of. • Mostly uses renewable sources such as hydro-electricity and geothermal energy. • Fast flowing rivers in steep deep valleys create hydro-electric power. • There are no fossil fuels available. All oil is imported from other countries • Tectonically active geothermal energy is used. • Incomes are high. This means the people and government can afford the high costs of producing renewable energy.
  12. 12. Energy Surplus and DeficitEnergy Surplus and Deficit • Energy surplus – when a country creates more energy than it needs • Energy deficit – when a country uses more energy than it creates • HICs generally have an energy deficit • LICs generally have an energy surplus
  13. 13. Carbon footprintsCarbon footprints • Carbon footprint is a measure of all the greenhouse gases we are individually responsible for producing. • LICs tend to have smaller carbon footprints than HICs.
  14. 14. Management of energy waste on aManagement of energy waste on a domestic scale (in the home)domestic scale (in the home) • Turning lights off when not in use – saves £37 on electricity bill • Energy saving light bulbs – cost £3, saves £50 on electricity bill • Loft insulation – costs £750, saves £110 on fuel bills • Cavity wall insulation – costs £500, saves £90 on fuel bills • Double or triple glazing – costs £5,000, saves £90 on fuel bills THIS OFTEN COMES UP AS A 6 MARK QUESTION! Make sure you learn these numbers by heart!
  15. 15. Management of energy waste on aManagement of energy waste on a local scale (in your area)local scale (in your area) • British Gas is working with local councils to improve efficiency. If houses implement changes to save energy they get money off their council tax bill. • Aberdeen Council have installed a communal boiler in a block of flats. This is much more efficient. • Wind turbines can be built at schools and businesses to power them. Any excess energy can be sold to the National Grid.
  16. 16. Management of energy waste on aManagement of energy waste on a national scale (in your country)national scale (in your country) • A grant of £2500 per household is available to install things like wind turbines and solar panels. • No planning permission is needed for solar panels and wind turbines. • Up to £1 million available for public buildings to install green technologies. • UK e-day – when people are asked to think about their energy usage and to turn things off.