Brand Box 1 - Know Your Business - The Marketer's Ultimate Toolkit
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Brand Box 1 - Know Your Business - The Marketer's Ultimate Toolkit



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1. Brand Box 1 - Know Your Business 2. Credits 3. Contents 4. Introduction 5. Introduction 6. The Authors 7. Who do they work for? 8. How To 9. User's Guide 10. Actions from insights 11. An apology 12. Getting started 13. Familiarity exercises 14. Flip flop 15. Raw creativity 16. Infinity stairs 17. Necker cube 18. Are you sure of what you see? 19. Are you sure cont... 20. Are you sure cont... 21. Actions from insights 22. Let's get started 23. A bit about brands 24. What is a brand 25. A brand is more than just the product 26. Apple 27. Brands are like clothes hooks 28. Why brand building is so important 29. Brand building 30. Why bother? 31. Commitment beyond belief 32. Lovemark theory 33. Why do people need brands 34. 5 Ways brands can influence consumers 35. Identical products seeming different 36. Positive expectations 37. Inspire loyalty 38. Influence the price 39. The bad news 40. What are some brands in your world 40. So how do I build a brand? 41. Brand Roles 42. Roles cont... 43. Roles cont... 44.Glossary of terms 45. Brand Experience 46. What does brand experience mean 47. Functional benefits 48. Emotional benefits 49. Experience: Functional and emotional 50. Positioning and value propositions 51. Welcome to jargon land! 52. Features, value propositions and positioning 53. Features, benefits and Implications 54. How do you provide value 55. Value proposition 56. What do you do with value propositions 57. Example: Impulse 58. Example: Jaguar 59. Positioning: The battle for your mind 60. Brand Identity and positioning 61. The battle for the mind 62. Effective positioning 63. Positioning principles 64. Positioning: USP and ESP 65. USP: What is it? 66. ESP: What is it? 67. Example: Kleenex 68. Positioning: How is it done? 69. Developing a brand position 70. Positioning principles 71. Positioning: Work over time 72. BMW Case study 73. BMW The ultimate driving machine 74. Be relevant 75. Challenger brands 76. Positioning as a challenger brand 77. Positioning as a challenger brand 78. Positioning traps 79. Positioning pitfalls 80. Repositioning 81. Minds are hard to change 82. Brand Archetypes 83. Brand Archetypes 84. Brand Archetypes 85. The 12 archetypes 86. The 12 cont... 87. The 12 cont... 88. Brand Archetypes 89. Brand Archetypes 90. 3-Step tool to finding your archetype 91. 3- Step tool cont... 92. An archetype example 93. Additional archetypes 94. Additional archetypes 95. What do I do with my archetype 96. Naming brands 97. Names names names 98. The power of the name 99. The ear and the eye 100. How the ear failed 101. So how do you choose a good name 102. Give a dog a good name 103. Brand protection and strength 104. Protecting your value 105. Real brand value 106. Brand strength 107. Value to customers 108. Short term benefit and long term risk 109. Brand extensions 110. How strong is my brand 111. Leveraging your brand 112. Types of extensions ...



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  • Thanks Step Change. This really helped me solidifying my ideas for the rebranding (extra branding) of my business 2010 Productions which provides events services focusing on Mobile Cocktail Bars (what a mouthful!) Using the Brand Name section the most I will continue to develop the ideas re our new brand. Cocktail Club is winning atm as the stand out but we'll see what else emerges from some more brainstorming etc.

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Brand Box 1 - Know Your Business - The Marketer's Ultimate Toolkit Brand Box 1 - Know Your Business - The Marketer's Ultimate Toolkit Presentation Transcript

  • BRAND BOXAuthorsAshton BishopJeffrey CooperEditingAndrew DurackAdam LongDeanne ConstantineArt DirectionIvan LanghamMegan CassarchisDesignJason GiengCopyright Notice & DisclaimerCopyright 2012 © Step Change Marketing ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.This book contains material protected under International and FederalCopyright Laws and Treaties. Any unauthorized reprint or use of thismaterial is prohibited. No part of this book may be reproduced ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage andretrieval system without express written permission from the authors.Any trademarks, service marks, product names or named featuresare assumed to be the property of their respective owners and areused only for reference. There is no implied endorsement if we useone of these (2) 8028
  • BRAND BOXTABLE OF CONTENTS3ContentsBRAND BOXThe Marketer’s UltimateToolkit 123456BookBookBookBookBookBookIntroductionKnow Your BusinessKnow Your MarketKnow Your ConsumersWhat’s the Big Idea?How to Say ItWhen and Where to Say ItBrand ArchitectureBrandingPositioningCompetitionEnvironmentBinary AnalysisPredatory ThinkingProfilingSegmentationInsightsPricingLaunch or NPD?InnovationCommunicationsAdvertising IdeaTone & MessageMedia StrategyConnection IdeaChannel Planning
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION4IntroductionWelcome to Brand Box, the marketer’s ultimate toolkit to driving business growth through successful brand building and innovation.Whether big or small, your brand has a number of secret weapons ready to be unleashed on the market to drive your business forward.The power of a brand’s voice is potentially the most undervalued and underutilised weapon of all. We’ll teach you how to use it to its fullpotential.In this book we will uncover the power of your brand and give you a set of tools and distinctions to unleash the power of your brand andbusiness, all whilst teaching you how to drive truly deep emotional connections with your audience.It’s about information that’s consumable in the information age; distilling, compiling, combining and simplifying; making accessible greatthinking and taking the mystery out of great marketing strategy.This book also gives you the tools to facilitate workshops and collaborative sessions to arrive at the answers you will need to drivebusiness growth.
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION5This book only reaches the heights that it does because it’s standingon the shoulders of industry giants... a tip of the hat back at you all, Sirs!Dave Trott Edward de Bono Malcolm Gladwell Bill Bernbach David A. AakerCST Advertising Creative Genius The Tipping Point Legendary figure in thehistory of AmericanadvertisingGlobally recognisedmarketing consultantand author
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION6The AuthorsASHTON BISHOPAshton Bishop is Australia’s Predatory Marketer –an expert in pinpointing how brands can grow byoutsmarting their competitors.However, his path was a somewhat unusual one.After graduating with a commerce/law degree heturned his hand to street performing, TV presenting,stand-up comedy and film directing, and evenliterally ran away with the circus.Fortunately Ashton eventually found his niche inmarketing, where he has spent the last 14 yearsworking internationally on some of the world’sbiggest brands. He’s a business owner, serialentrepreneur, challenging, sometimes evencontroversial, but always focused on what getsresults.He’s run million dollar campaigns for billion dollarbrands, received film awards, guest lectured atleading universities, won creative and strategicrecognition from his peers and, in a world first,brought marketing strategy together with digitaltechnology.JEFF COOPERJeff learnt his most valuable lessons in marketingby spending his own money.Some marketers might be happy with a careerthat saw them conceptualise and implementmillion dollar campaigns for some of the world’slargest brands, including Vodafone, CommSec,Commonwealth Bank, Sony, 3M and The Australian;being crowned as one of the top marketers;entrepreneurs in Australia in B&T and Anthillmagazine’s 30-under-30 Awards respectively;pioneering world first marketing technologies;co-authoring a six book series on strategy, guestlecturing at Sydney’s top universities on marketingstrategy; and taking the helm as the country’s firstGen Y General Manager of a strategic marketingconsultancy.That’s Jeff’s career to date and, at the ripe old ageof 28, he plans on achieving a lot more.
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION7Who do they work for?Step Change MarketingLeverage to grow: talkability and sharabilityStep Change Marketing takes the most powerful tools and secrets ofthe world’s largest organisations and makes them available to all.Using a series of interactive and engaging workshops, Step ChangeMarketing delivers a clear path for your business development, nomatter what your specific marketing and communications experienceor needs.The solutions are designed to deliver you actions, based on insights,that will drive your business growth. A foundation of essential theoryleads quickly into the population of proprietary marketing modelsand idea generation sessions, leaving you with a myriad of powerfuland actionable ideas to drive your business forward.Our presenters and authors of this book, Ashton Bishop and JeffCooper, have decades of experience working with billion dollarbrands around the world, including Nestle, Pizza Hut, KFC, GSK,Time Out, DHL, Sony and Nokia.Find out more at www.stepchangemarketing.comClient List
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION8Theories andDefinitions Case Studies ToolsExamples andVerbatimHow to use these books:Each page of these books contains either theory and definitions, case studies, tools or examples andverbatim. Use the logo in the top left hand corner of each page to see what the content relates to.
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION9Marketer’s Ultimate Toolkit: User’s GuideAt the centre of the Business Growth Opportunity Tool is the word“growth”. This word is the fundamental driver of any successfulbusiness.The model is broken down into two sections – insights andactions. This is because effective marketing can only stem fromrich insights that then drive actions. Insights without actions aremeaningless and won’t drive growth.Six chapters clarify the tool:InsightsKnow Your BusinessBe clear about who you are and what you stand forKnow Your MarketHow should you define your category? Who are your competitors?What forces drive your industry, now and in the future?Know Your CustomersIf you’re trying to talk to everybody, you’ll probably be relevant tonobody. You need to find out who you need to be talking to, whatthey’re like and what motivates them.ActionsWhat’s The Big Idea?Innovation is your business lifeblood. Product, Process,Placement and People are some places you can look for your nextbreakthrough.How To Say ItMake sure you’re noticed for the right reasons. Your messageneeds to stand out and deliver a potent message to yourprospects.Where To Say ItWith over 573 buyable media options (not to mention the freeones), you’ve got to be pretty clear about where’s the right place toput your message.And remember, growth is generally derived from areas where yourbusiness is currently spending the least amount of time and focus.Use the Business Growth Opportunity Tool to determine wherethat currently is and therefore where your biggest opportunitieslie. To drive real success, spend the most time on the segmentthat currently lacks focus or goals. This tool is designed to tap intoeach section individually; however, to drive real business growth inall areas it is recommended to complete the entire model.
