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MEANDERINGS OF MODERNISM
Futurism & Formalism

LECTURE 8

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Casa_Sant%27Elia...
PROJECT VS THE PRACTICE!

History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
POLITICALLY CHARGED AND AGGRESSIVE MODERNISM

• Machines
– New creation of the human race

• Revolution
– Man’s destiny is...
“It is in Italy that we are issuing this manifesto of ruinous and incendiary
violence, by which we today are founding Futu...
THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO

1. We want to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and
Image Source: http://en.wikip...
2. The essential
elements of our poetry
will be
courage, audacity and
revolt.

Mountains + Valleys + Streets
(1915), F. T....
THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO

and slumber. We want to exalt movements of aggression, feverish
sleeplessness, the double ma...
4. We declare that the splendour of the world has been enriched by
a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing automobile ...
5. We want to sing the man at the wheel, the ideal axis of which
crosses the earth, itself hurled along its orbit.

The St...
6. The poet must spend
himself with warmth, glamour
and prodigality to increase
the enthusiastic fervour of
the primordial...
7. Beauty exists only in struggle. There is no masterpiece that has
not an aggressive character. Poetry must be a violent ...
THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO

use of looking behind at the moment when we must open the
mysterious shutters of the impossi...
THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO

— the only cure for the
world —
militarism, patriotism, the
destructive gesture of the
anarc...
THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO

10. We want to demolish museums and libraries, fight

“Museums, cemeteries! Truly identical ...
THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO

revolt; the multi-coloured and polyphonic surf of revolutions in
modern capitals: the noctur...
Art
Painting
Sculpture
Literature
Architecture
Music
Food

Image Source: http://www.csun.edu/~pjd77408/DrD/Art461/Lectures...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

“ No architecture has existed since
1700. A moronic mixture of the
most various st...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE
~ Antonio Sant'Elia (1888 – 1916)

COMBAT AND DESPISE
1.

All the pseudo-architectu...
1. That Futurist

Antonio Sant'Elia (1914), Drawing

architecture is the
architecture of
calculation, of audacious
temerit...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

because of this an arid
combination of practicality and
usefulness, but remains ar...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

lines are dynamic, and by their
very nature possess an emotive
power a thousand ti...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

4. That decoration as an element superimposed

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.o...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

5. That, just as the ancients drew inspiration for their art from the elements of
...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

6. That architecture as the art of arranging forms according to pre-established
cr...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

7. That by the term architecture is meant the endeavour to harmonize the

Image So...
THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

grow, since the fundamental characteristics of Futurist architecture will be its
i...
AFTERMATH OF THE FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolis_(1927_film)[Online]

New Cit...
Image Source: http://llnw.wbez.org/blog/insert-image/2011-August/2011-0825/FrankLloydWrightSpeaksNearIllinoisBuilding%202....
New City

Image Source: http://karldiskin.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/corbusier__plan_voisin_for_paris_1925_model.jpg)[Onl...
AFTERMATH OF THE FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE

Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johnnie%27s_Coffee_Shop_for_Wiki_1...
WHAT IS THE PROJECT OF MODERNISM?

History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
•Pilotis
•Roof gardens
•The free designing of the ground plan
•The free design of façade
•The horizontal window

Image Sou...
CONTENT VS THE FORM!

History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
ADVENT OF FORMALISM IN

Bank of China Tower
Hong Kong,
I M Pei

Image Source: http://0.tqn.com/d/architecture/1/0/B/8/pei-...
Image Source: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/3290478.jpg [ONLINE]

ADVENT OF FORMALISM IN LATE MODERNISM

Histor...
PROJECT VS THE PRACTICE!

History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
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Lecture 8 meanderings of modernism - futurism & formalism

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Lecture 8 meanderings of modernism - futurism & formalism

