Questioning Techniques


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Questioning Techniques

  1. 1. Questioning Techniques
  2. 2. Question Types
  3. 3. Question Types <ul><li>Open/Closed </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Group-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus-type </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-off </li></ul>
  4. 4. Handling Answers
  5. 5. Handling Answers The way a trainer handles answers may well be as important as the questions they ask. Four broad types of answers are:
  6. 6. Handling Answers <ul><li>Correct answers </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect answers </li></ul><ul><li>Partially correct answers </li></ul><ul><li>No answer at all </li></ul>The way a trainer handles answers may well be as important as the questions they ask. Four broad types of answers are:
  7. 7. Correct Answers Verbal comments or praise: “Excellent!” “Good!” “That’s correct!” Occasionally non-verbally: a nod, pat on back, wink, etc.
  8. 8. Correct Answers <ul><li>reinforces learning </li></ul><ul><li>sets the atmosphere that the trainer cares about the answers and will listen and respond </li></ul><ul><li>encourages further or continued student participation </li></ul>Verbal comments or praise: “Excellent!” “Good!” “That’s correct!” Occasionally non-verbally: a nod, pat on back, wink, etc.
  9. 9. Incorrect Answers
  10. 10. Incorrect Answers <ul><li>respond to the student </li></ul><ul><li>redirect the direction of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>move toward correct response </li></ul><ul><li>be careful of setting negative feelings into action which would block communication and learning </li></ul><ul><li>accept all answers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Incorrect Answers “ That’s good thinking, Bob, but you didn’t hit the bullseye. Who can help clarify Bob’s answer?” “ My question may have thrown you off. Let me ask it this way. . . “ Bob, I think you may confuse azimuth with tilt. I do that myself sometimes. Who can help us point out the difference?”
  12. 12. Incorrect Answers Irrelevant answers: “ Let me state my question a bit differently.” “ Great answer! Too bad it isn’t appropriate for the question I asked. Perhaps I didn’t state it well.” “ You’ve getting a little ahead of my question, Bob. Great, but hold the last part until we get to it later. OK?”
  13. 13. Incorrect Answers Avoid the following types of responses to incorrect answers: sarcasm - many might not understand reprimand - negative carry-over personal attack - promotes the same from students accusative - you may be wrong in your accusation no response at all - rude and negative
  14. 14. Partially Correct Answers Acknowledge and give credit for the correct part of the answer: “ I agree with you on your first point; however. . .” Try to have the incorrect or weak part of the answer improved: “ Bob’s answer is about 85 percent correct. Can anyone spot his slight error?”
  15. 15. No Answer at all Rephrase the question on a simpler level: “ Let me ask that question again this way. . .” If rewording doesn’t work, you might present more information. Then ask: “ Now that we understand more about what affects signal levels, who would like to try to tackle my original question about. . .?”
  16. 16. Questioning Techniques
  17. 17. Questioning Techniques Question then response
  18. 18. Question then response <ul><li>When you call on a student before posing the question, the class is less likely to listen to the question </li></ul>
  19. 19. Question then response <ul><li>Posing the question before identifying someone to respond lets students know they will be held accountable and should be prepared to answer every question </li></ul>
  20. 20. Wait-Time <ul><li>The amount of time that elapses between a trainer asking a question and calling upon a student to answer that question is called “wait-time.” </li></ul><ul><li>The average trainer’s wait-time is one second! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Wait-Time <ul><li>If you can prolong your average wait-time to five seconds or longer, the length of student responses increases. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Wait-Time <ul><li>When wait-time is very short, students tend to give very short answers or they are prone to say, “I don’t know.” </li></ul><ul><li>Answers often come with a question mark in the tone: “Is that what you want?” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Wait-Time <ul><li>If you prolong wait-time, you are more likely to get whole sentences, and confidence is higher as expressed by their tone of voice. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Wait-Time <ul><li>Prolonging wait-time enhances speculative thinking and the use of arguments based on evidence: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It might be a cable problem,”. . . .”but there are too many connectors and it’s been really cold lately.” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Wait-Time <ul><li>As you increase wait-time, the number of questions students ask and the number of checks they need to answer the questions multiply. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Wait-Time <ul><li>By increasing the wait-time, you buy yourself an opportunity to hear and to think. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Wait-Time <ul><li>Wait-time can change your expectations of what some students can do. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Wait-Time <ul><li>As wait-time increases, trainers begin to show much more variability in the kinds of questions they ask. </li></ul><ul><li>Students get more opportunity to respond to thought rather than straight memory questions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Wait-Time <ul><li>An increase in trainer wait-time sets an atmosphere more conducive to productive questions on higher thinking levels. </li></ul><ul><li>students use the wait-time to organize more complete answers. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Opporunity <ul><li>Create a system that ensures that all students have equal opportunities to contribute </li></ul><ul><li>If you call on a student who is not ready to respond or does not know the answer, allow them to “pass” and then give them another opportunity later. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Accountability <ul><li>NEVER answer your own questions! If students know you will give them the answer after a few seconds of silence, what is their incentive? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Accountability <ul><li>Do NOT accept “I don’t know’ for an answer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow additional ‘wait time’ by moving on and then come back for an answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer hints or suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the student is unable or unwilling to respond, offer two or more options and let the student choose one. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Questioning Techniques <ul><li>Your mastery of these techniques will pay dividends with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal development </li></ul></ul>