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION10GROWTHKnow Your BusinessBrand ArchitectureBrandingPositioningKnow Your ConsumersProfilingSegmentationInsightsPricingKnow Your MarketCompetitionEnvironmentBinary AnalysisPredatory ThinkingWhat’s the Big Idea?Launch or NPDInnovationCommunicationsHow to Say ItAdvertising IdeaTone & MessagingWhen and Where to Say ItMedia StrategyConnection IdeaChannel PlanningACTIONS from INSIGHTS
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION11An ApologyThis toolkit has been assembled from over 20 years worth of practicalexperience and literally hundreds of sources around the world.We have tried to always acknowledge, and edify, the sources of the thinkingthat inspired our model, however, given the frailty of human memory this mightnot have always been correctly attributed.Therefore, we request that anybody who feels like they’ve been misquoted ormissed in being quoted please contact us via info@stepchangemarketing.comand we’ll happily attempt to rectify.
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION12Getting StartedMarketing is an art masquerading as a science.Great marketing requires both sides of the brainto be working in harmony, because if either sidedominates it’s easy to get “creative wank” or“boring self-focused twaddle”.The next few exercises are designed to “kickover” your marketing engine (brain) and makesure both sides are humming.You can use them to warm up a group forbrainstorm, or just warm-up yourself – what’simportant though is that you put aside what youthink you know. Come afresh and look for yournext marketing breakthrough with “new” eyes.Creative wankBoringself-focusedtwaddle
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION13Familiarity ExerciseNo matter how much marketingknowledge you have, you need to letthings go – things aren’t always as theyseem! Art & Science engage both partsof the brain.So who read the phrases to the left andmissed the second “the” in each one?Parisin thethe SpringxxBirdin thethe HandxxxRead the following two boxes aloud, exactly as it’s written:
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION14Once we see the word “FLOP” we tend toexclude all other possibilities. Yet if you lookat the “O” you can see a white “I”. Now ifyou read the white outlines of the letters youwill see the word “FLIP”.Flip-flop is the complete message, andseems so obvious you wonder why youdidn’t see it in the first place!Flip FlopThinkertoys: A handbook of creative thinking techniques by Michael Michalko 2006
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION15Raw CreativityThinkertoys: A handbook of creative thinking techniques by Michael Michalko 2006Aoccodrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrdige Uinvrevtisy,it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrodare, the olny iprmoettnt tihng is the frist and lsat ltteer.It’s a ttoal mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit aporbelm. Tihs is besauae ocne we laren how to raedwe look for the eenssces of the jmulbed ltteers. Thehuamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef,but preecsievs the wrod as a wlohe. We do tihsucnsoniuscoly wuithot tuhoght.We have a raw natural talent to interpret the essenceof things. Raw creative techniques are designedto remove the constraints of logic and free yourimagination to be creative again – to once again thinklike a child.
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION16Infinity StairsIf you try to come up with new ideas withouthaving a specific goal it would be like tryingto climb these stairs – moving up and upforever without actually going anywhere.“A problem is nothing more than anopportunity in work clothes. A successfulbusinessperson pays attention to problems,converting the problems into opportunitiesand deciding which opportunities are worthpursuing. These opportunities becomeproductive challenges.”Thinkertoys: A handbook of creative thinking techniques by Michael Michalko 2006
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION17Necker CubeTry and look at things from a differentperspective.Can you make the ball move from being infront of the cube, to inside the cube andfinally behind the cube?
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION18Are you sure of what you see?
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION19Are you sure of what you see? cont...
  • BRAND BOXINTRODUCTION20Are you sure of what you see? cont...Things aren’t alwaysas they seem!
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSKNOW YOUR BUSINESS21GROWTHKnow Your BusinessBrand ArchitectureBrandingPositioningKnow Your ConsumersProfilingSegmentationInsightsPricingKnow Your MarketCompetitionEnvironmentBinary AnalysisPredatory ThinkingWhat’s the Big Idea?Launch or NPDInnovationCommunicationHow to Say itAdvertising IdeaTone & MessagingWhen and Where To Say ItMedia StrategyConnection IdeaChannel PlanningKNOW YOUR BUSINESSACTIONS from INSIGHTS
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSKNOW YOUR BUSINESS22Let’s get Started!Who are you?If you don’t blow your own horn it’s unlikely others will bother to do it for you.Some marketers get so caught up in where to put their messages and what theircompetitors are doing they forget to figure out what they’re really about.Small businesses sometimes forget to separate the principle from the business;big companies sometimes lose the clarity about why they’re even in business.What’s important to note is that before you waste any time or effort trying to speakto others, you need to have a long, cold, hard look in the mirror and figure outwhat you’re really about as a business and as a brand.
  • A BIT ABOUT BRANDSWhat are they?
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS24A concise definition...It’s such a common term, yet so few really understand what it is with any clarity. Wesearched for a thorough definition for so long we got sick of it and just made one up! Itisn’t sexy, but it is clear and it starts with what a brand isn’t...A brand is not:A brand is not merely a synonym for a product or service.A brand is:A brand is created, and lives, in the mind of a consumer; it is a combination of allcommunication and experiences, both good and bad, intended and unintended, that areidentified with a name or symbol and occur both in the consumption of the product orservice and in the course of day-to-day life.What is aBrand?
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS25A Brand is more than just the ProductA brand is the identity of a specificproduct, service or business. It can takemany forms, including a name, sign,colour combination or symbol. This thenencompasses the personality of a product,company or service.Product• Scope• Attitudes• Quality• UsesBrand PersonalitySymbolsBrand-CustomerRelationshipsOrganisationalAssociationsUserImageryBrandBuilding Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996Country ofOriginSelf-ExpressiveBenefitsEmotionalBenefits
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS26A Brand is more than just the ProductWhat does this brand bring to mind?
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS27Brands are like Clothes HooksWhile the previous definition is accurate, this analogy tends to help peopleunderstand brands....easy! But most minds are more complicated and messy...So remember that this is what you’re walking into the next time you think aboutstepping into your customers’ mind – the messier things get the bolder andclearer you need to be.“If you’re loud or relevant a consumer will start a clotheshook in their mind where they store their experiences ofyour brand – everything goes on the hook, which meansone damp addition and everything gets wet!”
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS28• The brand lives in the consumer’s mind• Every contact with the consumer affects the brand• Every contact with the brand is a brand building opportunity• Every contact with the brand is a selling opportunity• Every contact is an opportunity to create an experienceThe following definition is not only accurate, but delicate and beautiful.“The way people build brands is in their heads. We build animage as birds build nests – from scraps and straw we chanceupon.”Jeremy Bullmore, Non-Executive Director of WPPDescribed as “quite possibly the most admired man in advertising” (Campaign Magazine’s A List)Why Brand Building is so ImportantOf course, brand building is more than just marketing!A philosophy on brand building
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS29Brand BuildingOf course, there’s no point in just building a brandwithout linking this brand building to sales.Effective brand building has to have a goal in mindbeyond just awareness.The most sensible sentiment we’ve heard around this is:“You build the brand by selling theproduct in the most appropriate way”.Dave Trott & Murray Chick, CST (UK Advertising Agency)
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS30Why bother withall this brandbusiness anyway?Because if you getit right people willlove you for it!
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS31Commitment Beyond BeliefThose who master what a brand is and earn the love of their customers benefit from unconditional loyalty. Below is a list of a few whocommand such respect...3 to 4 weeksFor a reservation at the Le Capricerestaurant in LondonUp to 1 monthFor an underground tour of the Mt Isamine in Queensland3 to 12 weeksFor a Padron Millenium cigarAround 6 monthsFor a reservation at Tetsuya’s in Sydney6 to 18 monthsFor a Harley-Davidson Softail Deuce2 yearsTo join the Reebok Sports Club/NYUp to 2 yearsFor Aston Martin’s V12 Vanquish2 to 3 yearsTo have your Japanese sword polished inJapanAround 3 yearsFor Kelly and Birkin bags by Hermès5 yearsFor a Rolex Daytona watchUp to 5 yearsTo be one of the towns hosting a Tour deFrance start or finishUp to 25 yearsFor an MCG membership
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXPERIENCE32Lovemark TheorySaatchi and Saatchi developed thismodel that demonstrates the strongestconnections require elements of love andrespect working together.Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide Saatchi & SaatchiHigh respect+Low love=BRANDSHigh respect+High love=LOVEMARKSLow respect+Low love=COMMODITIESLow respect+High love=FADS
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS33Why do People Need Brands?People use brands to satisfy a need or desire, whether this need or desire isconscious or subconscious. To break this down:• People don’t buy products, they buy the benefits of those products don’t buy a new vacuum cleaner unless it will save you time and effort• Money can’t buy happiness, but brands can buy a sense of belonginge.g. look at any clothes brand and ask “Why would people buy it?”• We think we make decisions rationally but most of our decisions areactually made subconsciously. When we buy a particular brand, we areproving that brand has developed its own meaning in our subconsciouse.g. Panadol versus generic paracetamol
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS345 Ways Brands can Influence ConsumersThere are many ways brands can work; here are the 5 we feel are most important:• A brand can make identical products seem different e.g. commodities: water, petrol, milk• A brand can set up positive expectations which are self-fulfilling e.g. Moët and Chandon• A brand can instigate trust and take away risk e.g. Huggies• A brand can inspire loyalty and encourage repeat purchase e.g. Apple• A brand can influence the price consumers are willing to pay e.g. Sirena TunaPay more. Buy again.Believe the productis better.Dave Trott & Murray Chick, CST (UK Advertising Agency)
  • A brand can makeidentical productsseem different
  • A brand canset up positiveexpectations whichare self-fulfilling
  • A brand can inspireloyalty and encouragerepeat purchase
  • A brand caninfluence theprice consumersare willing to pay
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS39Brand Failures, Matt Haig 2007The Bad News?90% of new brands fail within the first 5 yearsThis shocking statistic (we have other less dramatic sources thatpitch the figure at about 64%) highlights the fact that most brandsget it wrong. If you fail to connect, you’ll fade away.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS40Average person is exposed to:• $6.72 billion advertising spend in Aus*• Over 1,000,000 branded messages ayear• 3,000 branded messages each dayBUT• They only notice 80• And only react to 10AND• 57% are remembered negatively*Nielsen data 2006**BrainWave Connection, UK, 2004What are some Brands in your World?Behind the failure is the immense mess and noise that is the marketplace of today.You’re never just competing with the businesses in your own category, you’re competing withall the marketing NOISE!
