Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators

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The 2009 edition of Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries’ performance. It provides a rich, comparable and up-to-date array of indicators on the performance of education systems and represents the consensus of professional thinking on how to measure the current state of education internationally.

The indicators look at who participates in education, what is spent on it, how education systems operate and the results achieved. The latter includes indicators on a wide range of outcomes, from comparisons of students’ performance in key subject areas to the impact of education on earnings and on adults’ chances of employment. For more info, see www.oecd.org/edu/eag2009

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Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators

  1. 1. Education at a Glance 2009<br />Key results<br />
  2. 2. Better education or lower pay<br />Growing earning differentials<br />In the current economic environment…<br />… Opportunity costs for education decline <br />Dominated by lost earnings, not tuition<br />… Labour-market entry becomes more difficult<br />as young graduates compete with experienced workers<br />… Job prospects for less qualified deteriorate further<br />… Young people with lower qualifications who become unemployed are likely to spend long time out of work<br />In most countries over half of low-qualified unemployed 35-34-year-olds are long-term unemployed <br />
  3. 3. Better education or lower pay<br />… Higher risks for systems with significant work-based training<br />… Gaps in educational attainment between younger and older cohorts likely to widen<br />
  4. 4. Better education or lower pay<br />This suggests educational participation to rise further<br />In systems where high tuition limits increased participation additional public spending can leverage additional participation and thus additional public benefits<br />Countries without significant household spending can improve participation through widening funding base .<br />
  5. 5. Components of the private net present value for a male with higher education<br />Net present value in USD equivalent<br />
  6. 6. Public cost and benefits for a male obtaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and tertiary education<br />Upper secondary and post-secondary<br /> non-tertiary education<br />TertiaryEducation<br />Public benefits<br />Public costs<br />Net present value, USD equivalent<br />(numbers in orange shownegative values)<br />A8.5<br />USD equivalent<br />
  7. 7. Supply and demand for youngindividuals(25-34 year-olds) to skilled jobs, 1998-2006<br />Difference in the proportion of 25-34 year-olds and 45-54 year-old cohort with below tertiary education in skilled jobs <br />Slowing demand for higher educated individuals; Preference towards younger individuals over older with below tertiary education <br />Increasing demand for higher educated individuals; Employers have fewer choices and must take younger, less educated workers to fill skilled positions<br />Slowing demand for higher educated individuals; Preference towards older individuals (experience) over younger with below tertiary education <br />Increasing demand for higher educated individuals; Demand tends to be satisfied by existing pool of individuals with tertiary education <br />older Advantage for lower-educated younger<br /> Slowing Demand for higher-educated Growing<br />A1.5<br />Percentage point change in the proportion of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education in skilled jobs between 2006 and 1998<br />
  8. 8. Marginaleffects of educationon self-reportedhealth and politicalinterest<br />Politicalinterest<br />Health <br />Movingfrombelowuppersecondary to uppersecondary<br />ALL 2003<br />WVS 2005<br />ISSP 2004/6<br />WVS 2005<br />ESS 2004<br />ESS 2004<br />Movingfromuppersecondary to tertiary<br />ESS 2006<br />ESS 2006<br />A9.1<br />Yellow and blue bars show non statisticallysignificant countries<br />
  9. 9. Unabated educational expansion<br />University graduation doubled from an OECD average of 20% in 1995 o 39% in 2007<br />Pace of change varied widely, Finland improved its relative standing from Rank 10 to Rank 3, US dropped from Rank 2 to Rank 14<br />Significant expansion also of early childhood education<br />Enrolment of 4-year-olds and under up from an average of 40% in 1998 to 71% in 2007 .<br />
  10. 10. Averageannualgrowth in thepopulationwithtertiaryeducation (1998-2006)<br />%<br />A1.1<br />
  11. 11. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Cost per student<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  12. 12. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Cost per student<br />Finland<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  13. 13. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Australia<br />Finland<br />United Kingdom<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  14. 14. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  15. 15. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  16. 16. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  17. 17. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  18. 18. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-typeA graduation rate <br />
