• Actually, volcanic eruption
cool the Earth.
• This is because the ash
from the eruption stops
the Sun’s radiation from
reaching the Earth, making
• The Mount Pinatubo
eruption of 1991 cooled
the whole earth by 1°C!
• The sun has an 11 year
cycle of activity.
• At its most active it can
produce many sun
spots which send solar
energy to Earth. These
are thought to change
weather patterns and
warm the planet but
evidence is not clear.
• Now people use cars more
often pollutants are rising.
• In 2004 British cars created
120 million tonnes of
• Aeroplanes are further
warming the planet, adding
more than 700 million
tonnes of carbon dioxide
• 36% of the World’s CO2is produced by industry.
• This production has increased further each year, by
61% between 1971 and 2004
• Positively, many industries have become more
efficient, so are emitting less carbon.
• Every minute 2,000 trees are
cut down around the world.
These trees store CO2 within
them. When the trees are cut
down, this is released back
into the atmosphere helping to
warm the planet.
• If the cleared land is used for
cattle, large amounts of
methane will be released into
the atmosphere, warming the
• As population grows,
there are more and
more pressures on land
for food, resources and
energy. There are also
more people producing
waste which is helping
to warm the planet
Rubbish and Waste
• We all want the latest
gadget, but it has to
come from somewhere,
and where does the old
one go? To create your
new products takes
energy and creates a lot
• A lot of the energy we use
to power our homes
comes from non-
renewable energy sources.
• This is using up valuable
resources, but also
pumping out harmful
waste into the atmosphere
which is warming it.
• Coal power stations are
• How could we make this
• Cows release vast quantities of methane which is
one of the more harmful greenhouse gasses.
• Cows also have to graze on land which would have
previously been woodland, reducing the carbon
Changing length of seasons – as global temperatures rise
diseases that are normally only found in hot counties are
beginning to be found further north for example, Italy is now
having to deal with Malaria.
More frequent, stronger hurricanes,
tornadoes and flash floods
More frequent, stronger hurricanes,More frequent, stronger hurricanes,
tornadoes and flash floodstornadoes and flash floods
• Hurricanes only form over seas that are above 27oC.
• As global temperatures rise, so does the
temperature of the sea. This means that a larger
area of the ocean now produces hurricanes.
• This will cause not only an increase in number but
also an increase in intensity making the hurricanes
larger and more destructive with stronger winds.
Reduction in agricultural outputReduction in agricultural output
• The worlds most important foods are rice and wheat and
these are grown only in certain places around the world.
• The USA, Canada and Russia are known as the ‘wheat belt’.
• These countries are likely to experience changes to climate
but it is not clear if the impact will be positive or not.
• Almost every country in the world depends on food imports
and at any moment the world has about 40 days worth of
food in store.
• If climate change reduces harvests then food prices will rise
and some poorer nations will be unable to afford the cost of
food leading to famine, especially sub-Saharan Africa (the
area of Africa south of the Sahara desert).
Flooding of low lying citiesFlooding of low lying cities
Flooding of low lying BangladeshFlooding of low lying Bangladesh
• Bangladesh is a very low lying country with the fertile flood plains of
Ganges and Brahmaputra (two of the biggest rivers in Asia) being most at
• These are also the areas with the largest population densities.
• 20% of the country lives in extreme poverty so have no means to move
away from these vulnerable zones.
• In November 2007, cyclone Sidr hit the low lying southern part of the
country with wind speeds of over 223 km/hr.
• It killed over 3,000 people and affected 7 million others.
• The early warning from the Bangladesh Weather Service did mean that a
lot of people made it to shelters along the coastline before the storm hit,
otherwise the death count would have been much higher.
• Bangladesh needs $3.5 billion over the next 5 years to help with flood
defences however, HIC’s have refused to help with this despite the fact
they are the ones contributing to climate change but Bangladesh is the
one facing the consequences.
Local and Global Responses to
Featuring the worst acrostic poem
ever! (But hopefully it will help you
Poem to help remember responses to climate change both local and internationalPoem to help remember responses to climate change both local and international
Reduce, reuse, recycle waste
Eat local produce, better taste
Switch off the TV and the light
Pollute less, get on your bike
On the international channel
Nations set up a climate panel
Summit in Rio, nations sign
Emissions laws, Kyoto seems fine
Seven years since Bali conference
but nothing agreed with any confidence
Reduced packaging but could put foreign workers out of business
Cuts your carbon footprint and supports farmers
Saves energy but doesn’t make that much impact on global warming
Reducing car journeys obviously better but walking or biking no good
for the older generation
1988 – International Panel for Climate Change. People admit the earth
might be getting warmer!
