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  • IEP = Individualized Education Plan; BIP = Behavior Intervention Plan Note to users: This PowerPoint presentation was developed as part of a statewide CESA 12 IDEA Discretionary Grant from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (WDPI). The project included activities related to functional behavioral assessments (FBA), using that information to develop a BIP, and incorporating it all into an IEP. This presentation is designed to be used for awareness concerning Behavior Intervention Plans and IEPs, or as a review. It can be divided into more than 1 session. It can be used with audiences including regular education and special education staff, administrators, pupil services and support staff, and parents. It may also be used in pre-service training programs. Notes are provided to emphasize the main idea for each slide. Additional information can be added depending on the audience. Presenters should have sufficient background in IEPs, behavior theory, functional behavior assessment (FBA) and BIPs to determine what, if any, additional detail should be added. Thanks go to Sr. Mary Karen Oudeans (Silver Lake College, Manitowoc) and to Jackie Crowley (Whitnall), Tammy Lampereur (Ashwaubenon), Sylvia Madden (Green Bay), Carolyn Sorenson (CESA 11), Julie Stephens (Rice Lake), and Becky Tayler (Pulaski) for their input on sample goals and objectives. This presentation was developed by Richard Van Acker, Ed.D. (University of Illinois – Chicago), Lynn Boreson (WDPI) and Tom Potterton (CESA 12). Please acknowledge the source of these materials. For further information, contact Lynn Boreson by e-mail at or by phone at 608-266-1218. -- Fall 2002
  • FAPE = Free and Appropriate Public Education The IEP is a tool for – Communication : between parents and school personnel; opportunity for collaboration Accountability : commits the school district to provide the resources necessary for IEP implementation; also accountability for revising and rewriting the document as appropriate; not, however, a performance contract that imposes liability if the student does not meet the IEP goals – not a guarantee; does commit the district to providing the special education and related services listed in the IEP Management : Written commitment that delineates the resources necessary for FAPE Compliance and monitoring : documents whether the district is meeting all the legal requirements; assesses compliance with IDEA and state statute; used by courts to assess compliance with FAPE Evaluation : Measurable goals and objectives; used to determine progress Source: The Law and Special Education by Mitchell L. Yell. 1998. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey
  • Minimally, an IEP team must include the 4 listed in red (1 st 4 on the list). It is possible for the LEA (local education agency) representative to be a teacher – district policy determines who may serve in that role locally. At least 1 special education teacher or, if appropriate, at least one special education provider of the child At least 1 regular education teacher of the child (if the child is, or maybe, participating in the regular education environment) Representative of the local education agency (LEA) who is qualified to provide, or supervise the provision of, specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of children with disabilities; is knowledgeable about the general curriculum; is knowledgeable about the availability of district resources; and has the authority to commit those resources ----------- The person who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results may be a member of the team described above “ Others” = individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child, including related service personnel; also may include transition agency representatives, additional school staff, etc. (Note: this does not include someone who would be there on behalf of a teacher rather than on behalf of the child. For example, it is not appropriate for a union representative to attend.) Students must be invited to the meeting if transition is to be considered. If the student does not attend, his/her interests and preferences must be considered & documentation provided as to how is was ensured that those preferences were considered.
  • NOTE: the following are only brief descriptors and are not intended to fully explain the requirements relating to each required IEP component. It is assumed that participants will have some background knowledge and information about IEPs – this is only a review. Present levels of educational performance – the starting point against which we will measure progress toward the annual goals; what the child does or does not do now. Must be individualized Must contain baseline data Must be related to the goals/objective/benchmarks Must be written in the areas of the child’s unique needs Must describe how the child’s disability affects his/her progress in the general curriculum (or, for preschool children, their participation in age-appropriate activities) Annual goals and short term objectives/benchmarks a. Must be measurable b. Objectives are measurable, intermediate steps toward the goal; benchmarks are major milestones such as dates c. Written only for the special services necessary to meet the child’s needs arising from the disability, not for the child’s total program unless all areas are so affected (1998 Appendix C, Question 4) Special education and other services that are needed by or on behalf of the child to enable the child to (1) progress toward the annual goals; (2) be involved in and progress in general curriculum and participate in extracurricular and other non-academic activities; and, (3) be educated and participate with children with and without disabilities a. Special education b. Related services c. Supplementary aids and services d. Program modifications and supports for school personnel Transition (if the student is at least age 14, with additional requirements at age 16; or, if appropriate, at a younger age) Participation in regular curriculum and environment - the extent, if any, to which the student will not participate in the regular classroom environment; the extent, if any, to which the student will not participate in the general curriculum Standardized assessment – how the student will participate in statewide and district wide standardized assessments (participate; participate with modifications; participate through an alternate assessment) Progress reporting – reporting to parents of students with disabilities on progress toward annual goals; at least as often as reporting is made to parents of nondisabled students; includes whether progress toward goals is sufficient to meet the annual goal Special factors a. Behavior - not just for students who are EBD b. ESL (English as a Second Language) c. Communication (verbal and written) – not just for students with S/L disabilities d. Assistive technology e. Braille (if student is visually impaired)
  • Meaningful parent participation: it is acceptable to have a draft, but the IEP cannot be presented in final form to the parents at the IEP meeting. No final educational or placement decisions can be made outside an IEP team meeting. All the required participants: without the correct participants, there is not a legal IEP team and, therefore, not a procedurally correct IEP. It is important that the LEA Representative, for example, have the authority to commit the resources of the district. If someone else has to “sign off” on the IEP, then the LEA Representative really does not have the proper authority and the IEP does meet the procedural requirements. All required components must be addressed. The IEP must be individualized.
  • There is no distinction in the law for differing “types” of IEPs. The same rules and regulations apply, and every IEP has the same required components. Sometimes we think we don’t know how to develop a particular “kind” of IEP – yet thinking through what we know can generally help us include the required components and address the individual needs.
  • It is important to address not only academics, but also behavioral needs, daily living skills, communication skills, and so on if appropriate for an individual student. The IEP should not be filled with goals and objectives for all content areas in the general curriculum – the IEP addresses the special education needs of the student, and should focus on the special education, related services, supplementary aids and services and program modifications and supports for school personnel. Avoid providing services categorically (e.g., only students who are EBD need behavioral goals) and base the IEP on the student’s needs, not on what’s available in the school district. A continuum of services must be provided – “inclusion” is not in the law and is a preference rather than a mandate. The legal term is LRE – least restrictive environment – and includes the key phrase “to the maximum extent appropriate.” While the IEP is not a contract or guarantee of success, it is a binding commitment to provide the resources included. IEPs must be individualized, based on each student’s unique needs. All required components must be included – “if it’s not on paper, legally it didn’t happen.” Source: BETTER IEPs, 3 rd edition by Barbara D. Bateman and Mary Anne Linden, Sopris West (Longmont, CO).
  • Discussion slide There are many different ways to gather data. What kind of information would you get from each type? Pros and Cons of each? For example, interviews must be viewed cautiously, as they are clearly the perception of the person being interviewed. The person’s opinion is certainly important, but may not be objective. Does the information hold up when compared to other data sources? How does the child’s behavior compare to peers? Yes, Billy misbehaves, but perhaps other students in the class do as well. Is this student any better or worse than others? Is this an individual behavioral need or a group need? Are there developmental issues? And so on.