  19. 19. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Australia<br />United Kingdom<br />Finland<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  20. 20. Proportion of students who enter a tertiary programme but leave without at least a first tertiary degree (2005)<br />%<br />A3.4<br />
  21. 21. Overlapping of top performers in science, reading and mathematics on average in the OECD<br />Science 9%<br />Science and reading 0.8%<br />Science only 1.3%<br />Science and mathematics 2.8%<br />Science, reading and mathematics 4.1%<br />Reading only 5.3%<br />Mathematicsonly 5.3%<br />Reading and mathematics 1.4%<br />A4.2<br />
  22. 22. Investment in education<br />OECD countries as a whole spend 6.1% of their GDP on education<br />Expenditure per school student increased on average by 40% between 1995 and 2006<br />Mixed pattern in tertiary education<br />Countries vary significantly in how they spend their money, different priorities on…<br />… Salaries, learning time, teaching time, class size<br />Room for more effective cost-sharing between government and households<br />Even if household expenditure rose much faster than public spending in tertiary education .<br />
  23. 23. Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for all levels of education<br />B2.1<br />
  24. 24. Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per student over primary and secondary studies (2006) Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student multiplied by the theoretical duration of studies, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs<br />OECD average (primary and secondary)<br />B1.4<br />
  25. 25. Changes in student numbers and expenditurePrimary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education<br />Index of change between 2000 and 2006 (2000=100, 2006 constant prices)<br />Index of change (2000=100)<br />B1.7a<br />
  26. 26. Contribution of various factors to salary cost per upper secondary student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2006)<br />Percentage points<br />B7.1<br />
  27. 27. Contribution of various factors to salary cost per primarystudent as a percentage of GDP per capita (2006)<br />Percentage points<br />B7.2<br />
  28. 28. Who pays for high-level qualificationsExpenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2006)<br />B3.2<br />
  29. 29. Changes in student numbers and expenditure for tertiary education<br />Index of change between 2000 and 2006 (2000=100, 2006 constant prices)<br />B1.7b<br />
  30. 30. Relationshipsbetweenaveragetuitionfees and proportion of studentswhobenefitfrom public loans and/or scholarships/grantsTertiary-type A, public institutions, academicyear 2006/07, national full-time students<br />Bubble size shows graduation rates<br />Averagetuitionfeespublic institutions in USD charged by<br />Group 2:Potentially high financial barriers for entry to tertiary-type A education, but also large public subsidies to students.<br />Group 3:Extensive and broadly uniform cost sharing across students, student support systems somewhat less developed. <br />Group 4:Relatively low financial barriers to entry to tertiary education and relatively low subsidies<br />Group 1:No (or low) financial barriers for tertiary studies due to tuition fees and still a high level of student aid. <br />B5.3<br />% of studentswhobenefitfrom public loansAND/OR sholarships/grants<br />
  31. 31. Learning environment<br />Some countries have still a relativelyweak evaluation culture<br />A significant proportion of teachers does not receive any feedback or appraisal of their work<br />Most teachers work in schools where they feel no rewards or recognition for better or more innovative work .<br />
  32. 32. Some teachers are left aloneTeachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years (2007-08)<br />D5.1<br />
  33. 33. Perception of teachers of the impact of appraisal and feedback in theirschool (2007-08)<br />
  34. 34. Total number of intended instruction hours in public institutions between the ages of 7 and 14 (2007)<br />Students in OECD countries are expected to receive, on average, 6 862 hours of instruction between the ages of 7 and 14, of which 1 580 betweenages 7 and 8, 2 504 betweenages 9 and 11, and 2 778 betweenages 12 and 14. The large majority of intendedhours of instruction are compulsory. <br />D1.1<br />Total number of intended instruction time in hours<br />
  35. 35. Teachers’ salaries (minimum, after 15 years experience, and maximum) in lower secondary education (2007)Annual statutory teachers’ salaries in public institutions in lower secondary education, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs, and the ratio of salary of 15 years of experience to GDP per capita<br />Equivalent USD converted using PPPs<br />The annualstatutory salaries of lowersecondaryteacherswith 15 yearexperience range fromlessthan USD 15 000 in Hungary and the partner countries Chile and Estonia, to over USD 52 000 in Germany, Ireland, Koreaand Switzerland and exceedsUSD 89 000 in Luxembourg. <br />D3.2<br />
  36. 36. www.oecd.org/edu/eag2009 <br />All national and international publications<br />The complete micro-level database<br />Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org<br />… and remember:<br /> Without data, you are just another person with an opinion<br />Thank you !<br />
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