1992 – Rio Earth Summit – 154 nations sign an agreement to cut
emissions but it is voluntary
1997 – Kyoto Protocol – now legally binding targets to cut
emissions. 178 countries sign
All nations agree to tackle climate change better in Bali
but since then no agreements on the details have been
Different definitions of
This is a new piece of the topic soThis is a new piece of the topic so
you are very likely to be tested onyou are very likely to be tested on
the different definitions.the different definitions.
Different definitions ofDifferent definitions of
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
This is the United Nations agreed definition of sustainable.
BP’s definition = create value for shareholders by helping to meet the
worlds growing energy needs safely and responsibility
BP seems to think ‘sustainable’ actually means ‘responsible’ for maintaining
energy and profit
Nestlé's definition = creation of long term sustainable value for our
customers, employees, shareholders and society as a whole.
Nestle have taken sustainable just to mean ‘long term’. As in the must keep
their brand and profit going.
Watch the video, play the spot theWatch the video, play the spot the
difference gamedifference game
M&S – how are they being more sustainable?M&S – how are they being more sustainable?
use by 70%
Fuel efficient lorries
Wash at 30
campaign – means
less energy used to
heat water in the
New fridges cut leaks
by 3260 times. No
• New offices that integrated outside with inside
– Central green, 4 courtyards and native plants
• Collected rainwater for flushing toilets – 3.6 million
• Made a list of materials that were less harmful to the
environment and would biodegrade so less waste
• Got rid of PVC
• Started using organic cotton
Explain how large organisations are becoming moreExplain how large organisations are becoming more
sustainable in the workplace. (6 marks)sustainable in the workplace. (6 marks)
C/D – you will have described how companies try to be more
environmentally friendly. You may not have named a
company. Your answer is likely to include details about how
they have tried to cut down on using resources
C/B – Name at least one company (Nike or M&S) and offer some
details about one of its policies e.g. tackling deforestation
A/A* - You have used at least two examples and identified more
than one area where these companies are trying to be more
sustainable e.g. M&S deforestation and cutting carbon PLUS
Nike getting rid of PVC and using more organic cotton
London Congestion Charge
• If drivers enter the centre of the city they pay a daily
charge of £8 - £10
• Set up in London in 2003 to reduce congestion
• Before the congestion charge 334,000 vehicles
entered the city; in 2006 there were 70,000 fewer
(drop of 21%)
• GHG emissions reduced by 20%
• Pollutants that affect peoples health have fallen by
• Also raises money for other transport schemes
Paris Cycle Scheme
• 16,000 bikes put on the street to reduce congestion
• First 30mins is free and then charged for all other use
• Cycle traffic has increased by 70% as people make use of the
• Bikes make 120,000 trips a day
• However, there are drawbacks; 3 people have been killed and
a lot of the bikes have been stolen or broken from being used
• Paris also has an excellent rail network and closes the city
centre to certain types of vehicle on certain days to cut
Impacts of Deforestation
Companies open new roads through the forest. These bring settlers who have
access to timber and new land. They slash and burn the trees for logging
Local people are often not told about resource extraction or get paid very little
money and tend to lose their land. Compensation is awarded but it is often very
By dividing up the rainforest into smaller areas with roads or pipelines the plants
animals are isolated and there are less of them. They often don’t survive very long.
Companies don’t stick to the rules about protecting wildlife
Soil and water
When oil is brought to the surface it can spill or toxic waste can be dumped
polluting the surrounding water ways and soil. These are often water sources for
local people which makes them sick
The water products from natural gas are burned; the flames pollute the
atmosphere and can cause fires. This is dangerous to local people and wildlife.
Palm Oil, Papua New Guinea
• There are 4 major palm oil projects in Papua New Guinea
• Most projects have a small estate owned by a massive
• They supply seeds, training, tools and fertilizer to local people
and pay them to work the land
• However, there has been a move away from local customs of
land use and ownership
• Waterway pollution has occurred
• Local farmers are totally dependant on the palm oil company
• The plantations reduce biodiversity
• Ecuador has been taken over by massive oil companies since
• No one has paid attention to anything except making money
• Oil companies dump 4.3 million gallons of toxic waste into
rivers ever year.
• Chemicals in drinking water are 1000 times higher than safety
• Local people have severe stomach infections, birth defects
and cancer from the dirty water
• Despite the money made from oil the country still suffers
from poverty and unemployment