Edexcel GCSE Geography Unit 1 Challanges

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Edexcel GCSE Geography Unit 1 Challanges

  1. 1. Unit 1 – Skills and Challenges Tuesday 13th May 2014 1 hour paper
  2. 2. Causes of Climate Change Natural Causes
  3. 3. Volcanic Eruptions • Actually, volcanic eruption cool the Earth. • This is because the ash from the eruption stops the Sun’s radiation from reaching the Earth, making it cooler. • The Mount Pinatubo eruption of 1991 cooled the whole earth by 1°C!
  4. 4. Sun Spots • The sun has an 11 year cycle of activity. • At its most active it can produce many sun spots which send solar energy to Earth. These are thought to change weather patterns and warm the planet but evidence is not clear.
  5. 5. Human Causes
  6. 6. Transport • Now people use cars more often pollutants are rising. • In 2004 British cars created 120 million tonnes of carbon dioxide • Aeroplanes are further warming the planet, adding more than 700 million tonnes of carbon dioxide each year.
  7. 7. Industry • 36% of the World’s CO2is produced by industry. • This production has increased further each year, by 61% between 1971 and 2004 • Positively, many industries have become more efficient, so are emitting less carbon.
  8. 8. Deforestation • Every minute 2,000 trees are cut down around the world. These trees store CO2 within them. When the trees are cut down, this is released back into the atmosphere helping to warm the planet. • If the cleared land is used for cattle, large amounts of methane will be released into the atmosphere, warming the Earth further.
  9. 9. Population growth • As population grows, there are more and more pressures on land for food, resources and energy. There are also more people producing waste which is helping to warm the planet
  10. 10. Rubbish and Waste • We all want the latest gadget, but it has to come from somewhere, and where does the old one go? To create your new products takes energy and creates a lot of waste.
  11. 11. Energy Production • A lot of the energy we use to power our homes comes from non- renewable energy sources. • This is using up valuable resources, but also pumping out harmful waste into the atmosphere which is warming it. • Coal power stations are particularly bad • How could we make this better?
  12. 12. Eating Meat • Cows release vast quantities of methane which is one of the more harmful greenhouse gasses. • Cows also have to graze on land which would have previously been woodland, reducing the carbon store
  13. 13. Negative Effects of Climate Change
  14. 14. Changing length of seasons – as global temperatures rise diseases that are normally only found in hot counties are beginning to be found further north for example, Italy is now having to deal with Malaria.
  15. 15. Changing patterns of rainfall
  16. 16. More frequent, stronger hurricanes, tornadoes and flash floods
  17. 17. More frequent, stronger hurricanes,More frequent, stronger hurricanes, tornadoes and flash floodstornadoes and flash floods • Hurricanes only form over seas that are above 27oC. • As global temperatures rise, so does the temperature of the sea. This means that a larger area of the ocean now produces hurricanes. • This will cause not only an increase in number but also an increase in intensity making the hurricanes larger and more destructive with stronger winds.
  18. 18. Reduction in agricultural output - flood
  19. 19. Reduction in agricultural output - drought
  20. 20. Reduction in agricultural outputReduction in agricultural output • The worlds most important foods are rice and wheat and these are grown only in certain places around the world. • The USA, Canada and Russia are known as the ‘wheat belt’. • These countries are likely to experience changes to climate but it is not clear if the impact will be positive or not. • Almost every country in the world depends on food imports and at any moment the world has about 40 days worth of food in store. • If climate change reduces harvests then food prices will rise and some poorer nations will be unable to afford the cost of food leading to famine, especially sub-Saharan Africa (the area of Africa south of the Sahara desert).
  21. 21. Flooding of low lying citiesFlooding of low lying cities
  22. 22. Flooding of low lying BangladeshFlooding of low lying Bangladesh • Bangladesh is a very low lying country with the fertile flood plains of Ganges and Brahmaputra (two of the biggest rivers in Asia) being most at risk. • These are also the areas with the largest population densities. • 20% of the country lives in extreme poverty so have no means to move away from these vulnerable zones. • In November 2007, cyclone Sidr hit the low lying southern part of the country with wind speeds of over 223 km/hr. • It killed over 3,000 people and affected 7 million others. • The early warning from the Bangladesh Weather Service did mean that a lot of people made it to shelters along the coastline before the storm hit, otherwise the death count would have been much higher. • Bangladesh needs $3.5 billion over the next 5 years to help with flood defences however, HIC’s have refused to help with this despite the fact they are the ones contributing to climate change but Bangladesh is the one facing the consequences.
  23. 23. Local and Global Responses to Climate Change Featuring the worst acrostic poem ever! (But hopefully it will help you remember them)
  24. 24. Poem to help remember responses to climate change both local and internationalPoem to help remember responses to climate change both local and international Reduce, reuse, recycle waste Eat local produce, better taste Switch off the TV and the light Pollute less, get on your bike On the international channel Nations set up a climate panel Summit in Rio, nations sign Emissions laws, Kyoto seems fine Seven years since Bali conference but nothing agreed with any confidence Reduced packaging but could put foreign workers out of business Cuts your carbon footprint and supports farmers Saves energy but doesn’t make that much impact on global warming overall Reducing car journeys obviously better but walking or biking no good for the older generation 1988 – International Panel for Climate Change. People admit the earth might be getting warmer! 1992 – Rio Earth Summit – 154 nations sign an agreement to cut emissions but it is voluntary 1997 – Kyoto Protocol – now legally binding targets to cut emissions. 178 countries sign All nations agree to tackle climate change better in Bali but since then no agreements on the details have been made.