  • SKILL DEFICIT : a behavior the student cannot do; the student lacks the necessary information or component skills. The intervention? Teach the skill(s). Ask : Does the student understand the behavioral expectations for the situation? Does the student realize that he or she is engaging in unacceptable behavior, or has that behavior simply become a “habit”? Is it within the student’s power to control the behavior, or does he or she need support? Does the student have the skills necessary to perform expected, new behaviors? Are there prerequisites that must be taught? PERFORMANCE DEFICIT : a behavior the student is not motivated to do; has performed the skill previously or does it in some settings but doesn’t generalize to other settings. Keep in mind that the student may not be deliberately failing to perform. The intervention? Provide opportunities for the student to perform; reinforce the desired behavior while not reinforcing the undesired behavior. Ask : Is it possible that the student is uncertain about the appropriateness of the behavior (e.g., it is okay to clap loudly and yell during sporting events, yet these behaviors are often inappropriate when playing academic games in the classroom)? Does the student find any value in engaging in the appropriate behavior? Is the behavior problem associated with certain social or environmental conditions? Is the student attempting to avoid a “low-interest” or demanding task? What current rules, routines, or expectations does the student consider irrelevant?
  • We cannot look at the child in isolation – behavior occurs in a context and is impacted by other people, the physical environment, the task at hand, the time of day, health factors, etc. Behaviors that are acceptable in 1 context may be inappropriate or even offensive in another. Antecedents are those things that precede the behavior. It can be setting events (location, people, task, etc.) or something that occurs just prior to the behavior (Teacher says, “take out your books.”). Sometimes the antecedent is not immediately preceding the behavior – it may be something that happened before the child left for school that morning, something carried over from the previous day, etc. Consequences come after the behavior occurs and reinforce continuation of the behavior. Reinforcement may not be immediately apparent – for example, the student misbehaves so that s/he can later brag to friends. The consequence may not appear to be reinforcing to adults observing the behavior. For instance, a student misbehaves and is then given a “lecture” by the principal. While adults may think that a consequence is negative or non-reinforcing, it may indeed be reinforcing to the student – s/he is getting attention, or perhaps has escaped an uncomfortable situation or avoided a dreaded task. The “lecture” may be preferable to that student.
  • Discussion slide This grid helps determine whether the behavior is a skill or performance deficit (the horizontal boxes), and whether or not it will be necessary to replace an inappropriate or antisocial behavior in addition to teaching/reinforcing the desired behavior. Keep in mind that if there is a maladaptive behavior is be eliminated, there will have to be 2 goals – 1 for increasing the positive behavior, and 1 for reducing or eliminating the negative. Have the group think about some examples of target behaviors. Where would they fit into this grid? Example : When frustrated, Billy slams down his book, crumples up his paper and puts his head down on his desk. Does he know what to do or does he need social skill instruction in handling frustration or asking for help? If so, it is a skill deficit. Since we also need to address the inappropriate behavior, this behavior belongs in the upper left quadrant.
  • There are many, many factors that may influence a person’s behavior. These are only a few. Some others include gender, developmental level, socio-economic factors, geography (rural vs. urban, region, etc.), health/physical/medication issues, and so on. This is just to remind people that there are many factors that come into play – addressing behavior is never a simple matter. Some are outside our control but we can at least be aware of the situation; some we may need to learn more about so we can better understand the impact on the student’s behavior (e.g., culture). Additional sources on diversity include: “ Cultural Diversity”, The Special EDge, Spring 2002, Vol. 15, No. 2 “ Special Education Assessment Process for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students”, Oregon Department of Education, 2001. (Available from and then click on the document title, or at ) “ Improving Results for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students”, RESEARCH CONNECTIONS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION, Number 7, Fall, 2000. MULTICULTURAL ISSUES IN THE EDUCATION OF BEHAVIORALLY DISORDERED YOUTH. Reece Peterson and Sharon Ishii-Jordan, 1994. Brookline Books. BLACK AND WHITE STYLES IN CONFLICT by Thomas Kochman. 1981. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL
  • It works: behavior continues because it is reinforced; the student’s behavior has been effective for him/her in the past – needs were met, rewards accrued, etc. If a child has gotten attention for misbehaving, that may reinforce the misbehavior even though others may see the result as negative. Copy-catting: kids mimic other children, adults, characters they see on television or in the movies, the latest fads – reinforces a sense of belonging. Remember Maslow’s hierarchy: “belonging is the 3 rd (of 5) levels and comes before “achievement.” Testing limits: children test the limits – they want to know how far they can go, and what will happen when they push or exceed the limits; children sometimes play one adult off another (parent vs. parent, parents vs. teacher, etc.). How consistent will the enforcement be – are there times when the misbehavior is okay? What can I get away with? Assert independence: children test their self-confidence – do I dare speak up? Don’t I have a right to feelings and ideas and values of my own? This is part of a developmental stage for adolescents. Protection: children may defend themselves if they feel threatened – if they don’t have good problem-solving skills, they may resort to misbehavior (you took my truck so I smack you) Feel badly about self: self-fulfilling prophecies – I think I’m bad so I’ll act bad. If a child things she’s stupid, she may not even try at school, for example. Source: RESPONSIVE DISCIPLINE, Lesson 4 by Dr. Charles Smith (Kansas State University), 1996-2000.
  • This slide is intended to remind people that different people view the same behaviors differently. ------------------------- Children see many conflicting messages in the media as well as by observing other people’s behavior. We often send mixed messages – “do as I say and not as I do.” ----------------------------- “ Children will not always do what we say, but they will almost always do what we do!” (Source unknown) --------------------------------- If an adult writes in a book we call it doodling; if a child writes in a book we call it destroying property. If an adult sticks to something we call it perseverance; if a child sticks to something we call it stubbornness. If an adult is not paying attention we call it preoccupation; if a child is not paying attention we call it distractibility. If an adult tells his side of a story, we call it clarification; if a child tells his side of a story we call it talking back. If an adult behaves in an unusual way we call him unique; if a child behaves in an unusual way we refer him for a psychological evaluation. Source: Behavior Labeling by Dixie Fletcher (
  • Behavior time takes change: in fact, it can take 4 to 8 times longer if the student has to “unlearn” an inappropriate behavior in addition to learning an appropriate one; keep in mind that the behavior that you’re intervening with didn’t happen overnight and you will have to deal with that “history”. Behavior gets worse before it gets better: often when we intervene, the child’s behavior escalates – the child may be testing to see if you’re serious, or the child may think s/he has to “up the ante” in order to get attention or escape consequences. Remain consistent – if you don’t, the child’s “testing” is being reinforced. The increase may be in the rate and/or intensity of the behavior. The student is testing to see what the limits are, whether there are exceptions, and so on. Spontaneous recovery: the possible, temporary reoccurrence of a behavior you thought had disappeared. The child tries again to see if the behavior is still inappropriate. This may happen more than once – expect it and recognize it as a normal occurrence. Low level behavior can escalate: if we don’t intervene, the student may shift into a higher gear; or if there’s lots of low level behavior going on (negative comments, pushing, and so on), it may go “too far” and escalate into a fight, a full blown tantrum, etc.