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS41So how do I Build a Brand?A Brand Identity ModelDeveloped from work done in the 1990s, David Aaker’s seminal work demystified a lot ofthe talk about branding and compiled it into a logical model.• If you can get your thinking on one page then you’ve got a chance• If you need more than a page to get the essence of your brand down, then you needto spend a bit more time thinking• Once you have a brand identity model you’ll have the best chance of creating a brandvia consistent communications• You’ll also have an independent reference to decide what’s on-brand and what’s not• This is used internally (with all staff) and with external suppliers• Get it to the point where you’d be happy to put it up on everybody’s wallIf you’re interested in developing your own brand on a page,Step Change Marketing run Business Growth Plan workshops.Visit to find out more!Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS42Brand RolesBe clear about the role of a particular brand, especiallyin the context of a brand portfolio. Brand roles will beinformed by looking at the competitive environment.Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996Brand RolesEndorserDriverSilver Bullets Branded Benefits• Features• Components• Service programsStrategic BrandsSub-Brand Roles• Describe offerings• Structure and clarify offerings• Augment/modify brand identity• Exploit market opportunities• Support extensions
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS43Brand Roles cont...Strategic BrandsBrands that may have small sales now but will gain importantsales and profit in the futureEndorser BrandA brand that adds value or endorses a second brand. Should theendorser brand be rolled back?Branded BenefitsServices/features/ingredients which are unique to your product.Which of these should be branded? Would branding them addvalue?Silver BulletA brand within a portfolio that brings breakthrough benefits to therange. What brands or benefits could play a silver bullet role? Arethey being exploited properly?Range BrandA brand that covers a range of products. Identify the rangebrands. Should the range be modified for the future?Co-BrandsWhere two brands partner together to launch a product. Are thereopportunities to partner or co-brand? Would a co-brand enhancethe identity?Extension OptionsCan your brand be extended sideways across ranges andcategories, or vertically into services before/after? Could there beline extensions with different variants?Vertical ExtensionsIdentify a brand that should move up or down.Clarifying with sub-brands – Could sub-brands be used tominimise confusion?Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSA BIT ABOUT BRANDS44Glossary of TermsWhatever team you’re working with todevelop your brand model, please avoidthe bullshit lingo and get a clear set ofdefinitions that you can work from.The attached set from Aaker is a prettygood start.Brand EquityA set of assets that are linked to a brand’s name:brand name awareness, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand associationsBrand ImageThe current perception of the brand. This should not become the brand identityBrand IdentityWhat a brand aspires to beCore IdentityThe timeless essence of the brandConsumer Value PropositionThe relationship enhancers and reasons to purchase:functional, emotional & self-expressive benefitsBrand Positioning (Evolving)The strategic territory or “rung” in the consumers’ mind we wish to own (competitive)The parts of the identity and the consumer value proposition to be communicatedStraplineConsumer line that tags all communication, reinforcing positioningBuilding Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXPERIENCE46What does Brand Experience mean?These days, for brands to thrive they can’t just offer either a functional or emotional benefit – they need to be able to fuse the twotogether to create an experience and establish themselves in the minds of consumers. How do they do this?
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXPERIENCE47Functional BenefitsFunctional benefits have direct links to customer decisions and user experiencee.g. a usb key provides a functional benefit.If a brand can dominate a key functional benefit, it can dominate a category• e.g. who competes with Blu-Tack?!There are a few problems with functional benefits...• They can fail to differentiate• They can be easy to copy• They can reduce strategic flexibility• They can inhibit brand extensionsBuilding Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996Functional benefits are important to help justify decisions.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXPERIENCE48Emotional BenefitsEmotional benefits occur when a customer gains a positive feeling from purchasing orusing a particular brand e.g. Louis Vuitton makes the wearer feel premium, Volvo makesthe driver feel safe.Emotional benefits add richness and depth to the experience of using the brand.There can be a few problems with emotional benefits also...• They often take more work to create and maintain with communications• They can leave you vulnerable to predatory marketing• They are dependent on consumers having a high emotional attachment to the categoryEmotional benefits are important in helping make decisions.Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXPERIENCE49Experience: Functional and EmotionalThe strongest brand identities have both functional andemotional benefits.A study showed that 47 TV commercials that included anemotional benefit had a higher score than 121 TV commercialswith only a functional benefit.This just goes to show that money can’t buy you happiness, butbrands can buy you a sense of belonging.ExperienceFusing Functional and Emotional BenefitsProduct: What it doesBrand: How it makes you feelExperience: How it fits into your lifeFor example, when Cristiano Ronaldo buys another countlessPorsche he probably won’t have the same experience as ablue-collar worker who has saved all his life to buy oneEmotion in Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Explorations, Stuart Agres 1990The Idea Generator: Tools for Business Growth, Ken Hudson 2007Fusing the emotional and functionalbenefits give the user their experience.We use products, we buy brands, we liveexperiences.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS51Man do we know how to “marketise” things! Anybody who’s sat around a boardroomtable with a big agency as they roll through the lexicon of terms (that nobody inthe room really understands) will know how much can be said without any claritywhatsoever.The definitions in the attached sections might not be dead right – we’re not evensure if there is a right! But what we must do as marketers is be clear. We’re expertcommunicators, so we need to start internally. The ‘90s was all about having alexicon for marketing that nobody else understood (helps to justify an inflated salary).In the digital age it’s time to get real, get grounded and make surewe know what we’re trying to say to our customers, why and howit fits into our marketing plan.In this section we get clear on how you should start with your features, see whatvalue they present, roll it up into a value proposition, then see what part you shouldbe currently communicating to your customers.This leaves us with your positioning.Welcometo JargonLand!
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS52Features, Value Propositions and PositioningAn overviewPositioningValuePropositionFeatures,Benefits andImplicationsThe strongest and most persuasive thought we wish to beknown for in the customers’ mind. Informs our tone, languageand focus when discussing featuresEmotional and rational value to customersThe part of your valueproposition you currentlywish to communicateto achieve your comm’sobjectivesA summary of all the valueyou represent to yourcustomers in a statementComes from a thoroughunderstanding ofyour product, service,competitors and marketImportance/Resonance Rational/functional sales tool
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS53Features, Benefits and ImplicationsBefore you can decide on your positioning you must first gain a very thorough understanding of what makes your product or serviceso valuable and unique.Most businesses talk about the same things and forget to mention the things that make them truly different. If you’re competing witha giant in your category and talk about the same things, you’ll lose.You need to focus on what makes you different.Use the chart on the next two pages to note down exactly what your features, benefits and implications are.FOR FEATURES: Make your features as specific as possible. Don’t just say “quality”; you have to mention what makes the qualityso good: e.g. the source of ingredients; or that each staff member has four weeks specialist training; or that each product is handchecked on the production line. You don’t necessarily need to communicate all the features you list, but it’s great to have a full list.FOR BENEFITS: Make sure you’ve thought about it from the customers’ point of view.FOR IMPLICATIONS: Think about what is now possible in your customers’ lives that wasn’t previously. While product features areimportant, always remember that customers are not buying your product or service; they are buying the benefits they get from yourproduct or service.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS54How do you provide Value?Your business can add value to a customerin many different ways. Assess the abovedimensions (or ones we haven’t listed) andsee how you’re helping your customers out.SpeedService and deliveryLots of featuresNew or unique featuresGuaranteesPerformanceCustomisationCost savingsDerived from useValue for $Self-experience benefitsValueBenefitsLook and feel
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS55Value Proposition“A brand’s value proposition is a statement of the functional, emotional and self-expressivebenefits delivered by the brand that provide value to the customer.”A good way to explore your value proposition is to fill in the template below.To people who ... (target audience need-state), (product/service/company) is the (role it plays) that (reason to believe).In a world where it’s all a bit “too serious”, Coke is the catalystfor the young at heart to cut-free and experience summer, music,movement, and life.Coca-Cola Example:Value proposition: Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS56What do you do with Value Propositions?Positioning through to Strapline (Tagline)Not all businesses have or need a strapline/endline/tagline, however, all businessesshould have a positioning.Value Proposition:Why consumers buy, a summation of alltheir reasonsPositioning Line:Internal line that repositions the competitionand guides actionStrapline:Consumer expression of positioning line(optional)Bring out the inner sports star ineveryday people, every dayJust do it!NB: Don’t confuse with a Call To Action(which is a motivating statement designedto prompt a customer to the desired courseof action).Nike are always innovating to be onthe cutting edge of sports technology
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS57 Impulse gives me the confidence to explore and enjoy thesometimes bumpy journey into womanhood. As I experiment withthe emerging me, Impulse surrounds me with an energy field filledwith vitality, spontaneity and the courage to be myself.Value Proposition Example:Impulse
  • Value Proposition Example: JaguarThe difference between Jaguar and other cars runs deeper than sheet metal and engineering:It’s about soul, passion and originalityA jaguar is a copy of nothing... just like its owners
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS59Why do you need a positioning?We’ve seen how cluttered minds are and we’ve seen how the only way to build a brand isto get a rung in your customers’ mind.Positioning is about defining that single rung in your customers’ minds, in the category(the ladder) that you belong.It’s about figuring out the single thought or idea – “rung” – you want to own and thenfocusing on owning it.It must be true to you, relevant to your audience and must make it difficult for yourcompetition to compete.PositioningThe Battle foryour Mind“Positioning is about defining that single rung in your customers’ mind.”Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries & Jack Trout 1981
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS60Brand Identity and PositioningWhy?Differentiates versus competitionBrand Identity&PositioningGuides ExtensionOptionsGuides BrandStrategyImproves BrandMemorabilityInternal Focus for theOrganisationAdds to the Bottom Line:Provides a Consumer ValuePropositionBuilding Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS61The Battle for the MindSo it’s as simple as deciding which “rung” you’d like to own andtaking it from there, right? No way! Unfortunately there are afew barriers in the way...• Minds are limited• Minds hate confusion• Minds are insecure• Minds don’t change• Minds can lose focusOur perceptions are selective. And our memory is highlyselective. Harvard psychologist George Miller proposed thatonly seven “chunks” of information, like seven brands in acategory, can easily be held in short-term memory.Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries & Jack Trout 1981• 98% of all American homes have at least 1 television• 96% of all households can receive 4 or more channels(one-third can receive 10 or more)• The average American family watches television morethan 7 hours a day• One weekday edition of The New York Times containsmore information than the average person was likely tocome across in a lifetime in 17th century England• In Sweden, the average consumer receives 3,000commercial messages a day• Within 24 hours people forget up to 80% of what theythought they had learned`• And this was back in 1981; in the present day it’s evenmore cluttered.What does the battlefield look like?The mind
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS62Effective PositioningA quick quiz...• Who was Charles Peter Conrad?• What is the second highest mountain in Australia?• Who was the second man to fly solo across the Pacific?Well...• Charles Peter Conrad was the third man to walk on the moon• The second highest mountain in Australia is Mount Townsend in NSW• As for this...we’re still not sure even after trawling the Internet!!The point is...who really remembers number 2 or 3?The amount of ladders in your mind is very much limited, and the more “rungs” you cancommand the more interest you will hold.So, research suggests you can only retain about seven pieces of information in your short-term memory, and historical data shows that first brand to brain, on average, gets twicethe long-term market share as #2, and twice again as #3.So...who was the seventh man to walk on the moon?!Be a Market Leader ina smaller market!
