Social Background• The English Bourgeois Revolution and Restoration• 1) The weakening of the tie between monarchy and bourgeois:• 2) The Clashes between the King and Parliament:• 3) The outburst of the English Revolution:• 4) The split within the revolutionary camp:• 5) The bourgeois dictatorship and the Restoration
Historical events• Reign of James I (1603 – • King james II flees – 1688 1625) – The Jacobean Age • William III & Mary II –• Reign Of Charles I (1625 – 1689 1649) The Coroline Age • Mary II – dies, 1694• Common Wealth (1649 – 1660) The Interim Period of • William III – Dies 1702 Commonwealth• Restoration of Charles II (1660 – 1685) • The Theatres closed – 1642• Reign of James – II (1685 – 1688) • Reopening of the theatre –• 1660 The Glorious Revolution - 1688 • The Great Fire of London - 1666
The English Revolution andPuritanism• The English revolution was carried out under a religious cloak• English revolution also called the Puritan revolution• The Puritan Movement aimed to make man honest and to make man free.• preached thrift, sobriety, hard work, but with very little extravagant enjoyment of the fruits of labor• Worldly pleasures were condemned as harmful.• the triumph of Puritanism under Cromwell, severe laws were passed• Until the end of the Commonwealth, there were two leaders in England, Cromwell the man of action, and Milton the man of thought.
Literature of the Revolution Period General characteristics 1) The Revolution Period was one of confusion in literature due to the breaking up of the old ideals. The Puritans believed in simplicity of life. They disapproved of the sonnets and the love poetry written in the previous period. Literature was as divide din spirit as were the struggling parties. 2) Literature in the Puritan Age expressed age and sadness. Even its brightest hours were followed by gloom and pessimism. 3) Romantic ardor can not be found in literature of the Puritan period. 4) John Milton, whose work would glorify any age and people, and in his work the indomitable revolutionary spirit found its noblest expression. For this reason, this period is also called Age of Milton 5) The main literary form of the period was poetry ． Besides Milton, there were two other groups of poets, the Metaphysical Poets and the Cavalier Poets
Metaphysical Poets• The Metaphysical Poets appeared at the beginning of the 17th century• Sought to shatter myths and replace them with new philosophies, new sciences, new world and new poetry• Rebellious spirit, they favored in poetry a more colloquial language, a single-minded working of one theme• Tended to logically reason the things, esp. emotions, psychologically analyze the emotions of love and religion, love the novelty and the shocking, use the metaphysical conceits, and ignore the conventional devices.
Metaphysical Poets John Donne (1573-1631) is John Donne (1573 – 1631) the founder of the Abraham Cowley (1619 – Metaphysical School 1667) masterpiece is Songs and Richard Crashaw (1613 – Sonnets, The Sun Rising 1649) and The Flea George Herbert (1593 – “were men of learning,& to 1633) show their learning was their Henry Vaughan (1622 – 1695) whole Endeavour…. they Thomas Traherne (1634 – neither copied nature nor 1704) life… thoughts are often new
Cavalier Poets• Most of these poets were • Robert Herrick (1591 – courtiers and soldiers 1674)• They sided with the king to • Thomas Carew (1598 – fight against the revolution 1639)• supported King Charles I • Francis Quaries (1592 – during the 1644) English Civil War • Sir John Suckling (1600 –• King Charles was a 1642) connoisseur of the fine arts • Richard Lovelace (1618 – and therefore demanded 1658) their creation, i.e. masques, • Andrew Marvell (1621 – poetry, and drama 1678)
John Milton’s Life• Born: December 9, 1608, • John Milton was an London English poet• Died: November 8, 1674, • Polemicist, a scholarly Chalfont St Giles man of letters, and a civil• Full name: John Milton servant for the• Commonwealth of Parents: John Milton England under Oliver• Education: Cromwell University of Cambridge, St Pauls School, London, Christs College, Cambridge
John Milton’s Life• I Period – Closing with • II Period – The Horton the end of his Cambridge period – Closing with his Career – 1632 departure for the• His first work is an ode continent - 1638 On the Morning of • 4 minor poems of such Christ’s Nativity beauty & power• Its far from perfect • L’Allegro (1633)• Sadly Marred by • II Penseroso ( 1633) Conceits & inequalities • Comus (1634) of Style • Lycidas (1637)• Remarkable Production for a poet of 21
John Milton’s Life• Under the inspiration of the • The poet dwqells frankly learning & art of the upon the pleasures of renaissance – Write romance & rustic sports –• Puritan element was at 1st The Greek Drama & The quite subordinate gradually beauty of Church the dominant element inhis Architecture & music writing • Comus• L’Allegro & II Penseroso • The specific quality of his• Charming contrasted moral teaching pictures of Man, Nature, & • a masque in honour of Art as seen through the chastity medium of the mood, in the one case of gladness, and in the other meloncholy.