  • Students without serious problem behaviors (school wide) are 70-75% of the population (70-80% according to Sprague and Walker). Primary Prevention is used here – universal interventions such as school-wide systems and classroom systems. These include clear school rules, cultural sensitivity, safe and caring classrooms, engaging academic instruction, focus on positives, instruction in prosocial behavior for all students (problem solving, conflict resolution, decision making. Students who are at-risk for problem behavior (selected) include 20-25% of the school population (15-25% according to Sprague and Walker). Secondary prevention efforts include specialized group interventions such as anger management training, social skills instruction, mentoring, at-risk programming. Students with chronic/intense problem behavior (individual) make up 1-7% of the population (5-10% according to Sprague and Walker) Tertiary prevention efforts include specialized individual student interventions such as FBAs/BIPs or wrap-around services. Sources: “ Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to Proactive School wide Management” by Timothy J. Lewis and George Sugai. FOCUS ON EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, v. 31, no. 6, pages 1-24. February, 1999. A WHOLE-SCHOOL MODEL OF BEHAVIORAL REFORM. Special Technical Assistance Insert in The Special EDge, Winter 2001, Vol. 14, No. 2., CalSTAT Project, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Avenue, Rohnert Park, CA 94928
  • We forget everything we know about teaching and learning when it comes to behavior. How did you learn 4 + 4 = 8? Manipulatives? Lots of repetition? Drill and practice? And yet we still make arithmetic errors, and many of us use calculators to balance our checkbooks. We need to apply the same methods to teaching students about behavior – modeling, practice, repetition, feedback, reinforcement, generalization. Keep in mind that it may take 8-10 times longer to unlearn an old skill or habit and to relearn a “better” skill or behavior. Have you ever tried to break a bad habit (smoking, nail biting)? Then you know what we mean! (Van Acker) ------------------------ How does instruction relating to a behavior problem differ? The “lesson” is scheduled by the student (misbehavior is rarely scheduled or “on cue”). The teacher and other students do most of the responding (they react to the misbehavior). Scope and sequence of teaching alternatives is not clearly defined (there are no specific curricula. Progress is gauged in terms of skills learned, rather than movement toward maturity and social competence, and so usually fails to generalize to other settings. Assessment of behavior identifies what needs to be eliminated; rarely do assessment reports include skills to be taught (we tend to focus on the negatives, not the positives). Behavior is rarely viewed as a normal instructional function of schools Goals are often reductive, vague, or global – how would a reading teacher respond to “will read fluently, will appropriately gather ideas and impressions of others from the printed page”? Behavior needs to be measurable and observable – what will you see and/or hear? Source: “ Instructionally Differentiated Programming: A Needs-Based Approached for Students with Behavior Disorders” by K. Kay Cessna and others. Chapters 4 and 5. 1993. CO State Dept. of Education, Special Education Services Unit, Denver.
  • You need a BIP 1. If behavior is a special factor for the student, then the IEP must address behavior 2. If behavior results in a change of placement [e.g., more than 10 days of suspension in a given year, expulsion, removal to an IAES (Interim Alternative Educational Setting)] Here is the specific language from IDEA ’97 concerning FBA/BIPs: Section 615(k): “PLACEMENT IN ALTERNATIVE EDUCATIONAL SETTING— (1) AUTHORITY OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL (A) School personnel under this section may order a change in the placement of a child with a disability— (i) to an appropriate interim alternative education setting, another setting, or suspension, for not more than 10 school days (to the extent such alternatives would be applied to children without disabilities); and (ii) to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting for the same amount of time that a child without a disability would be subject to discipline, but not for more than 45 days if – (I) the child carries a weapon to school or to a school function under the jurisdiction of a State or a local educational agency; or (II) the child knowingly possesses or uses illegal drugs or sells or solicits the sale of a controlled substance while at school or at a school function under the jurisdiction of a state or local educational agency. (B) Either before or not later than 10 days after taking a disciplinary action described in subparagraph (A) – (i) if the local education agency did not conduct a functional behavioral assessment and implement a behavior intervention plan for such child before the behavior that resulted in the suspension described in subparagraph (A), the agency shall convene an IEP meting to develop an assessment plan to address that behavior; or (ii) if the child already has a behavioral intervention plan, the IEP Team shall review the plan and modify it, as necessary, to address the behavior.”
  • [Note: This is not a presentation on Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA). A study guide on FBA is available on the DPI website ( and then click on “functional behavioral assessment”. There is only 1 slide on FBA just as a quick review, and because a BIP should be based on an FBA.] The purpose of FBA is to determine the need that is being met by the student’s behavior. Based on this information, a plan can then be developed which addresses that need in a more appropriate/acceptable manner. Direct data collection means observing the student in question in typical daily activities and routines.. Indirect methods include record reviews, examination of permanent products (work samples, test papers, etc.), and interviews with others who know and work with the student, as well as the student himself/herself. Triangulating data means having multiple (at least 3) sources or confirmations of information (example: an interview that is confirmed by direct observation and a second interview). Data analysis -- this means taking the data you have and analyzing it to determine if you have validating the hypothesized function of the behavior. ____________________ In developing behavior support plans, it is important to remember the following: Support our behavior – family, teachers, staff. May involve changes in setting, schedules, curriculum, teaching methods, rewards and punishers, etc. Build on FBA results Be technically sound – based on foundation principles of reinforcement, generalization; make the behavior irrelevant, inefficient, ineffective. Fit the setting where the BIP will be implemented – consider the values, resources, and skills of the people who will be implementing; does the plan fit the natural routines? Is it efficient? Is it reinforcing rather than punishing? Does it fit the skills of those involved? Are the people involved willing to perform the procedures? Source: FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT FOR PROBLEM BEHAVIOR: 2d edition. O’Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey, Newton, 1997. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Pacific Grove, CA
  • Knowledge deficits: Student does not know what is expected; student has not had enough practice in the skill; skill has not generalized beyond the setting in which it was taught Communicative functions: this is a concept from the field of autism and severe disabilities. Students who are non-verbal often communicate their needs through behavior. Needs might include physical discomfort, frustration or need for help, hunger or thirst. Sensory/perceptual needs: often with students who are autistic but also with other populations. Student may have sensory defensiveness – e.g., certain noises are painful, student is bothered by sounds others may not hear or can easily ignore (buzz of florescent lights, for instance). A student may need more or less sensory input. The student may also engage in stereotypic behaviors (rocking, hand flapping) or may be self-injurious/self-mutilating. -------------- Keep in mind that there is always a need to be met – behavior serves a purpose and has a function. In some cases, there may be a physical or biological need. For example, a student with ADHS may physically need to move – that student, however, does not “need” to disrupt the class (make a lot of noise, wander, poke others) while moving. According to Van Acker, 96% of behavior is learned; only 4% is syndrome-driven.
  • Behavioral intent: Behavior problems are indicators of the student’s social goal or intent at any given time. When students act, they act for a purpose. Behavioral intent = purpose sought by the student. We infer this from looking at a student’s overt behaviors in various situations. Most children seek similar goals in social situations. Behavioral intents of most students with behavior problems are the same as those of socially competent students, but… The difference is that the problem behavior is not accepted or desired by others. The behavior may still work for the student, however – the student has discovered that they work for him/her. The problem is not the purpose or intent – it’s how the student behaves to achieve that purpose. Source: “ Instructionally Differentiated Programming: A Needs-Based Approached for Students with Behavior Disorders” by K. Kay Cessna and others. Chapter 4. 1993. CO State Dept. of Education, Special Education Services Unit, Denver.
