Walter Scott


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Walter Scott

  1. 1. The Father of Historical Novels Sir Walter Scott 1771 - 1832
  2. 2. A Short Biography <ul><li>Walter Scott was born in Edinburgh, as the son of a solicitor Walter Scott and Anne, a daughter of professor of medicine. An early illness - polio - left him lame in the right leg. Six of his 11 brothers and sisters died in infancy. However, Scott grew up to be a man over six feet and great physical endurance. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Scott's interest in the old Border tales and ballads had early been awakened, and he devoted much of his leisure to the exploration of the Border country. His early years Scott spent in Sandy-Know, in the residence of his paternal grandfather. There his grandmother told him tales of old heroes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>At the age of eight he returned to Edinburgh. He attended Edinburgh High School (1779-1783) and studied at Edinburgh University arts and law (1783-86, 1789-92). At the age of sixteen he had already started to collect old ballads and later translated into English Gottfried Bürger's ballads 'The Wild Huntsman' and 'Lenore' and 'Goetz of Berlichingen' (1799) from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's play. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Scott was apprenticed to his father in 1786 and in 1792 he was called to the bar. In 1799 he was appointed sheriff depute of the county of Selkirk. Scott married in 1797 Margaret Charlotte Charpentier , daughter of Jean Charpentier of Lyon in France. They had five children. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 1802-03 appeared Scott's first major work, “Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border”. As a poet Scott rose into fame with the publication of “The Lay of the Last Minstrel” (1805) about an old border country legend. </li></ul><ul><li>He had burned its first version, when his friends did not like it. Scott returned to the poem in 1802, when a horse had kicked him and he spent three days in bed. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Lay of the Last Minstrel” became a huge success and made him the most popular author of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>It was followed by “Marmion” (1808), a historical romance in tetrameter, set in 1513, and concerning the attempts of Lord Marmion to marry the rich Lady Clare. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1810 appeared “the Lady of the Lake” and in 1813 “Rokeby”. Scott's last major poem, “The Lord of the Isles”, was published in 1815. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Soldier, rest! thy warfare o'er, Sleep the sleep that knows not breaking, Dream of battled fields no more, Days of danger, nights of waking. (from The Lady of the Lake , 1810) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In 1806 Scott became clerk to the Court of Session in Edinburgh - this work took only a few hours daily and half of the year he was free. His long holidays Scott spent at Ashestiel, situated on the Tweed River. To increase his income he started a printing and publishing business with his friend James Ballantyne. </li></ul><ul><li>The firm had in the 1810s financial difficulties, and Scott spent his time in immense labours for his publishers, much of it hack editorial work. Scott also expanded during these years his Abbotsford estate, but it was not until 1826 when the final crash came. </li></ul><ul><li>He accepted all Ballantyne's debts and decided to pay them off with his writings - the sum was £130,000 (millions today) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>In the 1810s Scott published several novels anonymously or under the pseudonym Jebediah Cleisbotham or 'Author of Waverley.' From this period date such works as “Waverley” (1814), dealing with the rebellion of 1745, which attempted to restore a Scottish family to the British throne. The book set the classic pattern of the historical novel. It had a hero, whose loyalty is split between two rulers and two ways of life. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ivanhoe. <ul><li>IVANHOE (1819) was set in the reign of Richard I and depicted the rivalry between the King and his wicked brother John (King 1199-1216). </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ivanhoe , a tale of chivalry, was set in the age of Richard the Lion-Hearted. Wilfred of Ivanhoe loves Rowena, but his father plans marry her to Athelstane of Coningsburgh. Ivanhoe serves with King Richard in the crusades. King's brother John tries to usurp the throne with the help of Norman barons. Richard appears in disguise at the tournament at Ashby de la Zouch, where he helps Ivanhoe to defeat John's knights. At the tournament Sir Brian falls in love with Rebecca, a beautiful Jewess. </li></ul>King Richard the Lion-Hearted.
  12. 12. <ul><li>She is taken captive with her father Isaac, Rowena, Ivanhoe, and Cedric by the Norman barons and imprisoned in Torquilstone. The King and his band of outlaws, among them Robin Hood, release the prisoners. Rebecca is carried off by Bois-Gilbert and charged of witchcraft. Ivanhoe appears as her champion, opposing Bois-Guilbert, who dies. Rebecca, seeing Ivanhoe's love for Rowena, leaves England with her father . </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Michael Ragussis has argued that Scott's Isaac the Jew and his daughter Rebecca restaged England's medieval persecution of Jews and criticized the barbarity of persecution and forced conversion. In the story Rebecca is a healer and a voice of moderation between Saxon knights and Normans. </li></ul>Lady Rowena
  14. 14. Ivanhoe
  15. 15. <ul><li>In the 1820s appeared KENILWORTH (1821), THE FORTUNES OF NIGEL (1822), PEVERIL OF THE PEAK (1823), QUENTIN DURWARD (1823), THE TALISMAN (1825), WOODSTOCK (1826), THE SURGEON'S DAUGHTER (1827), ANNE OF GEIERSTEIN (1829). </li></ul><ul><li>After the financial crash of 1825-26 the author's anonymity was destroyed, and he was exposed to the general public as Sir Walter Scott. He had at least five pen names, including Jebediah Cleisbotham, Crystal Croftangry, Malachi Malagrowther, Lawrence Templeton, and Captain Clutterbuck. According to an anecdote, when mortally sick, Beethoven (1770-1827) hurled away Scott's novel with the cry: &quot;Why, the fellow writes for money&quot;. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Scott's historical novels fall into three groups; those set in the background of Scottish history, from Waverly to A Legend of Montrose ; a group which takes up themes from the Middle Ages and Reformation times, from Ivanhoe to Talisman , and his remaining books, from Woodstock onwards. Scott's dramatic work include HALIDON HILL (1922), MACDUFF'S CROSS (1823), THE DOOM OF DEVORGOIL, A MELODRAMA (1830), and AUCHINDRANE (1830), which was founded on the case of Mure of Auchindrane in Pitcairn's Ancient Criminal Trials . </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>In 1820 Scott was created a baronet. A few years later he founded the Bannatyne Club, which published old Scottish documents. Scott visited France in 1826 to collect material for his LIFE OF NAPOLEON , which was published in 9 volumes in 1827. A few years earlier Scott had started to keep his Journal , recording in undiscourageable spirit his deteriorating health and other misfortunes. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>His wife, Lady Scott, died in 1826, and the author himself had a stroke in 1830. Next year Scott sailed to Italy. In Malta he wrote one novel and a short story, and in Naples he collected old songs and ballads. After return to England in 1832, he died on September 21. Scott was buried beside his ancestors in Dryburgh Abbey. From the profits of his writings all his debts were ultimately paid. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Writer and poet, a born storyteller and master of dialogue, one of the greatest historical novelists, whose favorite subject was his native Scotland. Scott wrote twenty-seven historical novels. His influence is seen among others in the works of James Fenimore Cooper, Alexander Dumas, and Alexander Pushkin. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Monument To Sir Walter Scott
  21. 22. Druburgh Abbey Tomb of Sir Walter Scott