‘80% of feedback comes from peers- and most of this feedback information is
‘ The criteria for evaluating any learning achievement must be made
transparent to the students’
‘Students must be taught the habits and skills of collaboration in peer
‘ Provide feedback that moves learning forwards’
‘ Feedback comes into its own when students ‘do not know how to tackle the
work’, ‘do not know how to monitor their own learning’ or ‘do not know
where to go next’.
‘ Feedback works at 4 levels…. Task, Process, Self Regulation and Self’
• How well has the task been
performed ; is it correct or
• What are the strategies
needed to perform the task
well? Are there alternative
strategies that could be used?
1.The ‘Ron Berger Way’
2.Why use Critique?
3.Classroom Rules for
5.Craft of Critique
1. Draw a butterfly, improve it and then make it
2. Draw a butterfly and then receive peer feedback on
the task. Improve it twice over.
3. Draw a butterfly and then receive peer feedback
from a partner with the success criteria
4. Have a look at the success criteria and draw a
butterfly, have your partner give you feedback
Improves Pupil Work
Pupil’s Act on Feedback
Culture of Critique
Models Excellent Work
‘Hard on content, soft of
Kind Specific and Helpful
• Kind comments are constructive and non personal. They
motivate and identify strong elements in the work. The critique
environment must feel safe. Pupils cannot use sarcasm and
hurtful comments (WWW). We critique the work and not the
• Specific comments identify which elements of the draft
require additional support. This can only be accurately be
completed if the success criteria is modelled early in the
learning process. Terminology is carefully selected to
encourage learner’s to improve their draft.
• Helpful comments must be focussed on moving the work
forwards, not for the critic to be heard. Echoing the thoughts of
others and identifying insignificant factors about the work
‘It is crucial to focus on vocabulary building in the critique
process…. If we picture our critique as surgically dissecting
a piece of work to improve it, our vocabulary is our kit of
If we only use words like its good, or its bad, we are trying
to do surgery with a meat clever’.
If we want to dissect the work carefully and put it back
together well, we need a kit of precise tools. I teach the
vocabulary of each discipline, and when we have guest
critiques from outside experts, we make a list of all of the
new vocabulary tools we are given’
• Train our learners how to do this effectively
using the success criteria
• Reward excellent peer feedback/feed forward
• Plan for time in lessons or a full lesson
dedicated to feeding forwards.
• Reward pupils that use key terminology to move
• Ban un helpful vocabulary such as good, bad and
• Ensure pupils can articulate and interpret
Be more careful
Try to turn two or three of your short sentences into one
sentence by using connectives
Your section on healthy living emphasised the importance of diet.
You must also include sections on exercise and drugs.
The exercise asked you to evaluate the impact of bullying on
Piggy. You simply described the bulling. You have to evaluate the
impact on Piggy.
You must use a capital letter for the names of people and places.
EG the name John and city London.
Your project has mentioned your main themes- segregation in
work, schools, restaurants and transport. Organise the writing
into four sections with a chapter heading for each section.
Get your ideas
Look at the concept map on the classroom wall and use the same
idea to plot your ideas visually before you start. Use the big
branches to represent the main headings and the small branches
as the paragraphs for each heading.
Underline your headings and leave a line space between each
section in your writing
• Trains learner’s on how to feedback/feed-forward
• Predominantly teacher led with some learner
interaction. Focus on particular areas.
• Technology such as Lan-school and Visualizer's make
this process more accessible
• Opportunities to teach the key vocabulary and
• Models good work in the detailed process of making
the work stronger
• Can focus on task, process or literacy effectively
1. Tailored to the individual and personal
2. The learner is more likely to interpret the
Feedback and act on the feed-forward comments
3. Can take place as a whole class quickly, small groups
but most effective on a one to one basis.
Try to use tutorials every half term.
4. Comments are specific
5. Can often lead to a learning conversation
• Post it Pedagogy: Multifunctional and
• Must contain Feedback and Feed-forward
• Teacher to only give detailed and specific feedback at
pre planned intervals in the learning cycle.
• Model outstanding feedback and feed forward comments
• Must reflect on a model of best practice
• Should take pressure and time away from teacher’s.
• Utilize signatures and target stickers to identify when a
pupil ‘closes the gap’ on learning.
• Departmental policy must ensure continuity.
• Rolling homework projects
• NO SUMMATIVE GRADE!
Easy to organise and all
pupils receive feedback
It can be designed to
focus purely on one
aspect of the work
Pupils receive multiple
comments from a
variety of sources
Generates ideas and
excellent work to
Sets the standard and tone
of the class
Pupils can ‘borrow’
ideas from excellent
Must focus initially on
1. DIRT time: Plan for feedback for a full lesson to drive content deeper.
Consider starting your lessons moving targets forwards. Give critique
2. Use the term ‘draft’ in your lessons to develop a culture of critique.
3. Establish classroom rules: Possible a feedback wall?
4. Critique the Critique
5. Offer incentives for outstanding critique
6. Consider your classroom layout to aid critique
7. Have a list of banned terminology
8. Introduce each lesson with an excellent piece of work to be modelled!
This is more effective than extensive learning objectives.
9. Read ‘An Ethic of Excellence’ by Ron Berger.
In 1998, Ruth Butler conducted a controlled study in which she gave feedback to
students in three groups of a similar age and ability. She gave each group a different
kind of feedback: she gave the first group feedback in the form of marks or grades;
she gave the second group comment-only feedback; and she gave the third group
marks or grades alongside comments. It’s worth noting that the third method is the
most common form of feedback given by teachers in England today.
Butler’s study found that progress (in the form of improved exam results) was greater
for students in the comment-only group, with the other two groups showing no real
progress at all. Even when the comments that accompanied grades were positive,
discussions with students showed they thought the teacher was just ‘being kind’ and
that the grade was the real indicator of the quality of their work not the comment.
Marking or grading every piece of students’ work can also cause students to become
complacent or demoralised: students who continually receive grades of, say, a B or
higher can become complacent whereas students who continually recieve grades of,
say, a C or lower can become demoralised.
Marks or grades lead students to compare themselves with other students and to
focus on their image and status rather than be encouraged to think about their
work and how they can improve it. Grades also focus students’ attentions on their
ability rather than on the importance of effort, damaging their self-esteem.
Grades do not take into account how well students have progressed against the
learning objectives, nor do they show the progress students have made as
compared to their own past performance.
By contrast, a number of studies have shown that, when feedback is given in the
form of comments only (with marks or grades reserved for the end of a unit or
module) students’ levels of motivation and attainment go up. Comments which
focus on how students can improve encourage students to believe that they can
improve. And surely this is the kind of classroom culture we should be trying to
create: a culture of success in which every student can make achievements by
building on their previous performance, rather than by being compared with
others. We can promote such a culture by informing students about their strengths
and weaknesses and by giving feedback about what their next steps should be