  • All behavior has a purpose or a function. If the individual cannot get his/her needs met in acceptable ways, he/she may try to meet those needs inappropriately. Functions of behavior are normal – it is only when the behavior exhibited to meet the need is inappropriate that there is a problem. --------------------- Typical functions of behavior include: Attention : both positive and negative attention; may be from peers or adults; may be a component of other function (e.g., I can’t gain power unless I have your attention) Escape/avoidance : student wants to avoid a particular activity, person, situation, etc. Power/control : student wants to dominate, be in charge, control his/her environment, refuse to follow rules or directions, refuse to participate in certain activities Access to tangible rewards : student wants to get things such as items, privileges, the money to purchase wanted items, etc.; the student may also be looking for immediate feedback or a reward Peer affiliation/belonging : student wants to belong or gain acceptance to a group; student may be trying to impress peers or others Justice or revenge : student is trying to get even or “get back” for a real or imagine slight; student wants to even the score, sometimes on behalf of a friend or family member
  • More detail on each of these points on the following slides --
  • Based on the function of the student’s behavior (the need being met), an effective BIP should address more appropriate or desirable alternatives that still allow the student to meet his/her needs. If there is also an inappropriate or undesired behavior being exhibited, consider how to make that less effective in meeting the student’s needs. Questions to consider: What new skills must be taught? What supports need to be in place in order for the student to function more appropriately and independently? Consider setting event strategies, immediate antecedent strategies, teaching strategies, and consequence strategies. How can we make the problem behaviors irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective? Is the BIP feasible – does it fit natural routines? Are the goals consistent with the values of the individuals involved? Is it efficient in terms of time and resources? Do the individuals who must carry out the plan have the skills to do so? Will the plan produce some positive short-term results so that success is seen as a result of everyone’s efforts? Keep in mind that the BIP may need to have 2 “pieces” – 1 for the desired behavior and 1 for the undesired behavior. And be sure to emphasize positives!
  • IDEA ’97 requires the use of positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports if the student’s behavior interferes with his/her learning or that of others. Negative consequences do not produce long term behavior change – support and positive reinforcement for desired behavior helps the student develop intrinsic motivation and results in long-term change. Negatives may change behavior but do not change attitudes – the goal is for the student to internalize the value of the behavior and that is accomplished by using positives. There is too much emphasis on negative consequences, punishment and control – we need to balance that with positives: positive consequences, teaching replacement behaviors, support to practice and generalize appropriate behaviors, etc. In some cases, only positives are necessary and we can eliminate the negatives completely. Too often positive interventions do not produce immediate results, and so we fall back on the negatives. We need to be sure to keep the balance or to focus more strongly on positives. Rewards vs. bribes: rewards are something given in return for good acts; bribes are given or promised to induce a person to do something illegal or wrong. ----------- “ The curriculum emphasis is often on behavioral management first…Yet often, these seem largely designed to help maintain silence in the classroom, not to teach children how better to manage their anger, sadness, or impulses.” --The Curriculum of Control” by Polly Nichols, BEYOND BEHAVIOR, Winter 1992.
  • Discussion slide A fter reviewing the points on this slide, have the group take a generic descriptor – such as “disruptive” or “aggressive” – and develop a definition. Keep in mind that not all must agree on the definition or accept its meaning; we’re trying to agree on what we would all identify as being an occurrence of that behavior. -------------- 1. What does the behavior look or should like? What can you actually see or hear? What does the student say or do? Is the definition clear enough so that everyone involved will know when the behavior occurs/does not occur? * Be specific * Does it pass the “stranger” test? * Avoid emotions or judgments: use “screams obscenities” rather than “is verbally inappropriate”; “hits peers without provocation” rather than “is aggressive” 2. How often does it happen? Look for patterns or averages. Where does it happen? 3. How intense is the behavior? How long does it last? How loud or disruptive is it? What’s the end result? 4. How dangerous is it? What happens if it is ignored? Will it stop or will it escalate? Is the behavior dangerous (danger to self, others, damage to property) or is it disruptive? 5. What do you want the student to do instead? Are there skills that are lacking or is it a performance deficit? Is it a “Fair Pair”? * Connect a behavior you want to weaken or eliminate with a behavior you want to strengthen * Dead Man’s Test: can a dead man do it? Then it isn’t a fair replacement behavior. Example: Students lies so you want him to “not lie”. Can a dead man “not lie”? Yes, so not a fair pair. Instead, say “Student will tell the truth when asked if he did a certain behavior” ------------- Source for “Fair Pairs” and “Dead Man’s Test” : BEYOND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, 3 rd edition by Joseph S. Kaplan and Jane Carter. Pro-Ed, Inc., Austin, TX
  • It’s not possible to say “Johnny’s spitting – what do I do?” The surface behavior is spitting, but the consequences should be based on the function of the behavior: is Johnny spitting for attention? To escape a particular task? To communicate something – fear or anger, for example? Also the same behavior may serve more than 1 function – at times Johnny may spit to get attention, while at other times he may spit because he’s angry at the teacher. It is important to match the consequence with the function to avoid inadvertently reinforcing inappropriate behavior. For example, if the function is “escape” (from school), then the consequence should not be suspending the student out of school (allowing him/her to escape inappropriately). There are positive consequences and negative consequences. The aim is to focus on positives.
  • Discussion slide - This slide is to prompt some discussion about what might might typically happen, given the comment of the student: What might teachers or other staff do? What might peers do? What else might the student do if he doesn’t get the response he wants? (Give up? Escalate?) How might those responses inadvertently reinforce the behavior (e.g., the student wants attention and gets it when the teacher reacts or responds, or the student wants peer attention and peers snicker when he makes this comment)?
  • Discussion slide - This slide relates to appropriate consequences. We cannot and will not tolerate certain behaviors – hitting, for instance – but we will need to react differently. Discuss how consequences might differ and why. Why not “one size fits all” when it comes to discipline/consequences? How would function on the behavior fit in here? Skill deficit vs. performance deficit? Also the 3 rd or 4 th time the behavior occurs, we may begin to see a need to switch gears; is the response working? Do we need to look further? Do we need to change our response, change the consequence(s)? The “typical” response hasn’t been effective, so what do we do now?
  • Discussion slide – what kinds of activities or programs might be appropriate for each of the needs listed? What’s already in place that could be used as an intervention? Examples include peer mediation, service projects in the community, cross-age tutoring, etc. We want to be sure to be developmentally appropriate. Also, keep in mind Maslow’s hierarchy: Bottom level is physiological needs; Next is safety needs; Then comes belonging; Next is achievement; Finally, self-actualization. Maslow’s theory is that we cannot proceed to the next highest level until the lower needs are met; in other words, we won’t achieve unless our physiological, safety, and belonging needs are met.