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS63Determining a Brand PositionPositioning is about seeing what fits best and what holds your communications needstogether.PositioningPrinciplesHow is it done?Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996BrandPositioningBrand IdentityHighlights of Customer ValuePropositionConsistent with your Brand EssenceBrand Image vs. IdentityStrategic ImperativesWhat do we need to do/own?AssociationsCategoryDefined clearlyComplementarySupplementaryCompetitionShare or GrowPredatory PositioningRelative or AbsoluteTarget AudienceSegmentsInsightsDrivers
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS64Positioning: USP and ESPYour positioning works at a brand building level.It may form the basis of a proposition for a communications brief, however, yourcommunications brief may be purely tactical and have a specific role that’s veryimmediate, i.e. it might not be ABOUT your positioning.It all depends on the purpose of the communication.Therefore, at this point it’s worthwhile cracking a few old chestnuts and looking at thetextbook Unique Selling Proposition and the newer Emotional Selling Proposition in thecontext of Positioning.USPPositioningESP
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS65USP: What is it?SPUPUSPSelling PropositionSomething that motivates the behaviour of critical mass but is not unique to the brand.E.g. News Corp have hard news, gossip, guides, reviews etc., but so do all the competitorsUnique PropositionA proposition that is unique to the brand but not sufficiently motivating to drive consumerbehaviour of critical mass.E.g. Facebook was started by Mark Zuckerberg, but that’s not why you joinedUnique Selling PropositionIs both unique and motivating to consumers. If you have one, this is gold. It’s a single thoughtthat will usually be used to drive your positioning.E.g. Pepsi tastes better than Coke in ¾ blind taste testsDavid Trott, CTS Advertising UK
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS66ESP: What is it?Examples:Coke = Refreshment (they have no USP other than taste which is extremely subjective. When blindresearched, ¾ people consistently prefer Pepsi but buy Coke anyway)Kleenex = Softness (can anyone truly say that Kleenex are softer, or better, tissues across the range?No, but it’s the leading brand anyway)BMW = Performance (realistically, for the money the new Audi’s are giving them a run on value andperformance, and at the same price point the Mercs are very good. Yet BMW are “sheer drivingpleasure”)It’s the ESP of these products, not a USP, that makes them sell. In some cases they have rationalsupports for this, but nothing that is motivational enough and unique on its own.ESPEmotional Selling PropositionAn Emotional Selling Propositioning captures a relevant emotion that drives consumer behaviour.N.B. A brand can own a single emotion within a category
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS67USP & ESPworking together:KleenexDavid Trott, CTS Advertising UK
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS68Positioning: How is it done?The basic positioning approach is not to create something new and different but tomanipulate what’s already up there in the mind; to retie the connections that alreadyexist.So how is positioning done? You position a product in the mind of the prospect.E.g. “Avis is only No. 2 in rent-a-cars, so why go with us? We try harder.”Sometimes positioning can be confused with simply trying to change people’s minds.The lesson to be learnt here is:Mind-changing is the road to advertising disaster“We’re better than our competitors” isn’t repositioning. It’s comparative advertising andgenerally not very effective.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS69Developing a Brand PositionPositioning a brand starts with a simple piece of marketresearch called a “Top-of-Mind” Awareness (TOMA) survey.The basis of brand positioning begins by discovering:1. The current position of your brand2. The position of your competitors’ brand(s)3. Where you want to be positioned4. What you need to do to get thereTrue tothe brandDifferent fromeverything elseRelevant &desirable totarget marketTheSweetSpot
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS70Positioning PrinciplesCustomers act on perceptions, not market factsWhat people believe is very strongly influenced by past experiences and beliefsMinds are limitedCompanies must only focus on the few important things in customers’ mindsMinds are hard to changeEverything a company does creates an image in the customers’ mind which is verydifficult to erase or changeBe first,Be competitive,Be clear
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS71Positioning: A work over timeWhile positioning is the part of your value proposition that you currently wish tocommunicate, it might change with time.That said, you’d want a very good reason to change it (i.e. a fundamentalchange in market conditions).This is because it’s bloody hard to be known for anything (good that is), andonce you’ve spent time and money on a positioning, you want to think long andhard before moving.The following case studyis a great example of thelong-term commitment thatpositioning entails...
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS72Back in 1974, BMW sold 15,007 automobiles in theAmerican market, which made the brand the 11thlargest-selling European vehicle.The following year, BMW’s new agency, AmmiratiPuris AvRutick, launched an advertising campaignthat would make both the agency and the brandfamous: “The Ultimate Driving Machine.”It’s been 31 years since the launch of the ultimatedriving machine. So how is BMW doing? Not bad.Last year BMW was the largest-selling Europeanbrand in the American market.BMW Case StudyThe Ultimate Driving MachinePositioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries & Jack Trout 1981
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS73BMW: The Ultimate Driving Machine cont...The importance of positioning longevityOne of the most important conceptual ideas in marketing is “owning a word in the mind”. In almost every market, in almost everycategory, the leading brands are brands that can be identified by a single word or concept. BMW owns “driving”. Mercedes-Benz owns“prestige”. Volvo owns “safety”.1974 Top 10European cars in US market1. Volkswagen 334,5152. Capri 75,2603. Fiat 72,0294. Opel 59,2795. Volvo 53,0436. Audi 50,4327. Mercedes-Benz 38,1708. MG 25,0159. Porsche 21,02210. Triumph 18,39611. BMW 15,0072005 Top 10European cars in US market1. BMW 266,2002. Mercedes-Benz 224,2693. Volkswagen 224,1954. Volvo 123,5875. Audi 83,0666. Land Rover 46,1757. Mini 40,8208. Porsche 31,9339. Jaguar 30,42410. Bentley 3,654The Ultimate DrivingMachine11th 1stPositioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries & Jack Trout 1981
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS74Be RelevantBut what does this mean?• Consumers don’t have NEEDS anymore – these are all being met• They have many DON’T NEEDS• And occasionally they have WANTSYou need to be the solution for aneed,not a solution looking for a need.How is this done?Your UNIQUE SELLINGPROPOSITIONBeing remarkable for remarkable’s sake is flash-in-the-pan rubbish. The fire burns brightfor all the wrong reasons and the brand (and the business) tend to disappear very rapidly.Remarkablilty without relevance is showboating.If you have both, you have outstanding marketing.A warning
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS75Be a challengerThe web is a wonderful thing. It has opened us up to an audience of billions of people,however, it’s also put us into direct competition with trillion pound gorillas like Google!Therefore, every business should ask themselves what Google will do when it comes timeto enter their category... and don’t be so cocky as to think you’re safe. If it’s not Google, itmight be Apple, Walmart, Woolworths, Telstra, Harvey Norman or Amazon – the list goes on.We might think we’re big in our category, but what happens if a true giant enters? How willwe compete then?The solutionThe solution... think like a challenger. No matter where we are in the market we can takeon a challenger mindset, make ourselves competitive and defend our patch from whoeverwalks through the door.The leader on challenger thinking is Adam Morgan (see his model on next page). Buy hisbooks and sign up to whatever he’s selling, he’s a genius!ChallengerBrandsBuilding aChallenger Brand“Take on a challenger mindset, make ourselves competitive and defendour patch.”