  25. 25. Different definitions of Sustainable This is a new piece of the topic soThis is a new piece of the topic so you are very likely to be tested onyou are very likely to be tested on the different definitions.the different definitions.
  26. 26. Different definitions ofDifferent definitions of sustainablesustainable Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This is the United Nations agreed definition of sustainable. BP’s definition = create value for shareholders by helping to meet the worlds growing energy needs safely and responsibility BP seems to think ‘sustainable’ actually means ‘responsible’ for maintaining energy and profit Nestlé's definition = creation of long term sustainable value for our customers, employees, shareholders and society as a whole. Nestle have taken sustainable just to mean ‘long term’. As in the must keep their brand and profit going.
  27. 27. Watch the video, play the spot theWatch the video, play the spot the difference gamedifference game http://www.marksandspencer.com/MS-TV/b/31161 http://plana.marksandspencer.com/about/carbon-n
  28. 28. M&S – how are they being more sustainable?M&S – how are they being more sustainable? Improved energy efficiency in stores by 28% New light fittings have cut energy use by 70% Fuel efficient lorries Wash at 30 campaign – means less energy used to heat water in the washing machine SHWOP – reduces waste by encouraging customers to give their clothes to charity Stop deforestatio n by sourcing coffee, chocolate and palm oil from sustainable sources New fridges cut leaks by 3260 times. No more CFC’s
  29. 29. • New offices that integrated outside with inside – Central green, 4 courtyards and native plants • Collected rainwater for flushing toilets – 3.6 million litres • Made a list of materials that were less harmful to the environment and would biodegrade so less waste • Got rid of PVC • Started using organic cotton
  30. 30. Explain how large organisations are becoming moreExplain how large organisations are becoming more sustainable in the workplace. (6 marks)sustainable in the workplace. (6 marks) C/D – you will have described how companies try to be more environmentally friendly. You may not have named a company. Your answer is likely to include details about how they have tried to cut down on using resources C/B – Name at least one company (Nike or M&S) and offer some details about one of its policies e.g. tackling deforestation A/A* - You have used at least two examples and identified more than one area where these companies are trying to be more sustainable e.g. M&S deforestation and cutting carbon PLUS Nike getting rid of PVC and using more organic cotton
  31. 31. Urban Transport Solutions
  32. 32. London Congestion Charge • If drivers enter the centre of the city they pay a daily charge of £8 - £10 • Set up in London in 2003 to reduce congestion • Before the congestion charge 334,000 vehicles entered the city; in 2006 there were 70,000 fewer (drop of 21%) • GHG emissions reduced by 20% • Pollutants that affect peoples health have fallen by 12% • Also raises money for other transport schemes
  33. 33. Paris Cycle Scheme • 16,000 bikes put on the street to reduce congestion • First 30mins is free and then charged for all other use • Cycle traffic has increased by 70% as people make use of the scheme • Bikes make 120,000 trips a day • However, there are drawbacks; 3 people have been killed and a lot of the bikes have been stolen or broken from being used so much. • Paris also has an excellent rail network and closes the city centre to certain types of vehicle on certain days to cut congestion.
  34. 34. Resource Extraction from Rainforests
  35. 35. Impacts of Deforestation Deforestation Companies open new roads through the forest. These bring settlers who have access to timber and new land. They slash and burn the trees for logging Local Conflicts Local people are often not told about resource extraction or get paid very little money and tend to lose their land. Compensation is awarded but it is often very small. Biodiversity Loss By dividing up the rainforest into smaller areas with roads or pipelines the plants animals are isolated and there are less of them. They often don’t survive very long. Companies don’t stick to the rules about protecting wildlife Soil and water pollution When oil is brought to the surface it can spill or toxic waste can be dumped polluting the surrounding water ways and soil. These are often water sources for local people which makes them sick Air Pollution The water products from natural gas are burned; the flames pollute the atmosphere and can cause fires. This is dangerous to local people and wildlife.
  36. 36. Palm Oil, Papua New Guinea • There are 4 major palm oil projects in Papua New Guinea • Most projects have a small estate owned by a massive company. • They supply seeds, training, tools and fertilizer to local people and pay them to work the land • However, there has been a move away from local customs of land use and ownership • Waterway pollution has occurred • Local farmers are totally dependant on the palm oil company • The plantations reduce biodiversity
  37. 37. Oil, Ecuador • Ecuador has been taken over by massive oil companies since 1972 • No one has paid attention to anything except making money • Oil companies dump 4.3 million gallons of toxic waste into rivers ever year. • Chemicals in drinking water are 1000 times higher than safety standards • Local people have severe stomach infections, birth defects and cancer from the dirty water • Despite the money made from oil the country still suffers from poverty and unemployment

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