Comus Two brothers and their sister, simply called Rescued with help of "Lady“ An Attendant spirit & Lost in a journey The river Nymph through the woods. Lady becomes fatigued, Patent allegory of and the brothers wander virtue attacked by off in search of sensuality & sustenance conquering by divine Lured away by Comus aid & his band revelers & rescued by her brother
Lycidas Lycidas first appeared in a 1638 collection of elegies entitled Justa Edouardo King Naufrago. the death of Edward King, a collegemate of Miltons at Cambridge Monody. A lyrical lament for one voice. begins with an invocation, then explores the conventions of the pastoral ends with a conclusion to Miltons "emotional problem"
Milton’s life III Period – Prose Modern English prose writing from 1640 – had not yet come into 1660 existence 20 years continued Areopagitica – active as a writer of Essentially a plea for prose freedom of thought & Dozen sonnets Speech Style is heavy & Read by every lover of Cumbrous Lit. & intellectual liberty “His left hand didn’t possess the cunning of his right”
IV Period of Milton The last Poetic period or Satan is the real hero of the period of his great poem achievement Adam --The first human, Stupendous masterpiece of the father of our race intellectual energy & Eve --The first woman and creative power the mother of mankind. Paradise Lost – English God the Father - creates Heroic verse without rime the world by means of God Paradise Regained the Son, creating Adam and Samson Agonistes Eve last "to justify the ways of God God the Son - Jesus Christ, to man“ – Theme offers himself as a sacrifice Also about the fall of Men: to pay for the sins of man’s disobedience and the mankind loss of Paradise
Paradise Regained betrayed by his wife and explores the theme of blinded by his enemies the temptation and fall and Philistines shows how humankind, in One day he was summoned the person of Christ, to provide amusement for withstands the tempter and his enemies by feats of is established once more in strength in a temple the divine favor wreaked his vengeance Samson Agonistes upon his enemies by pulling a poetical drama modeled down the temple upon them on the Greek tragedy and upon himself in a common ruin the Old Testament Samson signify Milton Samson was an athlete of the Israelites stood as their champion, fighting for the freedom of his country
Features of Miltons Poetry Great revolutionary poet of the 17th century. He is also an outstanding political pamphleteer of the Revolution period. He made a strong influence on the later progressive English poets. Great stylist. His poetry has a grand style. That is because he made a life-long study of classical and Biblical literature. Great master of blank verse. He is the glorious pioneer to introduce blank verse into non-dramatic poetry. He has used it as the main tool in his masterpiece Paradise Lost. His blank verse is rich in every poetic quality and never monotonous. Wrote the greatest epic in English literature. He made a strong influence o later English poetry. His poetry is noted for sublimity of thought and majesty of expression.
Miltons Shorter Poems - Renascence Editions A Paraphrase on Psalm CXIV On the University Carrier Psalm CXXXVI Another on the Same The Fifth Ode of Horace. Lib. An Epitaph on the I Marchioness of Winchester At a Vacation Exercise LAllegro On the Death of a Fair Infant Il Penseroso Dying of Cough On Time Song: on May Morning Upon the Circumcision On the Morning of Christs At a Solemn Music Nativity Lycidas The Passion PSALMS I-VIII, LXXX- On Shakespeare LXXXVIII
Sonnet On The Lord General O Nightingale! Fairfax, at the Siege of How soon hath time, the Colchester subtle thief of youth To the Lord General When the Assault was Cromwell, May 1652 Intended to the City To Sir Henry Vane the To A Virtuous Young Lady Younger On the Late Massacre in To the Lady Margaret Ley Piemont On the Detraction Which When I Consider How my Followed Upon My Writing Light is Spent Certain Treatises Lawrence of Virtuous Father On the Same Cyriack, Whose Grandsire To My Friend, Mr.Henry Lawes on his Airs To Mr. Cyriack Skinner On the Religious Memory of Upon His Blindness Mrs. Catherine Thomson Methought I Saw my late Espousèd Saint
Prose In Quintum Novembris (1626) - Dana F. Sutton Excerpt from Christian Doctrine The Reason of Church Government Background for Tenure of Kings and Magistrates - Michael Bryson Tenure of Kings and Magistrates A Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes Of Reformation. 1641 Of Education. 1644 The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce The Judgement of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce Colasterion Tetrachordon
