www.monash.edu.au2Assignment 1• Individual Essay• Due week 8 on the Monday 5pm - Moodle• Worth 30%• 3,000 words• 7 Journal Articles• APA Referencing• TAKE A POSITION
www.monash.edu.au3QuestionSome theorists/authors have recently suggested that traditionalorganisational development (i.e. emphasising internal factors at thegroup and interpersonal levels and focusing on issues such asempowerment, team building, conflict, management, etc.) is no longerrelevant to change management, particularly given the currentturbulent environment in which business operate.Critically discuss this statement, drawing on• theoretical perspectives,• research evidence and• business examples
www.monash.edu.au4Breaking it Down• What did the question say?– OD is no longer relevant– Due to the turbulent business environment– Do you agree?– Use theory– Past research– Current business examples
www.monash.edu.au5Two Broad Approaches to ChangeOrganisational Development• spawned from human relationsmovement• bottom-up• focus on the present, changeprocess & targets• focus on people – group dynamics,leadership, communication• leverage from feedback loops• Interventions – human relations(Johari window, team building,empowerment etc)• About developing people &organisations• Issues with Strategic Managementapparent lack of regard for &understanding of peopleStrategic Management• spawned from business policy(operations, finance, marketing)• top-down• focus on the future, goals &stakeholders• focus on structure, function &motivation• leverage from goal attainment• Interventions -downsizing, business processre-engineering, restructuring, communications• About driving change to achieveindividual & organisational gaols• Issue with OD apparent lack ofpragmatism, process focus &internal perspective
www.monash.edu.au6Turbulent Business Environment• GFC• Globalisation• European debt crisis• Stronger Australian Dollar• Exports and Imports• Sustainability• CSR• Government Regulation
www.monash.edu.au7Is OD Relevant?• People based approach• Can be time consuming• Can be lengthy• Little focus on the future• People are the most important resource• Don’t we need workers to work harder and smarter duringthese times• Focuses on the here and now, ensuring we are changing tothe environment
www.monash.edu.au8Relevant Theory• Look in the lecture slides• Look in your readings• You can draw from anything that is relevant– Change Typologies– Lewin’s Change Model– Four Change Strategies– This was just from me opening up the Week 2 lectureslides
www.monash.edu.au9Business Examples• Ross has used some in the lectures• If you are arguing how important OT is – googledownsizing!• If you are arguing against OT – google downsizing!
www.monash.edu.au10Structure• Introduction– Introduction into the topic (business environment)– What will the essay discuss (position)• A definition of OT and OD?• 3-5 key reasons as to why you are arguing yourpoint – all in separate paragraphs• Conclusion– Restate the point
www.monash.edu.au11Marks• Focus– Make sure every paragraph adds to your argument• Integration– Make sure there is a logical red line from one idea tothe next• Understanding and Insight– Have you demonstrated that you understand theconcepts by integrating differing opinions not just hesaid she said
www.monash.edu.au12Marks• Reference to Appropriate Theories and Models– Is the theory you are using relevant or have you justexplained Lewin’s model for 2 pages for no reason?• Definitions– Are you able to define any key terms that are used inyour essay (i.e. OT and OD)• Presentation– Does it look and sound like a 3rd year essay• References– 7 references at least in the APA format and are theyquality references
www.monash.edu.au13Difference in Marks• F – Can talk about OD and OT but offers little analysis andjust regurgitates the textbook.• P – Had a clear contention and some good reasons why ODis / isnt relevant. Doesn’t do much else.• C – Identifies the theories and identifies business change butdoesn’t have the skill to make a link between the two.• D – Outstanding analysis and understanding OD/OT andgood business examples.• HD – I learnt something from reading the essay. It wasinteresting and thought provoking. Strong use of theoryand business examples.
www.monash.edu.au14Difference in Marks• F – OD is no longer relevant because of the GFC. Because of theGFC organisations need to downsize.• P – As the GFC affected organisations bottom lines, and severecuts to disposable income, organisations needed to respondquickly to remain solvent. Therefore, downsizing was one tacticundertaken.• C – Drawing from Narayanan & Nath’s theory of planned change,organisations affected by falling bottom lines from the GFC canadapt via OT interventions. An intervention is downsizing.Downsizing was used by Qantas….• D – OT has replaced OD as the most relevant form of plannedchange in the modern turbulent environment. This has occurredas OT has a greater focus on the organisation and the bottomline that that of OD which primary focus is on people. Structuralinterventions have started to emerge in order to adapt to thechanging global environment.
www.monash.edu.au15Difference in Marks• HD – The current business environment has developed as such thatthe pressure on organisation change interventions has resultedin a shift of thinking. In planning change, managers have startedto focus on structural interventions in order to align the structureof the organisation with the organisational goals. From atheoretical perspective, OT has become more relevant than OD.To illustrate this point, Qantas have moved from an OD modelof planned change, (example) to a OT model (example) in orderto compete in the current environment.