  • Traditionally, we have tended to look at student behavior in isolation – by counting the number of occurrences, for example. We also need to consider the role that the environment plays in behavior. We may need to adjust the curriculum or the method of delivery, we may need to work with teachers and/or peers if they are inadvertently reinforcing inappropriate behaviors. What does the teacher do, for instance, if the student calls out in class? Does the teacher sometimes reprimand the student (“Joe, you need to raise your hand”) while at other times accepting an answer and perhaps giving praise for it (“Yes, that’s right), or by responding to a question unrelated to the topic at hand (Student says, “What’s for lunch?” Teacher responds, “Hot dogs and French fries.”). If that’s the case, the student has no clear idea of what is acceptable and what isn’t…and, in some circumstances, the inappropriate behavior is being reinforced.
  • The idea here is teacher support ; not supervision: Teacher collaborators : master teachers, program support teachers, inclusion facilitators, building assistance teams, pre-referral teams, child study teams, etc. – groups or individuals that are available to work with teachers, offer suggestions, provide feedback, and so on. Technology : audio or video recording oneself teaching and then either doing a self-review or having a peer critique it. Also, when using audio tapes, you don’t need to listen to the whole tape – you can turn the volume down and just listen for when your voice becomes louder. Turn it up, and see whether your voice became louder because you were praising a student (enthusiasm) or reprimanding. With timers, you can have a reminder to pay attention to a student, praise the group, etc. Peer triads : 3 teachers form a triad and once a week, 2 of the teachers visit the 3 rd one’s class (rotate weekly) for 20-30 minutes. Find 2 things your colleague did well and 2 things that can be improved, and share that information. Automatic triggers : for example, the 3 rd time an individual student is sent to the office (either 3 referrals by the same teacher or 1 referral each by 3 different teachers), that student is referred to the building assistance team (or whatever it’s called); after a teacher makes 5 referrals (either 5 referrals for 1 student, 1 referral for each of 5 students, etc.), there is a trigger for assistance to the teacher (teacher assistance team, peer triad, whatever is in place). Staff development : either individual plans or by building, grade level, subject area, topic area, etc.
  • Discussion slide Keep in mind that effective discipline changes behavior – if an intervention isn’t changing behavior (after it has been appropriately implemented), it’s not working. The “danger” of grouping students with challenging behaviors (detention, in-school suspension) is that they may learn from and reinforce each other. It is better to structure the detention time, for example, rather than having the student just sit. Can the student(s) help the teacher, the office, the custodians? Is there some way to include some instruction on pro-social behavior/skills? The same is true for in-school suspension – how can we make it a learning activity? Are there other ways to positively structure these types of consequences? Instruction and pro-social consequences include service learning, clubs and work groups, cross-age tutoring. What are some other examples? Advantages and disadvantages?
  • When evaluating the plan, ask: Has the plan been implemented? If implemented, is there intervention integrity and treatment fidelity? In other words, was the plan appropriately implemented? Was there consistency across settings and people? Was the reinforcement schedule followed? Was the plan given a fair shot? Were there unforeseen complications (illness of student, student started or stopped taking medications, family emergencies, long term absence by teacher or other key individuals)? How will we systematically review the BIP? Who is going to collect what data ? How will that be shared, communicated ? How will decisions (about whether to meet again, change the BIP, etc.) be made? Is the plan having a positive impact on the problem behavior of the student? Is the plan having a positive impact on the behavior of teachers, family members, and others that interact with the student? What are the criteria for success – when you will be able to say the plan has been effective? Think both long and short term success.
  • The problem with many BIPs is that they only include a crisis (or discipline) plan, and there is no attempt to manipulate the environment, teach replacement behaviors, instruct the student in basic skill development, etc. – in other words, the positive components are missing. We need to balance the equation.
  • Definitions: clearly define the target behavior, replacement behavior, the specifics of consequences (what do I do, how, and when?). See slide 28 for further discussion of definitions. Also, who will be responsible for what? While this does not have to be included in the IEP, it is a good time to discuss who will be responsible for which components so that nothing falls between the cracks. Prevention, intervention and skill building are discussed on the next 3 slides.
  • Discussion slide The goal is to prevent the behavior from occurring by adjusting the antecedents of the behavior, the consequences, or both. Consider modifying the environment: instructional methods and strategies, curriculum and materials, physical classroom arrangement, testing and evaluation, increased opportunities for students to make choice, predictable classroom routines, foreshadowing change, cueing students, having consistent expectations and consequences, reinforcement methods and schedules (both for the target student and for other students if they ignore the inappropriate behaviors). Discuss other strategies for preventing behavior from occurring.
  • Discussion slide Interventions must be predictable, systematic to the point where it doesn’t disrupt the rest of the class, and low key. These are the interventions that occur when the behavior is already occurring but at a low enough rate that a crisis plan is not necessary. It may also be that the behavior is one that is disruptive rather than dangerous. Interventions may also prevent a behavior from escalating - a situation from getting out of control. By “timeout” we mean that the student cannot earn points or get attention or participate in the activity for a given (short) period of time. The student may have to return to his/her desk or sit in a chair or on the sidelines. Use of seclusionary timeout (use of a timeout room) should be incorporated into the student’s IEP. In-school suspensions should be used positively, allowing the student to complete classroom assignments, have access to teacher assistance with that work, participate in a social skills or anger management activity, etc. Response-cost means that previously earned tokens or points are subtracted. What are some other examples of possible interventions?
  • What do we want to increase? Decrease? Maintain? Generalize? Compensate for? Remediate? ------------------- 1. Replacement or alternative behaviors * Serve the same function * Are reasonable * Take into account intermediate attempts and prerequisite skills * Are as natural and logical as possible 2. Social skills, including practice, reinforcement, generalization 3. General skill development (math, reading, written language, spelling) 4. Problem solving skills including anger management or cognitive-behavioral interventions 5. Self-management (self awareness, intrinsic motivation and rewards, self-control)
  • Crisis plan is used when the student exhibits behaviors that are unsafe to the student, to others, and/or to property. ------------------ When will this be implemented? When (be specific) what behaviors occur? By whom? Where? How? How will we attempt to de-escalate the situation? How can we keep it from getting worse? How will we protect the student? Others? Property? What are the LRAs (least restrictive alternatives)? What is our continuum? What is Plan B (and C, and D, and E, and…….)? What if, for example, a key person is unavailable?
  • What gets you in trouble with BIPs? There isn’t a plan in place or the plan is so general that it is, in effect, meaningless There is no basis for the plan, or the plan ignores the function of the behavior. For example, if the function is escape, the plan should not include removal from the environment or activity from which the student is already trying to escape – suspension from school for missing detentions for truancy. The plan is not followed accurately by all involved at all times. No data on effectiveness is collected and there is no common understanding of what “success” is.
  • Additional resources on IEPs: BETTER IEPs by Barbara Bateman & Mary Anne Linden (see slide 8 for details). Commercially developed sample goals and objectives related to behavior are available in various publications from Hawthorne Educational Services (Columbia, MO). Research Press (Champaign, IL) publishes BOS (Behavioral Objective Sequence) by Sheldon Braaten.