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS76Positioning as a Challenger BrandA 4-Stage ProcessEating the Big Fish: How Challenger Brands Can Compete Against Brand Leaders, Adam MorganYou can download a summary from his website www.eatbigfish.comSTAGE 1: Attitude & PreparationSTAGE 2: Challenger StrategySTAGE 3: Challenger BehaviourSTAGE 4: Sustaining Challenger MomentumBreak with immediate pastBuild a lighthouse identityAssume thought leadershipfor the categoryCreate symbols ofre-evaluationSacrifice OverCommitmentUse Advertising/PRas a high leverage assetBecome idea centric
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS77• We believe that being a Challenger is a state of mind – not astate of market. Challenger thinking is as relevant for a marketleader as for a niche player• We believe that Intelligent Naivety – intelligently appliedinexperience – has changed the face of most of the categoriesaround us more profoundly than a lifetime of applied categoryexperience• We believe in values and belief based branding. That brandsshould have a strong point of view. That this internal compasshelps drive every decision they make• We believe that Challengers with this clear sense ofthemselves act like a Lighthouse. They take a stand, on solidfoundations, and intensely and consistently project their pointof view in everything they do. They encourage the consumer to“navigate” by by Adam MorganPositioning as a Challenger BrandEating the Big Fish: How Challenger Brands Can Compete Against Brand Leaders, Adam MorganYou can download a summary from his website• We believe that if you are not the market leader in thecategory, you have to be the Thought Leader• We believe that you have far more media at your disposal thanyou think you do. You are just not recognising them as mediaat the moment• We believe that innovation is embedded in a culture, not a sixsigma innovation funnel• We believe successful brands are idea centred – notconsumer centred. That momentum is the currency of aChallenger that sustains its appeal, and ideas are the fuel ofthat momentum• And finally, we believe that the Challenger model is thestrategic business model of the future
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS78The Positioning GameYou must have vision. There is no sense building a position based on a technology orproduct that is too narrow.You have to learn how to separate your efforts from the general movement of the economy.Today, only the obvious idea will work. The overwhelming volume of communicationprevents anything else from succeeding.The secret to establishing a successful position is to keep two things in balance:1. A unique position, with2. An appeal that’s not too narrowPositioningTraps“Only the obvious idea will work.”
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS79Positioning PitfallsMarketers generally don’t trust common sense as much as they trust some complexpiece of research.The problem is that you can get niched in the customers mind and limit your futureoptions if you follow them.Remember, don’t be cute or complex. Tell it like it is.Example:Volkswagen’s “Think small”Volvo’s “Drive Safely”Peter Drucker once wrote: “What business am I in? The question can be answeredonly by looking at the business from the outside, from the point of view of thecustomer and the market.”Positioning has to line up with the perceptions in the mind, not go against them.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS80RepositioningHas your company lost focus in the mind of the marketplace? It may be that it’stime for a repositioning.Have a look at one of the great success stories: Pork: “The Other White Meat”.This refreshed and invigorated a tired old stalwart.But why go to the effort?Because if you don’t change you become an easy target.How can it be done?• A complementary approach• Different names• Different positions• Different target audiences
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS81Minds are Hard to ChangeVolkswagen found it very difficult to convince people thatthe company was able to produce cars other than the small,reliable, economical car like the Beetle.It comes back to what we’re familiar with and what we’realready comfortable with.The consumer shouldn’t have to take too many mental steps.Easier said than done
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES83Carl Jung distinguished that every society evercreated shared knowledge via stories.In the stories are characters. The interesting thingis the characters in the stories are the SAME!It didn’t matter if it was a Hollywood movie or anIndonesian pygmy hill-tribe, the same characterskept on popping up.It’s the way we store as humans we have an innatefiling cabinet. A way we store and sort charactersand their attributes.So if a brand’s role is to be remembered, thentapping into this filing system is a massive headstart...There is argument as to whether there are 12 or 16archetypes. Our model uses 12, although we throwa couple of extras in later.BrandArchetypes
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES84Brand ArchetypesArchetypes are historic truths that capture differenttypes of human characteristics.Archetypes have existed ever since humansstarted telling stories.Archetypes are personified symbols that allowthe conscious mind to identify with, or access,subconscious desires, meanings and truths.Brand archetypes go beyond stating productfeatures and benefits to connect with the customerin a deep and profoundly meaningful way.A stereotype is simply a perceived set of valuesattached to a person or product.Brands rooted in cultural-specificnorms are simplistic and undefinedBrands rooted in universal andeternal truths are rich and distinctiveStereotypeE.g. SNAGS1980’s Sensitive New Age Guy(He’s long gone and themetrosexual now reigns)ArchetypeE.g. Virgin/DomestosThe difference between Stereotypesand Archetypes
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES88KnowledgeReassuranceAnti-EstablishmentExcitementLeadership ConfidenceTrust Partnership
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES89KnowledgeReassuranceAnti-EstablishmentExcitementLeadership ConfidenceTrust Partnership
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES903-Step Tool to Finding your Archetype1. Find archetype(s) that you want to project yourself as – you can have up to 3.Think about historic/credibility. Decide on a Core – your essence, and decide ona Future – the influencer that will shape you as you evolve.Find Iconic Archetype1Define Nuances and Refine2Continually Contemporise32. Place no more than 4 descriptive words around any one archetype that youwould like to project. Make sure the words are not inconsistent with the essenceof that archetype.3. Review at least once a year and look at the language, cues, associations andcelebrities that best represent your archetype. You want to be contemporary;as society evolves the expression of our archetype might change, whilst theunderlying values and nature probably shouldn’t.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES913-Step Tool to Finding your ArchetypeCoreArchetypeClarifierClarifierClarifier ClarifierInfluencerArchetypeInfluencer
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES92An Archetype Example: FutureThreadCoreInfluencerInfluencerWe are an expert alliance of businessprovocateurs (visionaries)Brand Essence:The vision that business visionaries needMission:We are the agent provocateurs that CEOsturn to for the radical shifts required toproduce radical profitsExperience:Makes me feel: ballsy, inspired,courageous, edgy and smart.Says I’m: a progressive visionary who isopen to ideas and who is ahead of thegameAdvertising Line:World’s Next PracticeAn Example:
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES93Additional ArchetypesAs discussed earlier, there is an argument as to how many archetypes there actually are. Some additional archetypes that aren’talways included in the first 12 are shown here.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND ARCHETYPES95What do I do with my Archetype?Now that you have a better understanding of who you are, use your archetype’s personality traits as a check for every time you create apiece of communication. Ask yourself the question: Is this how my archetype would speak? Is this the kind of language my archetypewould use? Is this the kind of place my archetype would be found?If you find yourself doing anything out of character then you will need to refine the message to ensure itfits in with your archetype’s personality. Remember: consistency is key.
  • NAMING BRANDSTricks and Traps
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSNAMING BRANDS97A good name...A good name can pair your business with a need and then set off the positioning processin your customers’ mind. Every time they hear, read or speak your brand they will bereminded of that need, and the association between the need and your brand will grow.The problem is that sometimes the brand name can become outdated but difficult tochange. Sub-branding can be used to lock an old brand to a new product, and way ofthinking, without changing the whole name.Names,Names,Names!“Every time they hear, read or speak your brand they will bereminded of that need.”Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries & Jack Trout 1981
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSNAMING BRANDS98The Power of the NameThe name is the hook that hangs the brand on the product ladder in the prospect’s mind.In the positioning era, the single most important marketing decision you can make is whatto name the product.The name of the product should never become too close to the product itself as it willbecome generic – a name for all products of its class rather than a trade name for aspecific brand. When this happens, the brand name becomes a surrogate or substitutefor the generic name – “Grab the Esky and the Thermos” – and your brand champions thewhole category, rather than just itself.One name can’t stand for two distinctly different products. When one gains in popularitythe other invariably must go down.An experiment using two equally beautiful girls demonstrated that beauty is only namedeep. The girls were named Jennifer and Gertrude and a group were asked to vote onwhich woman was prettier.The results showed that 158 people said that Jennifer was prettier while Gertrude onlyreceived 39 votes. The name “Gertrude” seemed an unpleasant sound that distortedpeople’s views on things*.So the lesson is that your headlines should sound good as well as look good. The rhymeor rhythm of the words can be powerful memory devices.* apologies to all Gertrudes!Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries & Jack Trout 1981
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSNAMING BRANDS99The Ear and the EyeDon’t forget that a brand’s name is more than just what they see. Your brand will need tobe as easily recognisable and memorable when heard as it is when seen. A customer’srelationship with a brand is through the eye and the ear.Consider this...• People remember more words if they hear the words than if they see them• The mind holds spoken words in storage much longer, enabling you to follow the trainof thought with greater clarity• 35% of meaning from a spoken word depends on the tone in which it is said• You see what you hear, what the sound has led you to expect to see, not what the eyetells you it has seen
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSNAMING BRANDS100How the Ear Failed......the Shawshank RedemptionThe Shawshank Redemption was a terrific movie. To its financial backers, it seemedto have everything going for it: interesting plot written by Stephen King, talentedcast – Morgan Freeman and Tim Robbins – well produced, beautifully crafted and itreceived 7 Oscar nominations!So imagine their disappointment when it bombed at the box office!But why? Because the name sucked!“Shawshank Redemption? Huh? What’s that about?” said millions of cinema goers,“Let’s go see Speed instead – the one with Keanu Reeves and Sandra Bullock gettingtogether on a speeding bus!”The problem is that most names have already been chosen by someone else! In theUS there are about 1.6 million registered trademarks, and another 3 million in Europe.Nine out of ten times you’ll find that the name you search for has already been taken!The problem with good names
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSNAMING BRANDS101So How do you Choose a Good Name?The name and the positioning tend to workhand-in-hand. It’s always best to consider bothtogether (see “Positioning” section). Between thenames and your positioning line you should becommunicating what you stand for to customers.The below helps you explore the dimensions thatthis opens up.Credible& ClearCut-through& EdgyClear Name&Clear Positioning=UnremarkableCut-through Name&Cut-through Positioning=Lack of CredibilityCut-through NameClear Positioning(Most effective!)Clear NameCut-through Positioning(Most effective!)
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSNAMING BRANDS102Give a dog a good name, and it will answer..but remember, a good name does not equal a good business. You canstill have a great business with a bad name and be successful, and youcan have the best name in the world without having a good business.True success lies when you couple a great name with a great business.Give a Doga GoodName!
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND PROTECTION AND STRENGTH104Even if you just skim through some of the brands at the front of thisbook you’ll be able to see how much some brands are worth.In a business sense they can be summarised as the intangible value of a stock beyond itsnet assets.Some examples are Nokia worth over $26 billion, Sony over $12 billion and KFC and PizzaHut (both YUM restaurants) combining to be over $10 billion.With this sort of money at stake it’s clear why the big brands are happy to pay bigagencies the big bucks to make sure they’re getting the best advice on the market.The following presents the case for why spending time and money on developing yourbrand through marketing can be the difference between profits and failure.Protectingyour Value
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND PROTECTION AND STRENGTH105Real Brand ValueBrand Protection, The EconomistCoke’s Market CapIncluding Brand Value:$120 BillionCoke’s Market CapNot Including Brand Value:$50 BillionIt’s easy to see why brand isimportant:Without the brand, Coca-Cola’sbottle would be half empty!
