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Arts & crafts

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Arts & crafts

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Arts & crafts

  1. 1. History of Design Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau LECTURE 5 History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  2. 2. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Time frame • industrial revolution 1750 -1850 • arts and crafts 1860 to 1910 • victorian era 1837 to 1901
  3. 3. Geography • industrial revolution, it began in the united kingdom ( 1865 – 1913 us worlds leading industrial nation) • arts and crafts movement, developed first and mostly in the british isles • victorian era, began in britain History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  4. 4. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau society • society • Before the Industrial Revolution all work was done by hand, and now it is mainly done by machines. Also when the industrial revolution came, the style of livinng for everyone changed creating other classes other than 'Rich' and 'Poor' hence the 'Middle class' which the majority of the English and American population is. • Before the industrial revolution 80% of people earned income from the land. 4/5ths of the population lived in rural areas, leasing land from aristocrats and the wealthy and farming agriculture. Families would produce mainly what they needed to survive. IR brought about social, economical and cultural changes.
  5. 5. Agricultural revolution • Enclosure movement (no more open-fiend) • Experimental phase
  6. 6. Jethro Tull (1674 – 1741) • Seed Drill • Horse Shoe
  7. 7. Demographic revolution
  8. 8. Social impact •Urbanization and over crowding • Lack of sanitation • Cities Poluted •Disease • Homeless • Religious tension
  9. 9. Child Labour
  10. 10. economy • industrial revolution, • the basic income during the period increased ten times and the population increase 6 times in the two centuaries that followed the 1800s. • "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before". Robert E. Lucas, Jr, nobel prise winner. • a transition in parts of great britains previosuly manual labour and animal based economy towards mine based manufacturing, in the later part of the 18th century.
  11. 11. Sectors of economy that grew dramatically during this period and had significant technological advances: • Textile Industry • Introduction of steam power • Iron and steel • Railway • Coal mining
  12. 12. Inventions ... Steam Engine • Thoman Newcomen (1663 – 1729) • James Watt (1736 - 1800) VS James Watt's Improved Steam Engine James Watt was sent a Newcomen steam engine to repair that led him to invented improvements for steam engines.
  13. 13. ... More inventions • 1712 Illustration of Thomas Newcomen's Steam Engine • In 1712, Thomas Newcomen together with John Calley built their first steam engine. Flying Shuttle, Automation of Textile Making & The Industrial Revolution
  14. 14. Increased Yarn and Thread Production During Industrial Revolution The spinning jenny used eight spindles of instead of the one found on spinning wheels. In 1764, a British carpenter and weaver named James Hargreaves invented an improved spinning jenny, Spinning Frame or Water Frame Richard Arkwright patented the spinning frame or water frame that could produce stronger threads for yarns
  15. 15. Spinning Mule Increased Variety in Threads and yarn In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule that combined the moving carriage of the spinning jenny with the rollers of the water frame Power Loom's Effect on the Women of the Industrial Revolution The power loom was a steam-powered, mechanically-operated version of a regular loom. A loom is a device that combined threads to make cloth.
  16. 16. Practical Sewing Machines & Ready Made Clothing After the sewing machine was invented, the ready-made clothing industry took off. Before sewing machines, nearly all clothing was local and hand-sewn. • The telegraph was invented in 1848 •Laying of the 1st ocean cable in 1864
  17. 17. transport
  18. 18. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component; one of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. In this era of prosperity new methods of construction were developed. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many truly original structures.
  19. 19. The transept façade of the original Crystal Palace
  20. 20. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau INDUSTRIALIZATION Effects – Money – Alienation Image Source: http://ia.media-imdb. com/images/M/MV5BMjMwMDA5NzEwOF5BMl5BanBnXkFtZTcwMzgwNDg3OA@@._V1_SY317_CR5,0,214,317_.jpg [ONLINE]
  21. 21. RESPONSE TO INDUSTRIALIZATION William Morris (1834 –1896) C R Ashbee (1863 –1942) W R Lethaby (1857 - 1931) Trained as Architects and worked towards unity in the arts. “to re-establish a harmony between architect, designer and craftsman and to bring handcraftsmanship to the production of well-designer, affordable, everyday objects.” Image Source: http://media.screened.com/uploads/0/235/636117-modern_times_gears.png [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  22. 22. The introduction to Arts and Craft movement • REBELLION against age of mass production • Return to TRADITIONAL craft methods and ‘romantic forms of decor’ • Products manufactured by individuals and small groups • “ATTACKING INDUSTRIAL AGE” • Floral, wavy, leaf-like designs • Believed IR made man less creative
  23. 23. RESPONSE TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Individual expression Vernacular Use of local materials “improvement of commercial design always remained as serious a goal as the restoration of craftsmanship. Groups of leading designers not only set up craft societies but independent commercial companies” Image Source: http://media.screened.com/uploads/0/235/636117-modern_times_gears.png [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  24. 24. SOCIAL REFORM OF ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT Change in Working condition Belief in restorative power of craftsmanship Simple life Art as a way of life History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  25. 25. PRINCIPLES OF ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau HONESTY Design Unity Joy in Labour Individualism Regionalism
  26. 26. WILLIAM MORRIS (1834 –1896) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Influenced by – Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood – Writings of John Ruskin Image Source: hhttp://www.literaryplaces.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Portrait-of-William-Morris.jpg [ONLINE]
  27. 27. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  28. 28. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  29. 29. THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT The Arts and Crafts Movement was an international design movement that originated in Britain and flourished between 1880 and 1910. It was instigated by the artist and writer William Morris (1834–1896) in the 1860s and was inspired by the writings of John Ruskin (1819–1900). It influenced architecture, domestic design and the decorative arts, using simple forms and a medieval style of decoration. It advocated truth to materials, traditional craftsmanship and economic reform.