  • “ Anywhere and everywhere…”  Present level of performance - Baseline or start point - Description of context of behavior - Possible function of behavior  Special factors  Annual goals/short term objectives or benchmarks - Conditions - Replacement behavior - Skill development  Program summary - Special education - Related services - Supplementary aids and services - Program modifications and supports for school personnel Separate attached page -------------- One way to translate Evaluation data into IEP Components: 1. Definition of the replacement or desired behavior  BECOMES THE ANNUAL GOAL 2. Identify the current level of functioning for that replacement behavior, including the undesirable behavior (and settings, etc.)  BECOMES THE PRESENT LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE 3. Identify intervention strategies  BECOMES LESSON PLANS, CRISIS PLAN, DETAILS IN A BIP, CONDITIONS IN GOALS/OBJECTIVES/BENCHMARKS 4. List the schedule and ways of collecting data  BECOMES THE PLAN FOR EVALUATING PROGRESS TOWARD ANNUAL GOALS
  • Once again, just a reminder to consider both pieces if there is also an undesirable behavior you want to decrease or eliminate. There does not have to be a goal specifically for each behavior, however. For example, if the student’s time on task improves and the % of work completed correctly and turned in on time increases, the student’s grades and subject information should also improve. Therefore, goals addressing time on task and work completion will have the “fallout” effect of improving grades and subject knowledge. It’s probably not necessary, under those circumstances, to include a goal on improving grades and content area (e.g., science, social studies, etc.) knowledge. Another example is a goal addressing more appropriate ways of addressing frustration and anger. If the goal focuses on the acquisition of positive, proactive skills by the student, then the “fallout” effect will be reduction of fighting or inappropriate verbal outbursts – a goal on “reducing fighting” is not necessary. In fact, “reducing a negative behavior” does not state the focus in positive terms as required by IDEA ’97.
  • Discussion slide This goal does not stand alone, as it is not measurable. If the objectives/benchmarks for the goal are measurable, then the whole “goal/objective/benchmark” statement is measurable. Otherwise level of attainment would be added to the goal (4 of 5 opportunities for 3 consecutive weeks). Annual goals should be related to the present level of performance and should be written for specially designed instruction. There is no “one way” to state goals. Brainstorm other ways to state goals for this need area (appropriate conflict resolution rather than hitting). Here’s a format for annual goals: Given [conditions], student will [perform what observable/measurable behavior] to what level [performance criteria]. Conditions might include setting, accommodations, prompts, curriculum, instruction, etc. For example, “given social skills instruction” or “given anger management instruction and no more than 2 teacher prompts”. Conditions are optional – the above goal does not have conditions. Performance criteria are measures such as “80% on 3 consecutive days” or “75% accuracy on 5 out of 7 1-minute tests”.
  • Discussion slide - Brainstorm additional objectives/benchmarks. Discuss other objectives/benchmarks for this goal (previous slide) or other goals the group created. [Note: there is only 1 objective given here due to space limitations. In real life, every goal must have at least 2 objectives/benchmarks. Objectives are defined as intermediate steps to the goals; benchmarks generally have a date (“By the end of the first grading period” or “By November 1, xxxx”] There is really no need to differentiate whether a statement is an objective or a benchmark – the bottom line is that there must be at least 2 objectives/benchmarks per annual goal. “ Time allotted/time frame ” is the parameter within which the student must respond – “within 20 seconds”, “within 3 minutes”, “ 20 consecutive sessions”. Objective/benchmark format : 1 format is to answer the question: [Who] [ will do what] [ under what conditions] [ how well]? Given [conditions*], student will [perform what observable, measurable behavior**] to what level [performance criteria***]. {and [by when] for benchmarks} *conditions will change from those in the goal. For example, if the goal says “given 2 teacher prompts,” the objectives might be “given 5 prompts”, “given 4 prompts,” etc. **this will be related to the same general behavior/need area as the goal. ***performance criteria will also differ from the goal. This might be a percentage out of # of trials or opportunities (80% of 3 consecutive opportunities). There may also be an average over a certain time period (no more than 5 times during the grading period); there may or may not be a date (“By November 1” or “By the end of the 1 st grading period”). Be wary of levels of attainment such as “80%” – that’s only part of it. Does this mean 80% accuracy, 80% of the sessions, or 80% accuracy in 80% of the sessions? That’s why the example on the slide reads as it does (95% accuracy for 20 consecutive sessions).
  • Discussion slide There are many different ways to address the same behavior – this slide is meant to convey that concept – there is no “one” right way. This slide could be used prior to the brainstorming activity on goals/objectives as examples of different ways to look at the same general outcome (slides 37-38). Also, take a goal and/or objective developed from the previous 2 slides and write it in a different way.
  • Discussion slide Cultural issues can confuse the issue. A comment, behavior, gesture or style that is acceptable in one culture may be inappropriate or offensive in another. We don’t have to accept the behavior – but we may want to teach an alternative rather than punish the student for the behavior (which he/she thought was acceptable). Are there similar examples the participants have encountered? Where was the cultural mismatch? How might those be resolved – what might the interventions be?
  • Discussion slide In an actual BIP or IEP, you would want to give examples of “inappropriate sexual comments” (present level) and “appropriate comments” (goal). We have not included examples in order to avoid offensive language in this document. What might be some examples that would be used if this were an actual IEP/BIP? How do you feel about the 2 nd objective? Can we allow any inappropriate comments or gestures? If not, then how do we account for improvement? There are many other ways the objectives above could be written: --Given a verbal, written or role-play situation, by January 27, xxxx, Samuel will be able to give… --By March 16, xxxx, Samuel will reduce the number of office referrals… --When meeting a female in the hallway or on school grounds, Samuel will give a socially appropriate greeting 100% of opportunities for 4 consecutive months.
  • Although Brenda has average intelligence and achievement, she has a history of refusing to complete assigned tasks. She needs at least 4 prompts and does not begin working until the teacher comes and stands directly next to her. If the teacher stands next to her, Brenda will begin working within 1 minute. She will work for about 5 minutes before she stops and says things like “I can’t do this” or “I don’t know how to do this.” Conditions include “a 20-minute school activity” and “with only 1 teacher prompt”.
  • The idea here is that we will gradually decrease the teacher prompts and increase the expectation for how quickly Brenda begins work and how long she remains at it. The definition of “continuously” could include allowances for looking up and “thinking” for up to 45 seconds, for instance. Most of us do not work straight through – we stop to think, choose our next word, digest what we’ve read, etc. However, we do keep going without losing track of our task, and that is what we are asking of Brenda. The methods (the “how”) we’ll use to help Brenda achieve these objectives might include rewards for starting and for time on task, positive attention for her so that she doesn’t need to seek attention inappropriately, etc. The specific methods do not have to be included in the goals/objectives/benchmarks – those are the lesson plans.
  • Discussion slide Joe is a non-attender. We want to get him to school and will begin with 2 classes per day, gradually increasing to a full-day of classes (8 periods). “Regularly” is defined in the objectives on the next slide. Or a more specific level could be added to the goal; i.e., “for his full school day on 8 of 10 school days.” We could also add some conditions: “given 1-to-1 sessions with the school counselor” or “given social skills training” or “given an incentive program”, etc. Here’s another way to write the same goal: Given social skills instruction and 1-to-1 sessions with the school counselor, Joe will attend school 80% of the school days, remaining for his full scheduled school day. Are there other ways you could write this goal? For example, could attendance be a measure of success in addressing some underlying issues such as poor body image (he doesn’t attend because he feels ashamed or victimized due to his weight)? How would that look? Keep in mind that we can’t do much for/with him until and unless we can get him in school and being successful.