Other Poets & Prose Writers Robert Herrick – (1591 – Thomas carew (1598 – 1674) 1639) Secular & religious Poems Noble Numbers (1648) “He that loves a rosy Haperides cheek” His power - Miscellaneous Sir john Suckling (1609 – in character 42) Compromising addresses to Ballad upon a wedding friends Why so pale and wan, fond Fairy poems lover? All subject Richard Lovelace (1618 – 58) Love poems To Althia from prison Exquisite fancy &Lyrical charm & grace Lucasta To lucasta going to the wars
Andrew Marvell (1621 – George Herbert (1593 – 78) 1633) To His coy mistress The temple The rehearsal transprosed Affliction Ode upon Cromwell’s Easter wings return from Ireland The collar New Letters (a prose work) Man Earlier he has written Collections of Lyrical characteristics of the entitled poetry cavalier School Richard Crashaw (1613 – After Restoration- changed 1649) – Fierce satire in rugged Carmen Deo Nostro style on King & Supporters The Infant Mortyrs Steps to the temple
Henry Vaughan (1622- Metaphysical poets 95) Abraham Cowley(1618-67) Poems Regeneration Pyramus & Thisbe The retreat The Mistress Olor Iscanus The Davideis Thalia Reudivia Pindarique Odes Silex scintillans Constantia and Philetus Francis quarles (1592- Discourse by way of vision 1644) Concerning the Government The religious Emblems of Cromwell (a Prose work)
John Donne (1573 -1631) Thomas Traherne (1634 – 1704) Songs & Sonnets Poems (1903) Aire and angel Centuries of Meditations A Nocturnall upon Lucies (1908) (A Prose work) Day A Valediction: Forbidding One of the greatest religious Mourning & Metaphysical poets as well The Extasie Devotions (Sermons in Prose) as prose of 17th century Ignatius His Enclave (A Beauty & Eloquence as well Prose work) as profundity of thought & Of the Progress of the soul Death’s Duell spiritual feeling
John Bunyan (1628-1688) travelers name is Christian The Pilgrim’s Progress book falls into two parts. religious allegory 1 tells of the religious Concepts - sin, despair, and faith are represented as conversion of Christian and people or as aspects of the his religious life in this world. natural world 2 describes the subsequent conversion of his wife and 1st appeals to the poets, their children 2nd to the scholars Bunyan’s prose is noted for 3rd to the common religious his simple, biblical style. people of every age and condition uses idiomatic expressions naturally. religious man’s search for salvation, and gives a truthful biblical language enables picture of English society him to narrate stories and reveal ideas in a direct way.
Restoration literature is The prevalence of the deeply influenced by French heroic couplet (2 iambic classical taste. pentameter lines which It is a period of French rime together) in poetry. influence. General characteristics Grace Abounding The tendency to vulgar The Life & Death of Mr. realism in the drama. Badman Restoration writers sought to The Holy war paint realistic pictures of a corrupt society. The world’s literature has A general formalism. They three great allegories: produced coarse, low plays Spenser’s - The Faerie without interest or moral Queene, significance. Dante’s - Divine Comedy The development of a simpler and more direct prose style. Bunyan’s - Pilgrim’s
John Dryden (1631-1700) Aldwinkle All Saints, Absalom and Achitophel - Northamptonshire powerful political satire - Educated – Westminister & to ridicule and attack the Trinity college, Cambridge whigs, and to revenge himself upon his enemies Settled in London – 1657 prose writer - marked wrote 27plays influence on English most of them are affected by literature in shortening his the immorality of the stage sentence and especially in All for Love, a tragedy writing naturally dealing with the same story cared little for style - tried as Shakespeare’s Antony and to state his critical ability - Cleopatra foremost critic of his age a poet of intellect, not of famous prose composition emotion is An Essay of Dramatic controversial and satirical Poesy
Influence on English Astraea Redux (1663) - the literature happy restoration of Charles– II Established the heroic couplet Poet Laureate – 1670 as the fashion for satiric, Absalom & Achitophel(1681) didactic, and descriptive – Political satires. poetry To defend the King’s policy Developed a direct and against the Earl of Shaftesbury concise prose style & Specially famous for its Developed the art of literary powerful character-studies criticism in his essays and in Shaftesbury as Achitophel the numerous prefaces to his The duke of Buckingham as poems Zimiri The forerunner of the English The Medal – Invective against classical school of literature shaftesbury 1st poem – The heroic stanzas MacFlecknoe – scathing on the death of Oliver personal attack his friend Cromwell (1659) Thomas Shadwell
