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  1. 1. What up dawg! This Powerpoint is like,down wiv the kids innit!I know its not cool….i don’t need you to be here to tell me its not funny….i willstop now…totes inapprops… :D
  2. 2. GIS – Geographical Information SystemsGIS – Geographical Information Systems
  3. 3. Why is GIS useful?Why is GIS useful?Think about all the things you can use google maps for.It has options for:• Weather – useful to builders working outdoors• Traffic – great for taxi services, delivery firms to knowhow long a journey will take them.• Photographs – useful for tourists to see the area they arevisiting before they go.The police layer crimes onto maps to show where themost crime is taking place. Then CCTV cameras canbe installed and police officers will aim to visit theseareas more regularly.
  4. 4. SketchesSketches• The exam board are not expecting you to be excellent artists.• Sketches do not need to be perfect drawings however they must betidy, accurate and the main features must have been clearlyidentified.• Label all the features on your diagram and make sure your sketch issuitably titled.• If appropriate annotate your sketch with longer phrases anddescriptive comments.• To keep your sketch clear,write your labels around theedge of the sketch and drawarrows to the features theydescribe.
  5. 5. Exam PracticeExam PracticeUsing a sketch, explain why the location inphotograph A is a popular tourist destination.
  6. 6. Maps – measuring straight line distanceMaps – measuring straight line distance• The scale of a map allows a reader to calculate the size, height anddimensions of the features shown on the map, as well as distancesbetween different points.• The maps you will be using in your GCSE exam will have ascale of 1:50,000, i.e. 1 cm on the map represents 500 metres or0.5 kilometres).• If you are required to work out thestraight line distance (as the crow flies)between two places, simply place yourruler over both points and measure thedistance in-between, then convert intokilometres by multiplying your answer by0.5, i.e. 7 centimetres on the map equals3.5km in real life.
  7. 7. Maps – measuring winding distancesMaps – measuring winding distances• If you have been asked to workout the distance of a winding route (e.g. ariver or road) get a sheet of paper (or even the side of your exam) and placethe corner on your starting point.• Rotate your paper until the side follows the route you want to take. Whenthe route bends away from the paper’s edge, mark the point on your sheetand then turn the paper so that the side runs along the next part of yourpath (1).• Keep doing this until you reach the end of your route (2).• Now place your paper against the scale line (3) or measure the distanceusing a ruler and multiply by 0.5.123
  8. 8. Maps – 4 figure grid references• Ordnance Survey map are covered in a series of blue grid lines.These grid lines can be used to pinpoint locations through a uniquenumber known as a grid reference.• A four-figure grid reference is a handy way of identifying any squareon a map. Four figure references are useful if you’re trying todescribe the position of a large feature such as a forest orsettlement.• Grid references are easy, as long as you remember that you alwaysgo along the corridor before you go up the stairs.
  9. 9. Maps – 6 figure grid references• If you want to pinpoint an exact place on a map, such asa church or farm building, then you will need to use a six-figure grid reference.• The first step is to find the four-figure reference, nowimagine this square is divided up into 10 tiny squaresalong the bottom, with 10 squares up the side.• Still remembering to go along the corridor and then upthe stairs, estimate how far across and then up thesquare the feature is.
  10. 10. Relief (height of the land) and contoursRelief (height of the land) and contours• Relief is a term geographers use to describe the shapeand height of the land.• OS maps usetwo systems toillustrate relief,spot heights ortrig points andcontour lines.Spot HeightTrig PointContours closetogether = very steepContours further apart= less steep
  11. 11. Relief (height of the land) and ContoursRelief (height of the land) and Contours• A contour is a line drawn on a map that joins points ofequal height above sea level, i.e. every point on a 50 metrecontour line is 50 metres above sea level.• Contours on OS mapsare coloured light brown.The diagram shows thelink between the shapeof a hill and the contoursrepresenting it on a map.
  12. 12. How to draw a cross sectionHow to draw a cross section• Place the edge of a piece of paper along the route you wish to drawa cross section of.• Mark each time your paper crosses a contour line and record itsheight.• Place you’re paper on a piece of graph paper and draw a verticalscale. Each time your paper crossed a contour line plot the correctheight.• Join up the crosses with a line to show the shape and height of theland.• You may be asked to add the location of important features such asrivers or roads.