  • Discussion slide Objectives are the steps that will take us from where Joe is now (a non-attender) to where we want to be in a year (Joe in school full days with 80% attendance). An analogy is to think of the objectives/benchmarks as the steps a student will have to take to complete a “dance” – where does the student start? What are the intermediate steps? Where do you finish? This is one way to write the objectives for the goal on the preceding slide. Another way would be to use additional conditions; i.e., “Given 1-to-1 sessions with the school counselor” or “Given social skills training” or “Given special transportation”, etc. What other form might the objectives take? What about dates; i.e., “By the end of the first grading period,”?
  • Discussion slide Mary invades the personal space of peers by reaching across their desks, taking their pencils, grabbing their books and papers, and/or pushing their things onto the floor. She sits very close to other children, often pressing her shoulder or leg right next to them. She will respond if directly spoken to, but she does not initiate conversation with peers at all. She often withdraws from group activities by moving to the edge of the group or by getting up and walking away. When she physically leaves the group, she will either return to her own desk or sit quietly in a corner. Other ways to write this goal or address this need area?
  • Discussion slide Objective 1 – if using this objective, we would want to have additional similar objectives such as “…for 10 minutes of a 20 minute class by the end of the 2 nd quarter”, “for 15 minutes of a 20 minute class during 3 rd quarter”, and “for 20 of 20 minutes during the 4 th quarter.” Objective 2 - Again, we would want to expand this a la “…75% of opportunities by 3 rd quarter” and “100% of opportunities by 4 th quarter.” We aren’t going to begin addressing this objective until the 2 nd quarter because we need to get Mary to stick with the group before we can address her behavior while in the group. In all, we could have 8 objectives for this goal.
  • Discussion slide : Choosing 1 of the behaviors in the right–hand column, each small group should answer the 4 questions in the left-hand column. Encourage (or assign) small groups to various behaviors so that several (if not all) are discussed. If the group is small, this could be done in 1 group and selecting 2 or 3 different behaviors to brainstorm about. Other behaviors than those on the list could be used if the group desires.
  • [This list is certainly not all inclusive but this list is at least a beginning for those looking for additional resources.] The DPI website has a variety of resources on FBA, BIP, IEPs, and other related subjects. The address listed above is for the Special Education Team Index. Users can then scroll through the index and click on the topic(s) of interest. PBIS is the OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. TTAC is the Training and Technical Assistance Center at Old Dominion University in Virginia. The Kentucky website is a collaborative effort between the Special Education Dept. at the University of Kentucky and the Kentucky Dept. of Education. CECP is the Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice. CALSTAT is the California State Dept. of Education’s Special Education Division.
  • The 2 websites on this page are free resources from THE MASTER TEACHER and Hunter College in New York, respectively. There are interventions for 117 behaviors listed on the 1 st , while the 2 nd also includes a bulletin board for posting questions about problem behaviors. Sopris West is a publishing company in Longmont, CO that holds summer training workshops, and they also publish THE TEACHER’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT, THE TOUGH KID BOOK, and other similar resources. HES is Hawthorne Educational Services in Columbia, MO, and they publish a variety of goal/objective sequences, as well as THE TEACHER’S GUIDE TO BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS.
  • Bip iep

    1. 1. BIPs and IEPs
    2. 2. An Overview of IEPs <ul><ul><li>Written document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by a team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines FAPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance & monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Who is the IEP team? <ul><li>Parent(s) </li></ul><ul><li>At least 1 special education teacher </li></ul><ul><li>At least 1 regular education teacher </li></ul><ul><li>LEA representative </li></ul><ul><li>Person knowledgeable of evaluation procedures and results </li></ul><ul><li>Others as determined by parents or school </li></ul><ul><li>Student, if over 14; younger if appropriate </li></ul>
    4. 4. Required Components <ul><li>Present levels of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Annual goals and short term objectives or benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Special education and other services </li></ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in regular curriculum and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Progress reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Special factors </li></ul>
    5. 5. Cover All Bases <ul><li>Meaningful parent participation </li></ul><ul><li>All the required participants </li></ul><ul><li>All required components </li></ul>
    6. 6. There is no such thing as a behavior IEP, a transition IEP, an inclusion IEP, a speech IEP, an LD IEP… An IEP is an IEP!
    7. 7. 5 Principles from Legal Rulings on IEPs <ul><li>Address all unique needs, not just academics </li></ul><ul><li>Write the IEP based on needs, not availability of services </li></ul><ul><li>IEP is a binding commitment of resources </li></ul><ul><li>IEPs must be individualized </li></ul><ul><li>All required components of the IEP must be included </li></ul><ul><li> -- Barbara Bateman </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work samples and other permanent products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior rating scales and checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other standardized instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student self-report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differs significantly from peers? </li></ul>Identifying Behavioral Needs
    9. 9. Skill vs. Performance Deficits <ul><li>Skill: student doesn’t know how </li></ul><ul><li>Performance: student knows how but doesn’t do it </li></ul>
    10. 10. Context of Behavior <ul><li>A  B  C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ntecedent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B ehavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C onsequence </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Aspects of Target Behavior Student does not have the knowledge/skill to display the desired behavior Student has the knowledge/skill, but does not display the desired behavior Inappropriate or antisocial behavior in place of desired behavior No inappropriate or antisocial behavior is displayed
    12. 12. Behavior is Complex Culture Needs and Desires Disability Habit Family Peers
    13. 13. Why do kids misbehave? <ul><li>It works! </li></ul><ul><li>Copy-catting </li></ul><ul><li>Testing limits </li></ul><ul><li>Asserting independence </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling badly about self </li></ul><ul><li>from Dr. Charles Smith (Kansas State Univ.) </li></ul>
    14. 14. What messages do we send to kids?
    15. 15. What typically happens when we intervene? <ul><li>It takes time to change behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior gets worse before it gets better </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Low level behavior can escalate </li></ul>
    16. 16. Positive Behavioral Supports <ul><li>1 - 7% of students </li></ul><ul><li>20 - 25% of students </li></ul><ul><li>70 - 75% of students </li></ul><ul><li>(Lewis & Sugai, 1999) </li></ul>School-wide Selected Individual
    17. 17. Remember what you know! 4 + 4 = ?
