Lecture 2 colonial + indosarcenic

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Lecture 2 colonial + indosarcenic

  1. 1. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism History of Architecture-II (AP-313) COLONIAL & INDO-SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE LECTURE 2 Nipesh P Narayanan ImageSource:http://www.collectorsguide.com/sf/sf-g/m017dl.jpg[Online]
  2. 2. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism COLONIALISM WHAT IT MEANS?
  3. 3. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism IS IT SO BAD? WHY DID IT HAPPEN IN THE FIRST PLACE? “Take up the White Man's burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to nought.” ~ Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden, 1899
  4. 4. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism BURDEN ON THE WHITE MAN! ImageSource:Gillam,Victor."TheWhiteMan'sBurden."Judge,1899[ONLINE]
  5. 5. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism BURDEN ON THE WHITE MAN! Advertisement for Pears soap in 1899. Admiral George Dewey the American Navy Commander who destroyed the Spanish Navy in Philippines The first step towards lightening The White Man’s Burden Is through teaching the virtues of cleanliness ImageSource:http://academic.reed.edu/humanities/110tech/romanafrica2/pears'soap.jpg
  6. 6. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ATTITUDE OF THE COLONISER • I know it better than you!
  7. 7. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ATTITUDE OF THE COLONISER • I know it better than you! • I am raising the natives to civilization
  8. 8. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ATTITUDE OF THE COLONISER • I know it better than you! • I am raising the natives to civilization • Win-Win situation – Coloniser get the native resources – Colonised gets to be civilized
  9. 9. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism COLONIALISM IN INDIA
  10. 10. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism COLONIALISM IN INDIA • Portuguese (1505–1961) • Dutch (1605 to 1825) • British (1612-1947) • French (1759–1954)
  11. 11. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ARCHITECTURE OF THE COLONIZER • Need for colonizer’s architecture » Started with Greeks – French – Pondicherry – Dutch – Coromandel, Malabar – Portuguese – Goa – British – Calcutta “And there they set effigies of the prisoners arrayed in barbarian costume and holding up the roof, their pride punished by this deserved affront, that enemies might tremble for fear of the effects of their courage, and that their own people, looking upon this example of their valour and encouraged by the glory of it, might be ready to defend their independence.” ~ Vitruvius, Chapter 1, De Architectura (Around 15 BC) ImageSource:TheTenBooksonArchitecture~TranslatedbyMorrisMorgan
  12. 12. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism COLONIALISM IN INDIA • Pre 1857 – Functional – Trade requirements
  13. 13. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism COLONIALISM IN INDIA • Pre 1857 – Functional – Trade requirements • Post 1857 – Identity – Power & Superiority – Social disparity – Building for performance
  14. 14. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism NEW RULE NEW INSTITUTIONS • Railway stations – Engines of growth • Courts – A civilized world • Colleges – Modern education as a base for the society • Hospitals – Quality of life • Post Offices – Bureaucracy
  15. 15. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism NEW BRITISH CITY “NEW DELHI” & A ROMAN ARCH? ImageSource:http://spectralhues.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/India-Gate.jpg
  16. 16. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism NEW LOGIC TO URBAN DESIGN • Urban Inserts – Nai Sadak – Town Halls and clock tower • Hill Stations – Masoorie – Shimla • Cantonments • Urban Extensions – Civil Lines
  17. 17. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism NEW LOGIC TO BUILDING • Military engineers – MES • PWD – 1862 • Building laws – 1855 plague • ASI – 1861 by Sir Alexander Cunningham
  18. 18. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism NEW LIFE STYLE • New behavioural pattern • Colonial life style of the rich • New typologies – Clubs – Gymkhana – Hotels – Parks and Gardens – Bungalows
  19. 19. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism WHY TAKE OVER THE GOVERNMENT? • Build Infrastructure • Railways • Roads • Social
  20. 20. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism MODES OF TRADE? • Type 1: – Basic Trade – Civilizing the natives • Type 2 – Basic trade – Civilizing the natives – PRODUCTION • Capital Crops • Semi Processed Goods British French Portuguese Dutch
  21. 21. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism EUROPEAN PALETTE • Classical • Romanesque • Gothic • Renaissance • Baroque
  22. 22. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism PRE 1857 Introverted trading enclaves called “factories” Factories Fort Towns/colonies
  23. 23. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism POST 1857 Magnificence of the Raj Introverted Colonies Spectacle of Power Architecture of the Supreme
  24. 24. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism LONDON EAST INDIA HOUSE Leadenhall Street in London (1729) ImageSource: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/East_India_House_by_Thomas_Malton_the_Younger.jpg[ONLINE]
  25. 25. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism CALCUTTA WRITERS’ BUILDING Architecture in India - 1777 (Construction started) ImageSource:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/Writers%27_Building.jpg[ONLINE]
  26. 26. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism WILLIAM HODGES AND VIEWS OF INDIA "A View of the Fort of Agra on the River Jumna," by William Hodges, London, 1785-88