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND PROTECTION AND STRENGTH106Brand StrengthBRAND driven purchases 84%:• Insurance• Luxury Cars• Banks• PerfumeMillward Brown, BrandZ UK 2007, 33 categories,500+ brands, 6000+ consumers84%6%10% }}}Other purchases59%6%10%25%}}Goods bought on price aloneGoods bought on strength ofbrand} Bought for other reasons} Compromise between brandand pricePRICE driven purchases 10%:• Utilities• Mineral Water• Apparel• FuelThe below documents the purchasing drivers for a variety of products bought in the UK. It highlights how perception, created by brand,is the most important factor in purchasing decisions.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND PROTECTION AND STRENGTH107Value to ConsumersValue to consumers is notbased on price aloneMillward Brown, BrandZ UK 2007, 33 categories,500+ brands, 6000+ consumers65%35% } Price elated} NOT price relatedWhen you look at the breakdown below, the majority of purchases are not based on price at all – which means that 65% of purchases arerelated to how strong your brand actually is.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND PROTECTION AND STRENGTH108Short-Term Benefit and Long-Term RiskThe next two pages give us a long-term case studylooking at the importance of marketing, particularly duringrecession. During recession it is tempting to cut themarketing budget in order to “save money”. The belowgraph shows what happens to overall profits with varyinglevels of marketing spend...When you compare this against the table below you cansee that cutting the marketing budget doesn’t actuallysave you any money in the long run – in fact, you can endup taking 5 years just to recover to usual profit levels.The lesson to be learnt? Brand Buildingis a long term view.ROI defined as the incrementsin revenue generated fromadvertising per unit of spendData2DecisionsProfit when marketing budget is maintainedProfit with zero advertising for 1 year, then back to usual budgetProfit with half advertising for 1 year, then back to usual budgetProfitTimeZero Budget (year 1)Half Budget (year 1)Budget Saved Sales Foregone Profit Foregone Bottom-line Loss Time to Recover$1.8m$0.9m$8.6m$4.3m$3.5m$1.7m$1.7m$0.8m5 years3 years
  • BRAND EXTENSIONSTheories and Explanations
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS110You may think that you have a strong brand. However, the true strength of a brand onlyshows up in the face of strong competition. This might be an entrant into a market ortechnology change.Think about Nudie (Innocent Smoothies UK) bringing the values of the “Innocent”archetype and completely transforming the category.Think about Sony Walkman and the introduction of the iPod.Think about Nokia and the introduction of the iPhone.As marketers we need to take great care to understand how strong and vulnerable ourbrands and products REALLY are.HowStrong ismy Brand?“The true strength of a brand only shows up in the face ofstrong competition.”
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS111Leveraging your BrandThe “family tree” of brand extensionBuilding Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996Line Extensionsin existingProduct ClassStretching theBrand Verticallyin existingProduct ClassBrandExtensionsin differentProduct ClassCo-BrandingLeveragingtheBrandStretchingDownStretchingUpAd Hoc BrandExtensionsCreating aRange Brand
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS112Line ExtensionExtending a brand name to other forms and varieties ofthe original product that offer the same benefit and usagebehaviour e.g. Gillette, NescafeTypes of ExtensionsBrand ExtensionExtending a brand name to other products in other marketsegments e.g. Virgin, YamahaVS.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS113Line ExtensionThe rules to not disrupt your house brand1. Expected volume Potentially huge brands should not bear the house name so that they can stand ontheir own. Small-volume products should.2. Competition In a vacuum, where the brand doesn’t need to stand out, the brand should not bear thehouse name. In a crowded field, it should.3. Advertising Support Big-budget brands should not bear the house name so their message can stand alone.Small-budget brands should.4. Significance Breakthrough products should not bear the household name in order to minimisedisruption. Commodity products such as chemicals should.5. Off-the-shelf items Should not bear the house name. Items sold by sales reps should.Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries and Jack Trout 1981
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS114Brand ExtensionWhen it can work1. Generally, the more things a brand stands for, the weaker it becomes. For somebrands, however, the brand is powerful and versatile enough to enter a completely newcategory.2. It’s useful to ask why a brand exists and therefore what it can bring to a new category3. The factors of production efficiencies, distribution, customer awareness, loyalty andcompetitive set should all be carefully reviewed before forming an opinion on whetherthe brand is right for the new category.4. Virgin’s essence of “David slaying Goliaths wherever they sleep” makes it the king ofx-category brand extensions, adding value for staff and customers alike.5. That said, it’s reputed that over half of Virgin’s new category launches never make it, sothis strategy should be treated with caution.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS115To Extend or Not to Extend?Brand extensions can strengthen a business as they provide new revenue streams,new news and new ways to enjoy the brand,BUT...A new product will weaken a brand as it now stands for more things – the more thingssomething stands for the less brand strength it has.As marketers we need to be very strategic in deciding:whether to launch a new product under an existing brand (leveraging its strength/butrisking its dilution of equity)VS.the challenges of establishing a new brand (and the low success rates launches have)Launch a newproduct under anexisting brandVS.Establish a newbrand
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS116New Brands VS. ExtensionsWhen to use whichIn a large scale test it was proven that brand extensions did not perform as well as products launched with new brand names.But what other options do you have?More brandextensionsLessFocusLessSales= =
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS117Compete with Yourself!Don’t slaughter tomorrow’s opportunity on the altar of yesterday!Having a competitive streak within your business is always good; sometimes it is good to extend this competition to the marketplace.Gillette use brands to compete against themselves.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS118Life After the 30-Second Spot, Joseph Jaffe 2005Colgate’s enormous line extension creates confusionand an excess of choice. Conversely, they have awall of Colgate in a supermarket that’s hard to ignore.This might be due to lack of a very strong competitor.Example: ColgateBRAND EXTENSIONS
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS119Overview of Growth through Brand ExtensionSingle Brand Product Line Extension Category Extension Business ExtensionEvian ColgateWhitening Tartar ControlDoveDeodorant Hair CareVirginShower Gel Mobile Phones Credit Cards
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS120The Problem of ExtensionsMinds can lose focus!Remember our clothes hook example? Well the same can happen within a brand.For Example:Budweiser has brought out 15 new products – do you even know which one youhave in mind?Unchecked product line expansion can weaken a brand’s image, disturb traderelations and disguise cost increases.The more variations you attach to the brand, the more the mind loses focus, themore you lose focus and the more vulnerable you become.In most cases the specialist or the well-focused competitor is the winner as theycan focus on one product, one benefit, one message. The specialist also has theability to be perceived as the expert or the best.Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, Al Ries & Jack Trout 1981
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS121Brand GlossaryParent Brand • Key driver of preference and conviction• Key source of brand equity• Purchase consolidatorHeinz, CadburyDriver Brand • Driver brand is purchase driver• Driver brand has its own personality independentof the parent brandiPod - part of Apple but stands on its ownSub-Brand • Sub-brand is a secondary driver• Sub-brand has its own personality, akin to a siblingof the parent brand• Sub-brand does not have to be descriptiveArnotts SavoysRange Descriptor • Range descriptor primarily describes a productrange for ease of navigation• Often not trademark-able due to its descriptivenatureContinental Cup-a-SoupProduct Descriptor • Product descriptor simply describes a producttype for ease of selectionEssential Herbs and SpicesTerm Definition Example
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS122This model illustrates that any single purchase decision is amix of master brand appeal and individual product features(sub-brands). Understanding what it is and what it should behelps a marketer plan for messaging hierarchy.Communicationand BrandRelationshipsMaster BrandSub-Brand/IndividualProduct FeaturesPurchaseDecision
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS123Brand Relationship SpectrumA different approach to Brand ManagementBranded HouseSingle brand acrossorganisationIBMVirginNokiaShare HouseEndorsed brandsMicrosoftAppleSonyMcDonald’sHouse of Brands Proctor & GambleGSKUnileverTypes of Brand Organisation BrandWindowsiPodWalkmanBig MacPampersNicabateLuxIndividual BrandBrandParentBrand
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS124Brand Relationship SpectrumBranded HouseSame Identity DifferentIdentitySub-BrandMaster Brandas DriverCo-DriverDESKJETEndorsed BrandsStrongEndorsementLinked Name TokenEndorsementBYHouse of BrandsShadowEndorserNot ConnectedG.D SearleStar Co-Star Support Role Backstage
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS125“Master Brand” Casting - An Alternative ViewStar:SoloDriver: master brand,with product descriptorHeinz as the master brandCo-Star:The LeadHeinz as master brand with Organic asdescriptorCo-Star:Equal BillingHeinz and Alphaghetti togetherSupport Role:Back-upBaked beans endorsed by Heinz masterbrandSupport Role:Minor CameoEZ Squirt sub-brand consolidated underHeinz master brandDriver: master brand,but range descriptor adds somethingDriver: master & sub-brandPrimary/Secondary, roughly 50/50Driver: master as endorserDriver: Sub-brandmaster brand consolidates
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND EXTENSIONS126Brand Life StageWhat are the classifications?Cash cows are units with high market share in a slow-growing industry. They typicallygenerate cash in excess of the amount needed to maintain the business.Dogs are units with low market share in a mature, slow-growing industry. These unitstypically “break even”, generating barely enough cash to maintain the business’smarket share.Question marks are growing rapidly and thus consume large amounts of cash, butbecause they have low market shares do not generate much cash.Stars are units with a high market share in a fast-growing industry. The hope is thatstars become the next cash cows.QuestionMarksDogsCash CowsStarsBusiness ReturnPositive (+)Negative (-) - BCG Growth Matrix
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING128The head of P&G, the world’s largest advertiser, once famously said, “I know half of myadvertising is completely wasted, I just don’t know which half.”Just as consumer decision making is very complex, the way marketing works in totality iscomplex too.So as well as tracking each individual element, we also need to take a look at the biggerpicture and look how they work in combination to build value in our businesses andbrands.Tracking can be a minefield, and difficult to do, so the following are ways to quantify yourmarketing.BrandPulse“I know half of my advertising is completely wasted, I just don’t knowwhich half.”