    18. 18. When do you need a BIP? <ul><li>A student with disabilities displays behavior that interferes with his/her learning or that of others (special factor) </li></ul><ul><li>A student’s behavior results in a change of placement </li></ul>
    19. 19. Base the BIP on a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) <ul><li>Define target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a hypothesis as to the function of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data (direct and indirectly) </li></ul><ul><li>Validate the function and key context variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangulate data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop the BIP </li></ul>
    20. 20. Behaviors Occur for Many Reasons <ul><li>Knowledge deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Needs </li></ul>
    21. 21. Behavioral Intent <ul><li>Students act for a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral intent = purpose sought by the student </li></ul><ul><li>Most children seek similar goals in social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior used by students with behavior problems is not accepted or desired by others </li></ul>
    22. 22. Common Functions of Behavior <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Escape </li></ul><ul><li>Power/control </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible reward </li></ul><ul><li>Peer affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Justice/revenge </li></ul>
    23. 23. Effective BIPs <ul><li>Clear definitions of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses the environment, including teacher and peer behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation plan </li></ul>
    24. 24. Behavior Intervention Plans... <ul><li>Support desired alternatives that allow student to meet their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Make the current undesired behavior less effective in meeting the student’s need </li></ul>
    25. 25. Focus on Positives <ul><li>Positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term behavior change only comes from positives </li></ul><ul><li>Need to balance the equation </li></ul>
    26. 26. Define observable behavior <ul><li>Look or sound like? </li></ul><ul><li>Student says or does? </li></ul><ul><li>How often? </li></ul><ul><li>How intense? </li></ul><ul><li>Danger level? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you want instead? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Appropriate Consequences <ul><li>Nature of surface behavior has little to do with selecting an appropriate consequence </li></ul><ul><li>The function of behavior should direct the consequences </li></ul>
    28. 28. Disruption of the Lesson <ul><li>What might be typical responses? </li></ul>“ Math stinks! I’m not going to do this #@&*!”
    29. 29. Uniform Code of Conduct <ul><li>Schools should have uniform expectations for student behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It is not reasonable to have the same consequences for all students </li></ul>“ Boys, we don’t talk like that in school…” Principal
    30. 30. Programs to Meet Common Student Needs <ul><li>School-wide or classroom-based programs to help meet needs such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peer affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>academic and social competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-direction and self-control </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Altering the Context <ul><li>Only addressing student behavior without changing the context is a recipe for failure </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher behavior, curriculum, peers, and family play critical roles in supporting behavior change </li></ul>
    32. 32. Systems of teacher support <ul><li>Staff collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Triads </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Staff development </li></ul>
    33. 33. Peer Consequences <ul><li>Be wary of consequences that group students w/ challenging behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional & pro-social consequences </li></ul>
    34. 34. Evaluating the BIP <ul><li>S ystematic review </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for success (long and short term) </li></ul>
    35. 35. 2 Components of a BIP <ul><li>Teaching plan </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis plan </li></ul>
    36. 36. Teaching Plan <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Skill building </li></ul>
    37. 37. The best way to address undesirable behavior… … is to prevent it from happening in the first place!
    38. 38. Interventions <ul><li>Stopping the behavior once it starts but before it gets out of control </li></ul><ul><li>Timeout, in-school suspensions, response-cost </li></ul>
    39. 39. Skill Building <ul><li>Replacement or alternative behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>General skills </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Self management </li></ul>
    40. 40. In an Emergency…. <ul><li>De-escalate </li></ul><ul><li>Protect </li></ul>
    41. 41. Potential Potholes <ul><li>No plan </li></ul><ul><li>No basis for plan </li></ul><ul><li>Plan not followed </li></ul><ul><li>No data on effectiveness </li></ul>
    42. 42. Incorporating BIPs into IEPs
    43. 43. Where in the IEP? <ul><li>Present levels </li></ul><ul><li>Special factors </li></ul><ul><li>Annual goals </li></ul><ul><li>Program summary </li></ul><ul><li>Attached page </li></ul>
    44. 44. If Alternative Undesired Behavior is Displayed... <ul><li>Reduce undesired behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Increase display of desired behavior </li></ul>
    45. 45. Annual Goals <ul><li>Reasonably be accomplished in 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Observable and measurable outcomes to demonstrate progress </li></ul>Example : Michael will use verbal de-escalation, avoidance tactics, or seek help in conflict situations.
    46. 46. Objectives/Benchmarks (Minimum of 2 per goal) <ul><li>Observable and measurable behaviors for outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific, measurable, observable target behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy (be realistic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time allotted / time frame </li></ul></ul>Example : Given a social situation with conflict and a list of socially acceptable ways to address conflict, Michael will state at least 2 ways to address the conflict with 100% accuracy for 20 consecutive sessions.
    47. 47. Target Various Aspects of Skill Development <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List 2 strategies for... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the emotion being displayed... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase number of times… </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Sexual harassment? <ul><li>What issues might have to be considered when exploring a behavior such as possible sexual harassment? </li></ul>
    49. 49. Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Present level : Samuel displays inappropriate sexual comments to females an average of 4 times/week. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : Samuel will make appropriate comments when greeting and interacting with females within the school setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a verbal, written or role-play situation, Samuel will be able to give socially appropriate greetings to females with 90% of opportunities for 3 consecutive weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel will reduce the number of office referrals for inappropriate sexual comments or gestures to less than 2/month for 4 consecutive months. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. A sample goal… <ul><li>Brenda will work independently and attend to a given task during a 20-minute school activity with only 1 teacher prompt for 7 of 10 class sessions. </li></ul>
    51. 51. And the STOs… <ul><li>Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 1 minute after instructions are given and will work continuously for 8 minutes by the end of the 1 st grading period. </li></ul><ul><li>Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 45 seconds after instructions are given and will work continuously for 12 minutes by the end of the 2 nd grading period. </li></ul><ul><li>Given 2 teacher prompts, Brenda will begin working within 30 seconds after instructions are given and will work continuously for 16 minutes by the end of the 3 rd grading period. </li></ul><ul><li>Given 1 teacher prompt, Brenda will begin working within 20 seconds after instructions are given and will work continuously for 20 minutes by the end of the 4 th quarter. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Another example… <ul><li>Goal: Given 2 classes per day initially and increasing to a full day (8 periods) of classes, Joe will attend school regularly. </li></ul>
    53. 53. STOs for Joe <ul><li>Given 2 classes per day plus morning check-in, Joe will attend 100% of his classes for 5 consecutive days. </li></ul><ul><li>Given Joe’s input on which subjects to add, he will attend 4 of 4 classes plus morning check-in for 8 of 10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Given Joe’s input on which subjects to add, he will attend 5 of 5 classes plus morning check-in and lunch for 8 of 10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Given an 8 period day, Joe will attend all of his classes plus morning check-in and lunch for 8 of 10 days. </li></ul>
    54. 54. One more… <ul><li>Goal: Given social skills training, Mary will participate in structured small group activities by remaining in the group, respecting personal space, and initiating a conversation 100% of opportunities. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Mary, continued… <ul><li>Given an instructional group of 3-4 children, Mary will remain in the group (on the rug or sitting at the table) for 5 minutes of a 20-minute class by the end of the 1 st quarter… </li></ul><ul><li>Mary will keep her hands and feet to herself and remain at least 1 arm’s length away from other people 50% of opportunities… </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 4 th quarter, Mary will ask at least 1 question related to the discussion topic during every small group session and then make at least 1 follow-up comment. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Try some… <ul><li>How will you identify a need? </li></ul><ul><li>Document current level of functioning? </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a measurable goal & at least 2 measurable obj./benchmarks? </li></ul><ul><li>Self- esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of organizational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Non-compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Anger management </li></ul><ul><li>Disrespect </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypic behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Off-task </li></ul><ul><li>Out of seat </li></ul><ul><li>Teasing & taunting </li></ul>
    57. 57. Additional Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    58. 58. More Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>