  27. 27. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism BRITISH UNDERSTANDING OF INDIAN ARCHITECTURE Islamic Architecture Hindu Architecture
  28. 28. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism INDO SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE Islamic Architecture Hindu Architecture British Palette (Import)
  29. 29. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism EUROPEAN PALETTE • Classical • Romanesque • Gothic • Renaissance • Baroque
  30. 30. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism WILLIAM EMERSON THE MUIR COLLEGE Allahabad 1873 – “Over a large hall which exudes a vague air of Venetian Gothic there rises a dome which is Mughal in outline but Persian in decoration, and beside it stands a minaret which appears to have been transposed from Mamluk Egypt” ~ H R Tillotson ImageSource:http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/01216/24TH_ALLAHABD_VARS_1216948f.jpg[ONLINE]
  31. 31. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ROBERT FELLOWES CHISHOLM MADRAS UNIVERSITY SENATE HOUSE Madras 1870s – “…some of the arches are of ogee form…while others are voluptuous horseshow…as those of Moorish Spain” ~ H R Tillotson ImageSource:http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/01561/26MPSENATEHOUSE_1561603f.jpg[ONLINE]
  32. 32. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ROGER T SMITH ARCHITECTURAL ART IN INDIA “As our administration exhibits European justice, order, law, energy, and honour – and that in no hesitating or feeble way – so our buildings ought to hold up a high standard of European art. They aught to be European both as rallying points for ourselves, and as raising a distinctive symbol of our presence to be beheld with respect and even with admiration by the natives of the country” ~ Roger Smith (1873), Talk at Society of Arts
  33. 33. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism THE QUESTION OF STYLE
  34. 34. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism THE QUESTION OF STYLE “We ought, like the Romans and the Mohammedans, to take our national style with us….we shall be likely to succeed best if we are not too anxious to incorporate much of the art or style of the country with our own” ~ Roger Smith Emerson pointed out that, on contrary, Islamic architecture in India is notable for its degree of adaptation to local conditions. That was the procedure which he urged the British to Follow.
  35. 35. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ROBERT FELLOWES CHISHOLM ORIENTALISING THE RAJ Chepauk Palace Madras 1871 ~ Chisholm (Governor of Mardras, Lord Napier’s support) ImageSource:http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/01367/18MP-_Muthiah2_jpg_1367290g.jpg[ONLINE]
  36. 36. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism ROBERT FELLOWES CHISHOLM STYLE OF THE ERA Napier Museum Trivandrum 1872 ImageSource: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Napier_Museum_%26_Art_Gallery,_Thiruvananthapuram,_Kerala,_I ndia.JPG[ONLINE]
  37. 37. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism CHARLES MANT MAYO COLLEGE AJMER Ajmer 1875-85 ImageSource:http://ajmer.nic.in/pics/mayoajm.jpg[ONLINE]
  38. 38. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism MANT & CHISHOLM LAXMI VILAS Baroda 1878-90 ImageSource:http://travelrage.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/dsc00022.jpg[ONLINE]
  39. 39. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism HENRY IRWIN LAW COURTS Madras 1888-92 ImageSourcehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/A_building_in_Chennai.JPG[ONLINE]
  40. 40. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism HENRY IRWIN ART GALLERY Madras 1907 ImageSourcehttp://www.nithyacaars.com/chennai/images/National%20Art%20Gallery.jpg[ONLINE]
  41. 41. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism F W STEVENS VICTORIA TERMINUS Bombay 1880s ImageSourcehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/86/Victoria_Terminus,_Mumbai.jpg/700px- Victoria_Terminus,_Mumbai.jpg[ONLINE]
  42. 42. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism F W STEVENS VICTORIA TERMINUS Bombay 1880s ImageSourcehttp://www.the-south-asian.com/Jan-March2009/CST.2.jpg[ONLINE]
  43. 43. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism GEORGE WITTET PRINCE OF WHALES MUSEUM Bombay 1905 ImageSourcehttp://www.placeforvacations.com/sudhir-content/uploads/2012/04/The-Prince-of-Wales-Museum-In- Mumbai.jpg[ONLINE]
  44. 44. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism GEORGE WITTET GATEWAY OF INDIA Bombay 1911
  45. 45. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism WILLIAM EMERSON VICTORIA MEMORIAL Calcutta 1921 (Inaugurated ) ImageSourcehttp://travelindia123.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/victoria-memorial-4.jpg[ONLINE]
  46. 46. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism LUTYENS AND BAKER NEW DELHI 1914 - 31 ImageSourcehttp://2.bp.blogspot.com/- 6A7EJEWjtas/Tud9IHLaIeI/AAAAAAAAGF8/itKgmE2R2h0/s640/Rashtrapati+Bhavan.jpg[ONLINE]
  47. 47. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism LUTYENS AND BAKER NEW DELHI 1914 - 31 ImageSourcehttp://2.bp.blogspot.com/_aDHjCRcA8sY/TRTpl91RHrI/AAAAAAAAATY/AUI9-JwhIZY/s400/Pic+02+- +Secretariat+4.JPG[ONLINE]
  48. 48. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Colonialism REFERENCE Ching, Francis D K, Jarzombek, Mark M and Prakash, Vikramaditya. 2011. A Global History of Architecture. s.l. : John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN: 0470902485, 9780470902486. London, Chrostopher W, [ed.]. 1994. Architecture in Victorian and Edwardian India. Mumbai : Marg, 1994. ISBN: 81-85026-26-2. Marshall, P. J. 2001. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. s.l. : Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521002540, 9780521002547.

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