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING129ObjectivesWhat is the aim of your marketing?• Sales volume• Margin• Brand awareness• Advertising awareness (both spontaneous and prompted)• Brand image• Brand predisposition (likelihood to buy)• Recall of advertising• Recall of claims made by the advertising• Recognition of unbranded ads and the degree to which they are attributed to the correct advertiserBefore you try to accurately measure anything, you need to be sure you’re actually looking at the right thing.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING130Value EquationValue(Perceived)PriceBenefit=Price Elasticity - A measure of the change in demand in response to a change in price ofa product or service. Low price elasticity indicates little change in demand; high elasticityindicates a relatively large change in demand.Having a low price elasticity is a wonderful goal to have as a marketer. The ability to putyour price up and not lose demand indicates you’ve built significant value in your brandand differentiated from your competitors strongly.We’ve seen the lows of things like the Pizza Wars where Dominos, Eagle Boys and PizzaHut all just undercut each other until margin was gone. None of them has sufficientelasticity to protect their bottom lines.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING131Brand DifferentialsBrand Preference - The measure of brand loyalty in which a consumer willchoose a particular brand in the presence of competing brands, but will acceptsubstitutes if that brand is not available.BrandPreferenceBrandEquityBrand Equity - The added value a brand name identity brings to a product orservice beyond the functional benefits provided.VS.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING132Brand Equity - Ten Measures1. Price Premium2. Satisfaction/Loyalty3. Perceived Quality4. Leadership/Popularity5. Perceived Value6. Brand Personality7. Organisational Associations8. Brand Awareness9. Market share10. Market Price and Distribution CoverageIn his book, David identifies the factorsthat correlate most highly to brand equity.Not all brand attributes affect equityequally. Leadership, innovation andperceived quality actually correlate thestrongest and are stand-out for thosetrying to build value in their brand.Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996{Loyalty Measures{Perceived Quality/Leadership Measures{Awareness Measures {Associations/Differentiation MeasuresMarket Behaviour Measures {
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING133Interbrand’s Top BrandsInterbrand is a methodology which uses a set of criteria looking at the businessprospects of the brand, brand market, as well as customer perception. Theevaluation uses 7 influences:Leadership - reflects against the leader brand in the marketStability - the longevity, power and value of the brandMarket - the strength of the market in which the brand residesInternational - the global reach that the brand hasTrend - the overall long-term trend of the brand in terms of salesSupport - the consistency of investment and supportProtection - the strength of the brand’s legal trademarkInterbrand uses its brand ratings to determine a multiplier to apply to earnings.Building Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING134Recognition of a BrandBuilding Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996Whether or not a customer recalls yourbrand can be the deciding factor in gettingon a shopping list or receiving a chance tobid on a contract.Niche brands fall below the line becausethey are not known to a substantial group ofconsumers, causing low recognition.Dynamics of brands in the upper-middleor upper-right part of the graph can beimportant predictors of the brand’s futurehealth.LowLow HighHighRecallBenefit ZoneRecognitionxNiche BrandBrandGraveyardRecognition VS. Recall: The Graveyard Model
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING135Top of Mind vs. Spontaneous AwarenessTop-of-mind awareness = are you the first brand thought of when someone mentions aparticular category?Spontaneous awareness = the other brands thought of when someone mentions aparticular category, which do not require a prompt to be remembered. E.g. When someonementions toothpaste, what do you think? Probably Colgate. This means Colgate has top-of-mind awareness. You probably next think of Macleans, meaning they have spontaneousawareness, but not top-of-mind awareness (for most people).Top-of-mind awareness = brand salience and is an important purchase driver, especially inimpulse categories e.g: snacks.Total spontaneous awareness = a brand’s ability for recognition, which is important inestablishing trust and removing risk associated, facilitating an easier purchase.There is a quasi exponential relationship between the two. Bigger brands are generallyon the steeper part of the curve, therefore extracting greater benefit. If you can raiseyour awareness across one of these parameters then you will gain an advantage acrossboth, sending you up the curve and therefore growing your brand. Once you are aleader, increasing either of these parameters will result in almost exponential gain for gainincrease.A couple of things to remember:• Top-of-mind is important especially for impulse brands and snacks.• It’s not linear. The bigger you are in spontaneous awareness the easier it is to shift top-of-mind measures.U. van de Sandt/Ammirati Puris Lintas 1999Spontaneous AwarenessTop-of-mindAwarenessLowLowHighHigh
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING136Building Strong BrandsMuir and Miller propose an alternative model toidentify brand strength and opportunity in their bookThe Business of Brands.Affinity - “It’s my kind of brand”Challenge - ‘A brand that is making waves; challengingexisting orthodoxy’Fame - ‘The most famous brand in the category’Price - ‘A brand that offers very good value for money’Difference between weak and strong brandsAffinityChallengeFamePriceThe Business of Brands, Jon Miller & David Muir 2009
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING137Brand Ranking and Research ToolsAn international branding consultancy with 40 offices in 24 countries. Interbrand designeda methodology which put a value on the financial benefit of owning a brand. Interbrandannually release a ranking of the best global brands by value.Interbrand( brand equity database that holds data for over 23,000 brands over 31 countries. Thedatabase is used to estimate brand valuations and generate annual lists of top brands.Australia’s largest independently owned research company with offices in each state.It is considered to be the authoritative source (or “currency”) of information on financialbehaviour, readership, voting intention and consumer confidence.Brand Asset Valuator - a tool created by Young & Rubicam (Y&R) used to measure brandequity across products.450 global brands and more than 8,000 local brands in 24 countrieswere measured. The measures were broken into:Differentiation - measures how distinctive the brand is in the marketplaceRelevance - measures whether a brand is meaningful to the respondentEsteem - measures whether a brand is highly regarded or the best in its classKnowledge - a measure of understanding as to what a brand stands forBrandZ( Morgan Research( by Total Research and based on a simple set of brand equity questions:Salience - the percentage of respondents who have an opinion of the brandPerceived quality - measures quality and usage associated with priceUser satisfaction - the average quality rating a brand receives among consumers who usethe brand oftenEquitrend(
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TRACKING1387 Online Brand Monitoring ToolsShows who has mentioned you on Twitter without a bookmark. This will make it simple toget tweets about any link.Backtweets (Free)( you all of the conversation from various social media services e.g. WordPress,Blogger, FriendFeed, surrounding a post or article.Keeps track of conversations that mention you, your products, your company or anykeyword you like with hourly updates. You can even keep track of who’s tweeting yourwebsite or blog.A more comprehensive brand-monitoring solution for your business with more advancedstatistics about your keywords and mentions.Backtype Connect (Free)( / Twilert (Free)( (Free Trial Version) /SM2 (Free) / Radian 6 (Paid)(
  • BRAND TOOLSWe encourage you to use these tools in your internal workshopand brainstorming sessions. We just ask that you leave thesource reference on all pages as credit.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS140Business Model CanvasKey Partners Key Activities ValuePropositionCustomerRelationshipsCustomerSegmentsKey Resources ChannelsCost Structures Revenue StreamsBusiness Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur 2010and co-created by an amazing crowd of 470 practitioners from 45 countries
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS141Asset SaleThe most widely understood revenue stream derives from selling ownership rights to a physicalproductUsage FeeWays to generate Revenue Streams7 Ways to Generate Revenue StreamsThis revenue stream is generated by the use of a particular serviceThe more a service is used, the more a customer paysSubscription FeeThis revenue stream is generated by selling continual access to a service. An example of thiswould be a gym who offers access to their facilities for a membership feeLending, Renting,LeasingThis revenue stream is created by temporarily granting someone the exclusive right to a particularasset for a fixed period in return for a feeLicensingThis revenue stream is generated by giving customers permission to use protected intellectualproperty in exchange for licensing feesBrokerage FeesThis revenue stream derives from intermediation services performed on behalf of two or moreparties. An example would be a real estate agent earning commission every time they match aseller and a buyerAdvertisingThis revenue stream results from fees for advertising a particular product or serviceMedia industries, event organisers and software services rely heavily on advertising revenues
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS142Brand Potential AnalysisProduct ShareLeaderEntrantLargeSmallMarketSizeSnapshotBrand StrengthLovedIrrelevantGrowthDeclineMarketMomentumPredictionDerived from Boston Consulting Group modelling, these two tools help assess a brand’spotential when allocating marketing resources across a portfolio. Used in conjunction, thesnapshot gives a point of view on the current status whereas the prediction looks at thepotential of a brand.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS143Business Growth Plan© Copyright 2010 All rights reserved by Step Change Marketing in perpetuityBrand Essence:Mission: Key Messages: Experience: Personality:Credibility and Symbols: Customer Value Proposition:Predatory Positioning:Advertising Line:
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS144Business Growth Plan: Our Example© Copyright 2010 All rights reserved by Step Change Marketing in perpetuityBrand Essence:To give every growing business the marketing leverage thatwas once only available to big businessMission: Experience: Personality: Visual Identity:Credibility and Symbols: Customer Value Proposition:Predatory Positioning:Advertising Line:Ambitious owner operators whoare looking to marketing to helpthem make a step changeSharing the secrets of maximum marketing leverageWe make customers feel likethey know the big secrets andresassure them that they’ve gotthe very bestExperiencedChallengersInnovativeStrategicTrust marks: Over 40 yearscombined brand experienceTone: Vibrant building blocksThe world’s most powerful marketing toolOver 40 years of proven brand experienceWe actually work on your plan with youThe leverage to grow
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS145Turning Brand Essence Inside-Out© Copyright 2010 All rights reserved by Step Change Marketing in perpetuityBrand EssenceInternal CultureValues and BeliefMissions and MethodExternal CultureWho are the companyrepresentatives?How to representthe companyCustomerExperienceRewardingBrandExperienceConsistencyStaffImpactCustomerImpactUnifyingCreates focusPrideLoyaltyStaff retentionStaff satisfactionExpectations areset and metGuide actionsGuide style and toneConsistency and Clarityleads to:Repeat purchaseCustomer advocacyA brand can affect many dimensions of your business beyond just external communications. The below maps out someof these opportunities.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS146A Mind Mapping ToolThe BrandQualityServiceValueBrandsProductsPrior to undertaking any brandarchitecture or positioning work itmight be useful to lay out and mindmap around certain attributes aslisted above. This process will helpidentify gaps (if any).