  30. 30. WILLIAM MORRIS TRELLIS Wallpaper designer by Morris Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Morris_design_for_Trellis_wallpaper_1862.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  31. 31. WILLIAM MORRIS RED HOUSE History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Architect - Philip Webb Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/The_Red_House%2C_Bexleyheath.JPG [ONLINE]
  32. 32. WILLIAM MORRIS RED HOUSE History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Architect - Philip Webb Image Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_w4ifTToAw5Q/TD8vQOlxSMI/AAAAAAAACh0/LVo4bxKHSfU/s1600/red+house.jpg [ONLINE]
  33. 33. WILLIAM MORRIS RED HOUSE History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Architect - Philip Webb Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Red_House_window_detail.JPG [ONLINE]
  34. 34. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau C R ASHBEE (1863 –1942) Influenced by – Socialism of William Morris (Established Guild and School of Handicraft in 1888, in the slums of Whitechapel) – Works of John Ruskin Image Source: http://www.utopia-britannica.org.uk/Assets/Ashbee.jpg [ONLINE]
  35. 35. C R ASHBEE GUILD AND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFT "seek not only to set a higher standard of craftsmanship, but at the same time, and in so doing, to protect the status of the craftsman. To this end it endeavours to steer a mean between the independence of the artist— which is individualistic and often parasitical— and the trade-shop, where the workman is bound to purely commercial and antiquated traditions, and has, as a rule, neither stake in the business nor any interest beyond his weekly wage" History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  36. 36. C R ASHBEE MAHOGANY VENEERED ETAGÈRE Image Source: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/design/ashbee/3.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  37. 37. C R ASHBEE SILVER MOUNTED DECANTER Image Source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3113/3168776759_c1702917e5.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  38. 38. W R LETHABY (1857 - 1931) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Influenced by – His Father, craftsman and lay preacher – Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings Image Source: http://stoneletters.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/william-lethaby.jpg [ONLINE]
  39. 39. W R LETHABY BUILDING AT COLMORE ROW Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/122-124_Colmore_Row.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  40. 40. PHILIP WEBB (1857 - 1931) Architect of the first Arts and Crafts Building – The Red House Image Source: http://www.achome.co.uk/biographies/biographies/webb.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  41. 41. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau PHILIP WEBB - STANDEN House at West Sussex, England. Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Standen_Exterior.jpg [ONLINE]
  42. 42. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau PHILIP WEBB - STANDEN House at West Sussex, England. Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Standen_Interior.jpg [ONLINE]
  43. 43. INFLUENCE ON USA- ORGANIC ARCHITECTURE “The idea that every country should have an architecture that reflects its own particular history, geography and climate was central to the Arts and Crafts movement” History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  44. 44. INFLUENCE ON USA- DAVID B GAMBLE HOUSE Image Source: http://www.huntington.org/uploadedImages/Files/images/greenegamble.jpg [ONLINE] House at West Sussex, England, Designed by Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene (1908) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  45. 45. INFLUENCE ON USA- DAVID B GAMBLE HOUSE Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Gamble_Porch.jpg [ONLINE] House at West Sussex, England, Designed by Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  46. 46. INFLUENCE ON USA- MILLARD HOUSE HOUSE Image Source: http://millardhouse.com/mhouse237/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/a_splash-2.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau F L Wright (1932)
  47. 47. INFLUENCE ON USA- MILLARD HOUSE HOUSE Image Source: http://millardhouse.com/mhouse237/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/a_splash-1.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau F L Wright (1923)
  48. 48. INFLUENCE ON USA- WAINWRIGHT BUILDING Image Source: http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1883/flashcards/634705/jpg/wainwright-building.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Architect – Louis Sullivan (1890-91)
  49. 49. INFLUENCE ON USA- WAINWRIGHT BUILDING Image Source: http://larryspeck.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/78-710.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Architect – Louis Sullivan (1890-91)
  50. 50. INFLUENCE ON USA- WAINWRIGHT BUILDING Image Source: http://timothypflueger.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/wainwright-building-habs-cropped.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Architect – Louis Sullivan (1890-91)
  51. 51. American examples of “Arts & Crafts” style houses.