  1. 1. MEANDERINGS OF MODERNISM Futurism & Formalism LECTURE 8 Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Casa_Sant%27Elia.jpg [Online] History of Architecture-II (AP-313) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism Nipesh P Narayanan
  2. 2. PROJECT VS THE PRACTICE! History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  3. 3. POLITICALLY CHARGED AND AGGRESSIVE MODERNISM • Machines – New creation of the human race • Revolution – Man’s destiny is in Man’s hand • Movement and Speed – New Revelations History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  4. 4. “It is in Italy that we are issuing this manifesto of ruinous and incendiary violence, by which we today are founding Futurism, because we want to deliver Italy from its gangrene of professors, archaeologists, tourist guides and antiquaries…….. For the dying, for invalids and for prisoners it may be all right. It is, perhaps, some sort of balm for their wounds, the admirable past, at a moment when the future is denied them. But we will have none of it, we, the YOUNG, STRONG and LIVING Futurists!” Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, 1909 Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manifesto_of_Futurism.jpg [Online] F T MARINETTI AND THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  5. 5. THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO 1. We want to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Umberto_Boccioni_-_Elastic.jpg [Online] rashness Elasticity, 1912, by Umberto Boccioni History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  6. 6. 2. The essential elements of our poetry will be courage, audacity and revolt. Mountains + Valleys + Streets (1915), F. T. Marinetti Image Source: http://www.csun.edu/~pjd77408/DrD/Art461/LecturesAll/Lectures/lecture05/Futurism/ch15-9.gif [Online] THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  7. 7. THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO and slumber. We want to exalt movements of aggression, feverish sleeplessness, the double march, the perilous leap, the slap and the blow with the fist. Vehement god from a race of steel, Automobile drunk with space, Trampling with anguish, bit between your strident teeth! O formidable Japanese monster with forge, Nourished with flame and mineral oils, Hungry for horizons and sidereal prey, I unleash your heart to the diabolical vroom-vroom And your giant radials, for the dance You lead on the white roads of the world. Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manifesto_of_Futurism.jpg [Online] 3. Literature has up to now magnified pensive immobility, ecstasy ~ To a Racing Car, F T Marinetti History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  8. 8. 4. We declare that the splendour of the world has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing automobile with its bonnet adorned with great tubes like serpents with explosive breath ... a roaring motor car which seems to run on machine-gun fire, is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism Image Source: http://www.michaelarnoldart.com/the_unique_forms_of_continuity_in_space.jpg [Online] Image Source: http://thatlou.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/black-background-winged_victory_of_samothracewikipedia-org.jpg [Online] THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO
  9. 9. 5. We want to sing the man at the wheel, the ideal axis of which crosses the earth, itself hurled along its orbit. The Street Enters the House, 1911, Umberto Boccioni Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Umberto_Boccioni_-_A_strada_entra_nella_casa.jpg [Online] THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  10. 10. 6. The poet must spend himself with warmth, glamour and prodigality to increase the enthusiastic fervour of the primordial elements. Umberto Boccioni, 1913, Synthesis of Human Dynamism Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Umberto_Boccioni,_1913,_Synth%C3%A8se_du_dynamisme_humain_(Synthesis_of_Human_Dynamis m),_location_unknown,_destroyed.jpg [Online] THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  11. 11. 7. Beauty exists only in struggle. There is no masterpiece that has not an aggressive character. Poetry must be a violent assault on the forces of the unknown, to force them to bow before man. The City Rises, 1910, Umberto Boccioni Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_City_Rises_by_Umberto_Boccioni_1910.jpg [Online] THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  12. 12. THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO use of looking behind at the moment when we must open the mysterious shutters of the impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We are already living in the absolute, since we have already created eternal, omnipresent speed. Giacomo Balla, Abstract Speed + Sound, 1913–1914 Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manifesto_of_Futurism.jpg [Online] 8. We are on the extreme promontory of the centuries! What is the History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  13. 13. THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO — the only cure for the world — militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of the anarchists, the beautiful ideas which kill, and contempt for woman. Benito Mussolini Image Source: http://www.rtvmodeler.com/WWII/Biografias/mussolini.jpg [Online] 9. We want to glorify war History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  14. 14. THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO 10. We want to demolish museums and libraries, fight “Museums, cemeteries! Truly identical in their sinister juxtaposition of bodies that do not know each other. Public dormitories where you sleep side by side for ever with beings you hate or do not know. Reciprocal ferocity of the painters and sculptors who murder each other in the same museum with blows of line and colour. To make a visit once a year, as one goes to see the graves of our dead once a year, that we could allow! We can even imagine placing flowers once a year at the feet of the Gioconda! But to take our sadness, our fragile courage and our anxiety to the museum every day, that we cannot admit! Do you want to poison yourselves? Do you want to rot?” Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manifesto_of_Futurism.jpg [Online] morality, feminism and all opportunist and utilitarian cowardice. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  15. 15. THE FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO revolt; the multi-coloured and polyphonic surf of revolutions in modern capitals: the nocturnal vibration of the arsenals and the workshops beneath their violent electric moons: the gluttonous railway stations devouring smoking serpents; factories suspended from the clouds by the thread of their smoke; bridges with the leap of gymnasts flung across the diabolic cutlery of sunny rivers: adventurous steamers sniffing the horizon; great-breasted locomotives, puffing on the rails like enormous steel horses with long tubes for bridle, and the gliding flight of aeroplanes whose propeller sounds like the flapping of a flag and the applause of enthusiastic crowds. 1909 Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manifesto_of_Futurism.jpg [Online] 11. We will sing of the great crowds agitated by work, pleasure and History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  16. 16. Art Painting Sculpture Literature Architecture Music Food Image Source: http://www.csun.edu/~pjd77408/DrD/Art461/LecturesAll/Lectures/lecture05/Futurism/ch15-20.jpg [Online] THE REPERCUSSIONS OF FIRST FUTURIST MANIFESTO Dinamo Azari (1927), Fortunato Depero History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  17. 17. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE “ No architecture has existed since 1700. A moronic mixture of the most various stylistic elements used to mask the skeletons of modern houses is called modern architecture. The new beauty of cement and iron are profaned by the superimposition of motley decorative incrustations that cannot be justified either by constructive necessity or by our (modern) taste, and whose origins are in Egyptian, Indian or Byzantine antiquity and in that idiotic flowering of stupidity and impotence that took the name of neoclassicism. 1914 “ Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antonio_Sant%27Elia.jpg [Online] ~ Antonio Sant'Elia (1888 – 1916) History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  18. 18. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE ~ Antonio Sant'Elia (1888 – 1916) COMBAT AND DESPISE 1. All the pseudo-architecture of the avantgarde, Austrian, Hungarian, German and American; 2. All classical architecture, solemn, hieratic, scenographic, decorative, monumental, p retty and pleasing; 3. The embalming, reconstruction and reproduction of ancient monuments and palaces; 4. Perpendicular and horizontal lines, cubical and pyramidal forms that are static, solemn and absolutely excluded from our utterly new sensibility; 5. The use of massive, voluminous, durable, antiquated and costly materials. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  19. 19. 1. That Futurist Antonio Sant'Elia (1914), Drawing architecture is the architecture of calculation, of audacious temerity and of simplicity; the architecture of reinforced concrete, of steel, glass, cardboard, tex tile fiber, and of all those substitutes for wood, stone and brick that enable us to obtain maximum elasticity and lightness Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Casa_a_gradinata_con_ascensori_dai_quattro_piani_stradali_1914_Sant%27Elia.jpg [Online] THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  20. 20. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE because of this an arid combination of practicality and usefulness, but remains art, i.e. synthesis and expression Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Centrale_elettrica_Sant%27Elia.jpg [Online] 2. That Futurist architecture is not Antonio Sant'Elia (1914), Power Station History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  21. 21. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE lines are dynamic, and by their very nature possess an emotive power a thousand times stronger than perpendiculars and horizontals, and that no integral, dynamic architecture can exist that does not include these Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Casa_Sant%27Elia.jpg [Online] 3. That oblique and elliptic Antonio Sant'Elia (1914), House with external elevators History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  22. 22. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE 4. That decoration as an element superimposed Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Santelia02.jpg [Online] on architecture is absurd, and that the decorative value of Futurist architecture depends solely on the use and original arrangement of raw or bare or violently coloured materials Antonio Sant'Elia (1914), Drawing History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  23. 23. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE 5. That, just as the ancients drew inspiration for their art from the elements of Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Santelia03.jpg [Online] nature, we—who are materially and spiritually artificial—must find that inspiration in the elements of the utterly new mechanical world we have created, and of which architecture must be the most beautiful expression, the most complete synthesis, the most efficacious integration Antonio Sant'Elia (1914), Drawing History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  24. 24. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE 6. That architecture as the art of arranging forms according to pre-established criteria is finished History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  25. 25. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE 7. That by the term architecture is meant the endeavour to harmonize the Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Santelia03.jpg [Online] environment with Man with freedom and great audacity, that is to transform the world of things into a direct projection of the world of the spirit Antonio Sant'Elia (1914), Drawing History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  26. 26. THE MANIFESTO OF FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE grow, since the fundamental characteristics of Futurist architecture will be its impermanence and transience. Things will endure less than us. Every generation must build its own city. This constant renewal of the architectonic environment will contribute to the victory of Futurism which has already been affirmed by Words-in-freedom, plastic Dynamism, Music without quadrature and the Art of noises, and for which we fight without respite against traditionalist cowardice Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antonio_Sant%27Elia.jpg [Online] 8. From an architecture conceived in this way no formal or linear habit can History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  27. 27. AFTERMATH OF THE FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropolis_(1927_film)[Online] New City Tower of Babel, modelled after Brueghel's 1563 painting History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  28. 28. Image Source: http://llnw.wbez.org/blog/insert-image/2011-August/2011-0825/FrankLloydWrightSpeaksNearIllinoisBuilding%202.jpg)[Online] AFTERMATH OF THE FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE New City FLW, Mile High City History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  29. 29. New City Image Source: http://karldiskin.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/corbusier__plan_voisin_for_paris_1925_model.jpg)[Online] AFTERMATH OF THE FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE Le Corbusier, The Metropolis of Tomorrow History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  30. 30. AFTERMATH OF THE FUTURIST ARCHITECTURE Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johnnie%27s_Coffee_Shop_for_Wiki_1.jpg [Online] Googie Architecture: Cars, Jets and Space Age Johnie's Coffee Shop on Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles designed by Armet & Davis History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  31. 31. WHAT IS THE PROJECT OF MODERNISM? History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  32. 32. •Pilotis •Roof gardens •The free designing of the ground plan •The free design of façade •The horizontal window Image Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Toward_an_architecture.jpg [ONLINE] ADVENT OF FORMALISM IN LATE MODERNISM History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  33. 33. CONTENT VS THE FORM! History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  34. 34. ADVENT OF FORMALISM IN Bank of China Tower Hong Kong, I M Pei Image Source: http://0.tqn.com/d/architecture/1/0/B/8/pei-bankhongkong-pritzker.jpg [ONLINE] LATE MODERNISM History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  35. 35. Image Source: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/3290478.jpg [ONLINE] ADVENT OF FORMALISM IN LATE MODERNISM History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism
  36. 36. PROJECT VS THE PRACTICE! History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Meanderings of Modernism

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