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS147Mind Mapping Example: McDonald’sBuilding Strong Brands, David A. Aaker 1996ValuePricingPortion sizePromotionsServiceConsistentConvenientHassle-freeFastCleanMealsProductsBreakfastBurgersFriesDrinksQualityFreshConsistentGood tastingHotBrandsBig MacMcMuffinSocial InvolvementCharitiesRonald McDonald HouseKids, Fun, FamilyFriendly/WarmHappy Meal ToysBirthday PartiesPlaygroundRonald McDonald
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS148Ogilvy & MatherA to ZA Word BankThis method involves using word association to articulate suppressed feelings and emotions.It can be used in addition to Brand Audit to enrich vocabulary e.g. BMW (New Zealand).How it works1. Generate word associations for the brand beginning with the letter A and write themdown, then for the letter B, then for letter C etc., etc. to Z2. Review your Word Bank3. Select one association for each letter4. Write a summary
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS149A to Z: BMW ExampleA Adult Active Arrogant Ambitious AchievementB Blitzkrieg Bold Ballsy BetterC Cultured Classic Confident Conservative CompetitiveD Drivable Dynamic Discerning Drive meE Envy Energetic Engineered Expensive EliteF Flat out Fast FashionableG Grunt German Glamour GoalH Handling Harmony High-tech HotI Independent Individual Intelligent Integrity ImportantJ Jumping Jive JazzK Kraut King Killer KnowledgeL Look out Lover Luxury Long term LeaderM Modern Muscle Manly Meticulous Me
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS150BMW Example cont...N Noticed Notorious Not old Nurtured NuanceO Overt OverdriveP Prestigious Passionate Pride PleasureQR Revs Refined Red ReliableS Suave Stylish Sleek SilentT Trustworthy Thrusting Tailored Throaty TorqueU Unbeatable Unique UnderstandV Vamp Vibrant Virile Verve ValuesW Wealth Wayward Wish WantonX Xcuse me SeXy Xciting Xuberant XcellenceY Youth Young Yearn YesZ 0-100 Zoom Zealot Zippy
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS151BMW Example23BMW Example cont..BMW ExampleWe saw a BMW as:• Having power under control• A feeling of superiority achieved by being the tamer of a powerful, passionate beast• A perfect sense of harmony and balance in a car which has pure power and passion under its skinA to Z:Arrogant, Aspirational, Ballsy, Bold, Comfort, Classy, Confident, Demanding,Discerning, Exclusive, Engineered, Fashion, Glamour, Hot, Individual, Intelligent,Jazz, Killer, Lovers, Manly, Not old, Not slow, Overt, Passionate, Quality, Red, Sleek,(Tailored), Unique, Virile, Wealth, Xciting, Yearning, Zealot
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS153Positioning MatrixCopyright Thought Leaders LTDThis tool is especially useful for B2Bbusinesses and those that have an elementof face2face introductions.ObsessionWhat lights you up?UniquenessWhat sets youapart?PurposeExplain how whatyou do helps themget on with whatthey doCategoryPick something theyalready know aboutHistoryEdit out theirrelevant bitsAnalogyHow is it likesomething theyunderstand?ProblemsSpeak to their innerthoughts, state aconcern they wouldidentify withExamplesUse case studies,comparisons,and past clients/experiencesPackagesTalk about someof the ideas youalready haveLowMediumHighYou It ThemFocusEnergy
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS154Positioning Matrix: Step Change ExampleCopyright Thought Leaders LTDObsessionBig Secrets,Big GrowthUniquenessThe secrets of bigbusiness marketingnow available forgrowing businessesPurposeThe world’s mostpowerful marketingtool for achievingbusiness growthCategoryThe Robin Hoods ofMarketingHistory40+ years crackingthe marketingcampaigns for theworld’s best brands inAustralia and the UKAnalogyMarketing mapand compass forbusiness growthProblemsShow you HOW toget maximum returnfor your marketinginvestmentExamplesPizza Hut,CommSec, TheAustralian, Pork,Nestle, Nokia, SonyPackagesActually work withyou on your BusinessGrowth Plan andMarketing PlanLowMediumHighYou It ThemFocusEnergy
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS155Dimensional PositioningCurrent customer frustration and category pain points Negative consumer perceptionsWhat you do to overcome the above Desired image response that overcomes the aboveCategory Issue Image IssueProduct Stance Projected AttitudePositioning?
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS156The Brand OnionEssenceThe core,unchangingessence of thebrandPersonalityTone and manner that guidesall interactionSource of AuthorityCredentials of brandWhy consumers shouldbelieveAttributesFeatures that make/definethe product or serviceFocus on attributes that aredistinctive and uniqueBenefitsBenefits that arise fromattributesThink of benefits thatarise from implications ofbenefitsHow it makes you feelThis is the emotive benefitsthat occur during the productexperience, e.g. a Ferrarimakes the owner feel powerfulWhat does it say about you?How it changes the perception ofyou to othersPublic image of the product, e.g. aFerrari owner looks successful andconfident
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS157Brand AtomBrandEssenceStraplineProduct AttributesPersonalityPositioningAssociationsTarget MarketConsumer facingexpressionAll physical andfunctional thingsassociated withthe brandThe way the brandexpresses itselfThe slice in theconsumer’s mindThe triggersThe things associatedwith the brandThe type of peoplewho use the brand
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS158Portfolio Targeting MatrixName Variant Need-StatemetTargetAudience(Comms)UsageOccassionStrategic Role(Silver Bullet)Positioning &StraplineMaster Brand Positioning:In defining a relationship between a master brand and several sub-brands, it’s useful toget them on one page and review the above dimensions and nuances.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS159The X-Track ToolThis tool is all about shifting brand attributes to reach objectives. In the origin column we identify up to 4 problems or opportunities fromthe current brand make-up. In the destination column we list 4 desired brand attributes and traits. To move from origin to destination wewill need to be certain things (personality) and do certain things (actions). It’s a useful tool for getting a brand back on track.Origin DestinationBe (Personality):Do (Actions):
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS160Authenticity Pillar AuditIn building brand authenticity, have a look to see what stories or brand credibility can be derived from these 6 pillars.HeritageFamiliarityPersonal UtilityOriginalityDeclared BeliefsMomentum
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS161Linking the emotional to the rational:1. List emotional values2. List rational facts and use3. Use lines to link up the values and elementsthat match4. Use the centre of the Venn diagram to createcombinations and concepts that link upEmotionalValueRationalElementEmotional and Rational
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS162Benefit LadderingThe human dimension reinforced by thebenefit.E.g. Every moment I save is a moment for meA benefit to the consumer, usually based onhow the product delivers a positive result.E.g. I save time when I serve apple sauceA benefit to the consumer usually based on aproduct feature or attribute.E.g. Apple sauce is easy to serveAspect of the product, usually based on aproduct feature or attribute.E.g. Apple sauce spoons smoothly from thejarCharacteristic of the product, usuallyinherent or natural (intrinsic).E.g. Apple sauce comes in a wide mouth jarValuesCustomerBenefitsProductBenefitsProductFeaturesAttribute
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS163Personify the BrandAs the product:The user:The usage:As a car:As an animal:As a song:Brand name:ImageBrand personified:
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS164Personify the Brand: Westpac ExampleAs the product:The user:The usage:As a car:As an animal:As a song:Brand name:ImageBrand personified:Banking, finance, mortgagesWestpacUpper middle Australia. Socially responsiblePredominantly Internet with branch visitationsHonda HybridElephantImagineMale, in his 50s, grey hair, rich,management, formal suit and glasses, witha caring social conscience side
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS165Brands Big Day OutMorning/Work-outBreakfastWorkSocial night Joins a clubWeekend awayIn doing this exercise you may also uncoversome tactical media opportunities or ideas.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSBRAND TOOLS166Visual DimensionsLogoOur MissionOur FeelingThe PurchaseOur ConsumersOur CreationOur EssenceThe PurchaserOur OccasionCapture your brandpersonality with a series ofimages that bring to life eachof the sections. It’s a brand’spersonality mood board andis useful to put on staff wallsto drive inspiration and asAgency/Partner inspiration.
  • KNOW YOUR BUSINESSPOSITIONING & VALUE PROPOSITIONS167Remarkability - Seth GodinSeth Godin is a famous writer, speaker and agent of change.He has written 12 bestsellers; one in particular deals with the concept of “remarkability”in his book “The Big Moo”.Remarkability is the trait of something that captures attention, to the extent that peopletalk about it. It is remarkable and has remarkability.Godin is all about encouraging people to rethink the notion of remarkability using thissimple test – “Is it worth remarking on?”As marketers, this test is a great one to hold ourselves and our work up against.We need to stop just running ads and focus on making remarkable products instead.Relevant&Remarkable“Remarkability is the trait of something that captures attention tothe extent that people talk about it.”The Big Moo - by the group of 33, edited by Seth Godin
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  • Congratulations on completing Book 1: Know Your businessThe next book in the Brand Box series is Book 2: Know Your MarketContact us to get yourself a copy | +61 2 8028 6405 | info@stepchangemarketing.comThe Brand Box seriesKnow Your Business Know Your Market Know Your Consumers What’s the Big Idea? How To Say It When And Where To Say It