Person knowledgeable of evaluation procedures and results
Others as determined by parents or school
Student, if over 14; younger if appropriate
Present levels of performance
Annual goals and short term objectives or benchmarks
Special education and other services
Participation in regular curriculum and environment
Cover All Bases
Meaningful parent participation
All the required participants
All required components
There is no such thing as a behavior IEP, a transition IEP, an inclusion IEP, a speech IEP, an LD IEP… An IEP is an IEP!
5 Principles from Legal Rulings on IEPs
Address all unique needs, not just academics
Write the IEP based on needs, not availability of services
IEP is a binding commitment of resources
IEPs must be individualized
All required components of the IEP must be included
-- Barbara Bateman
Work samples and other permanent products
Behavior rating scales and checklists
Other standardized instruments
Differs significantly from peers?
Identifying Behavioral Needs
Skill vs. Performance Deficits
Skill: student doesn’t know how
Performance: student knows how but doesn’t do it
Context of Behavior
A B C
Aspects of Target Behavior Student does not have the knowledge/skill to display the desired behavior Student has the knowledge/skill, but does not display the desired behavior Inappropriate or antisocial behavior in place of desired behavior No inappropriate or antisocial behavior is displayed
Behavior is Complex Culture Needs and Desires Disability Habit Family Peers
Why do kids misbehave?
Feeling badly about self
from Dr. Charles Smith (Kansas State Univ.)
What messages do we send to kids?
What typically happens when we intervene?
It takes time to change behavior
Behavior gets worse before it gets better
Low level behavior can escalate
Positive Behavioral Supports
1 - 7% of students
20 - 25% of students
70 - 75% of students
(Lewis & Sugai, 1999)
School-wide Selected Individual
Remember what you know! 4 + 4 = ?
When do you need a BIP?
A student with disabilities displays behavior that interferes with his/her learning or that of others (special factor)
A student’s behavior results in a change of placement
Base the BIP on a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
Define target behavior
Develop a hypothesis as to the function of the behavior
Collect data (direct and indirectly)
Validate the function and key context variables
Develop the BIP
Behaviors Occur for Many Reasons
Students act for a purpose
Behavioral intent = purpose sought by the student
Most children seek similar goals in social situations
Behavior used by students with behavior problems is not accepted or desired by others
Common Functions of Behavior
Clear definitions of behavior
Addresses the environment, including teacher and peer behavior
Behavior Intervention Plans...
Support desired alternatives that allow student to meet their needs
Make the current undesired behavior less effective in meeting the student’s need
Focus on Positives
Positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports
Long-term behavior change only comes from positives
Need to balance the equation
Define observable behavior
Look or sound like?
Student says or does?
What do you want instead?
Nature of surface behavior has little to do with selecting an appropriate consequence
The function of behavior should direct the consequences
Disruption of the Lesson
What might be typical responses?
“ Math stinks! I’m not going to do this #@&*!”
Uniform Code of Conduct
Schools should have uniform expectations for student behavior
It is not reasonable to have the same consequences for all students
“ Boys, we don’t talk like that in school…” Principal
Programs to Meet Common Student Needs
School-wide or classroom-based programs to help meet needs such as
academic and social competence
self-direction and self-control
Altering the Context
Only addressing student behavior without changing the context is a recipe for failure
Teacher behavior, curriculum, peers, and family play critical roles in supporting behavior change
Systems of teacher support
Be wary of consequences that group students w/ challenging behaviors
Instructional & pro-social consequences
Evaluating the BIP
S ystematic review
Criteria for success (long and short term)
2 Components of a BIP
The best way to address undesirable behavior… … is to prevent it from happening in the first place!
Stopping the behavior once it starts but before it gets out of control
Timeout, in-school suspensions, response-cost
Replacement or alternative behaviors
In an Emergency….
No basis for plan
Plan not followed
No data on effectiveness
Incorporating BIPs into IEPs
Where in the IEP?
If Alternative Undesired Behavior is Displayed...
Reduce undesired behavior
Increase display of desired behavior
Reasonably be accomplished in 12 months
Observable and measurable outcomes to demonstrate progress
Example : Michael will use verbal de-escalation, avoidance tactics, or seek help in conflict situations.
Objectives/Benchmarks (Minimum of 2 per goal)
Observable and measurable behaviors for outcomes
Specific, measurable, observable target behavior
Accuracy (be realistic)
Time allotted / time frame
Example : Given a social situation with conflict and a list of socially acceptable ways to address conflict, Michael will state at least 2 ways to address the conflict with 100% accuracy for 20 consecutive sessions.
Target Various Aspects of Skill Development
List 2 strategies for...
Identify the emotion being displayed...
Increase number of times…
What issues might have to be considered when exploring a behavior such as possible sexual harassment?
Present level : Samuel displays inappropriate sexual comments to females an average of 4 times/week.
Goal : Samuel will make appropriate comments when greeting and interacting with females within the school setting.
Given a verbal, written or role-play situation, Samuel will be able to give socially appropriate greetings to females with 90% of opportunities for 3 consecutive weeks.
Samuel will reduce the number of office referrals for inappropriate sexual comments or gestures to less than 2/month for 4 consecutive months.
A sample goal…
Brenda will work independently and attend to a given task during a 20-minute school activity with only 1 teacher prompt for 7 of 10 class sessions.
And the STOs…
Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 1 minute after instructions are given and will work continuously for 8 minutes by the end of the 1 st grading period.
Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 45 seconds after instructions are given and will work continuously for 12 minutes by the end of the 2 nd grading period.
Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 30 seconds after instructions are given and will work continuously for 16 minutes by the end of the 3 rd grading period.
Given 1 teacher prompt, Brenda will begin working within 20 seconds after instructions are given and will work continuously for 20 minutes by the end of the 4 th quarter.
Goal: Given 2 classes per day initially and increasing to a full day (8 periods) of classes, Joe will attend school regularly.
STOs for Joe
Given 2 classes per day plus morning check-in, Joe will attend 100% of his classes for 5 consecutive days.
Given Joe’s input on which subjects to add, he will attend 4 of 4 classes plus morning check-in for 8 of 10 days.
Given Joe’s input on which subjects to add, he will attend 5 of 5 classes plus morning check-in and lunch for 8 of 10 days.
Given an 8 period day, Joe will attend all of his classes plus morning check-in and lunch for 8 of 10 days.
Goal: Given social skills training, Mary will participate in structured small group activities by remaining in the group, respecting personal space, and initiating a conversation 100% of opportunities.
Given an instructional group of 3-4 children, Mary will remain in the group (on the rug or sitting at the table) for 5 minutes of a 20-minute class by the end of the 1 st quarter…
Mary will keep her hands and feet to herself and remain at least 1 arm’s length away from other people 50% of opportunities…
By the end of the 4 th quarter, Mary will ask at least 1 question related to the discussion topic during every small group session and then make at least 1 follow-up comment.
How will you identify a need?
Document current level of functioning?
Develop a measurable goal & at least 2 measurable obj./benchmarks?