  52. 52. ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT & ART NOUVEAU History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Rough Timeline Arts and Crafts Movement – 1860s – 1910s Art Nouveau – 1890s-1910s
  53. 53. ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT & ART NOUVEAU History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Principles Imbibing all art forms Art as a way of life
  54. 54. ART NOUVEAU DIFFERENT FROM ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT? Use of New Materials Protest against the traditional “William Morris was the theoretician whose beliefs more than those of anyone else initiated the Art Nouveau movement” History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  55. 55. HEYGATE MACKMURDO (1851 – 1941) TITLE PAGE (1883) “ Mackmurdo’D first graphic expression of Art Nouveau is generally accepted as his title page for Wren’s City Churches, published by G Allen in 1883” Image Source: http://www.aiga.org/uploadedImages/AIGA/Content/Inspiration/Voice/ART_Patton_BackStart_300x368.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  56. 56. HEYGATE MACKMURDO (1851 – 1941) CHAIR (1883) Image Source: http://hogd.pbworks.com/f/1254968919/Mackmurdo's%20chair.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  57. 57. MAISON DE L'ART NOUVEAU Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Siegfried_bing_exposition_20050227.JPG [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Opened on 1895, Paris
  58. 58. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH (1868 –1928 ) Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wfm_glasgow_school_of_art.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Glasgow School of Art (1897)
  59. 59. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH (1868 –1928 ) Image Source: http://brst440.commons.yale.edu/files/glasgow-school-of-art.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Glasgow School of Art (1897)
  60. 60. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH (1868 –1928 ) Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Wfm_mackintosh_lighthouse.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau The Lighthouse, Glasgow (1895)
  61. 61. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH (1868 –1928 ) Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lighthouse_glasgow_spiral_staircase.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau The Lighthouse, Glasgow (1895)
  62. 62. ART NOUVEAU ______________________________________________________________________________________________ CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
  63. 63. ART NOUVEAU ______________________________________________________________________________________________ CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
  64. 64. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH (1868 –1928 ) Image Source: http://www.urbansuite.co.uk/images/D/charles-rennie-mackintosh-hill-house-chair-1274-1.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Ladderback Chair
  65. 65. ART NOUVEAU ______________________________________________________________________________________________ MARGARET MACDONALD MACKINTOSH
  66. 66. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH TYPEFACE History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  67. 67. CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH PRODUCT DESIGN History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  68. 68. ANTONI GAUDÍ (1852 –1926 ) Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Sagrada_Familia_01.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Sagrada Família (1883)
  69. 69. ANTONI GAUDÍ (1852 –1926 ) Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sagrada_Familia_nave_roof_detail.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Sagrada Família (1883)
  70. 70. LOUIS SULLIVAN (1856 –1924 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Wainwright building(1890) Image Source: http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1883/flashcards/634705/jpg/wainwright-building.jpg [ONLINE]
  71. 71. LOUIS SULLIVAN (1856 –1924 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Wainwright building(1890) Image Source: http://media.archinform.net/m/00002620.jpg [ONLINE]
  72. 72. VICTOR HORTA (1861 –1947 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Tassel House (1893) Image Source: http://hanser.ceat.okstate.edu/6083/Horta/Tassel/Brussels-Hotel%20Tassel,%20ext.%20facade.jpg [ONLINE]
  73. 73. VICTOR HORTA (1861 –1947 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Tassel House (1893) Image Source: http://hanser.ceat.okstate.edu/6083/Horta/Tassel/Victor%20Horta;%20Brussels,%20Tassel%20House,%201893- 5,%20floor%20plans%20of%20restoration2.JPG [ONLINE]
  74. 74. VICTOR HORTA (1861 –1947 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Tassel House (1893) Image Source: http://www.buamai.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/91418726_f96132ab6b_o.jpg [ONLINE]
  75. 75. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau ANTONI GAUDÍ (1852 –1926 ) Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/Casa_Mil%C3%A0_%28Barcelona%29_- _5.jpg/800px-Casa_Mil%C3%A0_%28Barcelona%29_-_5.jpg [ONLINE] Casa Milà (1907)
  76. 76. ANTONI GAUDÍ (1852 –1926 ) Image Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/- cR6a1iXhLIM/URP0goQXVtI/AAAAAAAAACI/iIA35t7Ysb8/s640/Casa_Mila_Rooftop.jpg [ONLINE] History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Casa Milà (1907)
  77. 77. LOUIS SULLIVAN (1856 –1924 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Merchants' National Bank (1914) Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LSGrinnell7.jpg [ONLINE]
  78. 78. LOUIS SULLIVAN (1856 –1924 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Merchants' National Bank (1914) Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LSGrinnell3.jpg [ONLINE]
  79. 79. PETER BEHRENS (1868 –1940 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau AEG Turbine Factory (1908) Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/AEG_by_Peter_Behrens.jpg [ONLINE]
  80. 80. JOSEF HOFFMANN (1870 –1956 ) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau Kubus armchair(1910) Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Josef_Hoffmann_-_Kubus_Fauteuil_%281910%29.jpg [ONLINE]
  81. 81. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau ART NOUVEAU LETTERING
  82. 82. Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other objets d'art. Klimt's primary subject was the female body; his works are marked by a frank eroticism. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  83. 83. Gustave Moreau (6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a French Symbolist painter whose main emphasis was the illustration of biblical and mythological figures. As a painter, Moreau appealed to the imaginations of some Symbolist writers and artists. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau
  84. 84. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau

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