2 Theological Poems He mostly influenced by Religio Laici (1682) – A Cowley – “ The darling of my defence of the Church of Youth” England Annu Mirabilis (1667) The Hind & The Panther 2 great events of the (1687) – favour of Roman wonderful year – The War Catholicism with Holland: The Fire of It exhibits Dryden’s mastery London Not strict religious sense The Fables – written amid the anxieties of his last years The revolution of 1688 came upon him as a heavy blow Fine tales He lost his poet Laureate Rank among our best story – tellers in verse As a poet – Ripened slowly The palamon & Arcite based 1st poem – The death of Young on The Knightes Tale Lord hastings – in 18 – Crude & Bombastic
Little imaginative power, depth The Essay of Dramatic Poesy of feeling, spiritual glow or – considers the respective fervour principles & merits of 3 Chief 2 remarkable Odes - To The types of Drama Memory of Mrs. Anne The Classical Drama of Killigrew Greece & Romans Alexander’s Feast The Neo-Classical drama of Splendid intellectuality & the French manly vigour of style The Romantic drama of the Many passage of wonderful English strength & eloquence And Justify the rime in place 1st great modern prose writer & of Blank Verse Modern critic His criticism – historically His work is thus of capital importance importance as a commentary Prose style – Clearness, upon the tastes & ideals of the Vigour, wonderful felicity of rising Classical School of Lit. Phrase & Colloquial
Other Works Preface to his plays An essay of Dramatic Poesy Dryden’s plays Tyrannic Love Conquest of Granada All for Love The rival ladies The Indian Emperor Aureng – Zeb Don Sebastian Cleomenes Love Triumphant
Samuel Butler (1612 – 1680) 3 parts of Hudibras – 1663, The story begins with these 1664, 1678 – Published 2 Satire on Puritans 1st part - Tremendous Stimulate – Saints & Their conflict with the rabble Cause (Mob) & leads to their Wonderful Burlesque being set by the heels in the romance parish stocks The misadventures of a 2nd part – incidents follow knight & his squire: I’ll which keep up the interest fortunes in love till 2 central figure – the The rest – composed of Presbyterian Sir Hudibras Odds & ends of epistles, (Military enthusiast – digressions, satire tirades Hypocrite) : Attendant Some of its best passages Ralpo (vulgar canting suffer from prolixity imposter)
The local & temporary nature of its subject – matter is also a serious disadvantage Its full of wit & vivacity Doggerel metres & astonishing double rimes “intention to kill Puritanism by ridicule & delight
Other writers Sir William Temple(1628 Essay on the human – 99) Understanding Best know to his relations Treatise on Government with Swift Thought on Education Letters & Essays in a plain Minor prose writers- John but Polished style Evelyn(1620 – 1706); John Tillotson (1630 – 94) Samuel Pepys (1633 – Introduced a similar style 1703) into religious oratory- Evelyn’s Diary – record of importance in the contemporary events – the establishment of the new point of view of a loyal, prose thoughtful, & high-minded John Locke (1632 – 1704) royalist. Prose in Philosophic Grave, simple style exposition & discussion Pepy’s Diary – entertaining was distinctly shown
It covers 10 years nearly The domestic troubles, from 1 January, 1660 to 31 st st the jealousies, may 1669 Philandering, Success & Noteworthy – the restoration, the Great Disappointment Plague, The great Fire Vivid descriptions which it gives of the men & Manners of the day the habits, fashions & Scandals of the town The gossip of the streets, the coffee-houses & the play houses & personal life & doings
Renaissance the ‘rebirth’ of literature, art & learning that progressively transformed European culture from the mid-14th century in Italy to the mid-17th century in England, strongly influenced by the rediscovery of classical Greek and Latin literature, & accelerated by the development of printing. The Renaissance is commonly held to mark the close of the middle Ages and the beginning of the modern Western world. In literary terms, it is marked by a new self-confidence in vernacular literatures, a flourishing of lyric poetry, and a revival of such classical forms as epic and pastoral literature.
Soliloquy A dramatic convention by means of which a character, alone on stage, utters his or her thoughts aloud. Playwrights use soliloquies as a convenient way to inform the audience about a character’s motivations and state of mind.
Ballads The narrative folk song that tells a story, which originates and is communicated orally mainly among illiterates, usually in 4-line stanzas, with the second and fourth lines rhymed Epistolary Novel A type of novel in which the narrative is carried on by means of series of letters. Samuel Richardson’s Pamela (1740) and Clarissa Harlowe (1748) are among the best known epistolary novels. It can be classified into two kinds: the monologue epistolary novel and the dialogue epistolary novel
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