  13. 13. ExamExamPracticePracticePrint off the mapand then try toanswer thequestions on thenext slide.On GCSE examsthe top of thepaper is alwaysnorth.
  14. 14. Exam PracticeExam Practice1. From Morris Fm (612182) what direct is it to:a) Manor House (621172)b) White House (605176)2. Which of the following grid squares have the steepest terrain?a) 5919 or 6217b) 6120 or 62193. Which is the six figure grid reference of:a) the church in Cowlingb) the church in Heapey4. How far is it form the Manor House to Morris Farm:a) as the crow fliesb) along the road5. Draw a cross section from White Coppice (616189) to the summit of HurstHill (630180).
  15. 15. Interpreting MapsInterpreting MapsThe key to success on a describe question is to support generaldescriptive statements with map evidence.What to look for when describing:• Vegetation - The OS maps used in our exam(1:50,000) only contains a minimal amount ofvegetation data. Woods, orchards, parklandand marshes are shown, but most of the mapis likely to be white. In most cases these whiteareas will be farmland, look for the presenceof farms (abbreviated to fm) to prove this.• When identifying large areas, such a forest,use four-figure grid references, however, moreaccurate six figure references will be needed ifyou’re highlighting farm buildings.
  16. 16. Interpreting MapsInterpreting MapsThe key to success on a describe question is to support generaldescriptive statements with map evidence.What to look for when describing:• Communication – In your exam,communication refers to the region’s transportnetworks. Look out for important routes, suchas dual carriageways and motorways, as wellas local patterns. In most cases road and railnetworks will be denser and more complex inurban areas.• When describing communication networksuse road names (e.g. M4 or B3456), locatelarger areas with four-figure references andindividual stations and foci points with six-figure references.
  17. 17. Interpreting MapsInterpreting MapsThe key to success on a describe question is to support generaldescriptive statements with map evidence.What to look for when describing:• Settlements – If asked to describe thedistribution of settlements, try and think ofeach settlement as a just dot. Include villages,towns and cities but ignore minor hamlets andfarmhouse clusters, as we don’t want to over-complicate our answer.• Now look at the pattern of dots and try toidentify any relating factors. Settlements areusually grouped in river valleys, on coastlinesor along transport routes. Don’t forget tosupport any explanation with map evidence.
  18. 18. Interpreting MapsInterpreting MapsThe key to success on a describe question is to support generaldescriptive statements with map evidence.What to look for when describing:• Human activities – OS maps provide littleinformation about human activity. Occasionallyworks and industrial sites are labelled, but inmost cases we have to make educated guessesabout the economic activities present within aregion, e.g. we know from experience that largetowns and cities tend to have important retail andcommercial functions.• Tourism is perhaps the easiest economic activityto identify as attractions and facilities are clearlyhighlighted through the use of blue symbols.
  19. 19. Site and SituationSite and Situation• The SITE of a settlement means the physical characteristics of theplace. When describing the site refer to slope, attitude andvegetation.Shepton Mallet is built on the south facing slops of the Mendip Hills.There is an area of drained marsh land to the south known as theSomerset Levels. The town itself is built gently sloping land and issurrounded by fertile land used for sheep farming.• The SITUATION of a settlement is its location in relation to otherplaces. When describing the situation refer to transport links and theposition of other settlements.Shepton Mallet is situated approximately 3 miles East of Wells and isapproximately 30 miles south of the larger city of Bristol. SheptonMallet is build around the cross roads of the A37 and the A361.
  20. 20. Shape of SettlementsShape of Settlements• 1. Nucleated settlements are villages andtowns where the buildings are closelyclustered, usually around a central featuresuch as a village green, crossroads ormarket square.• 2. Linear settlements are strung out in a thinline, often following a road or squeezed intoa narrow valley.• 3. Dispersed villages are made up of smallgroups of houses and outlying farmersspread over a considerable distance.
  21. 21. ExamExamPracticePractice1. Describe Lytham’stransport network.(4 marks)2. What evidence isthere to suggestthat Lytham is apopular touristdestination?(3 marks)3. Describe the site ofLytham.(3 marks)4. Describe thevegetation cover inthe area shown.(4 marks)