Susan 80% in primary instruction, Students can move back and forth between levels.
Response to intervention
Susan Fuller and Pamela Tcharkovski
November 12, 2013
The following presentation discusses Response to
Intervention (RTI) with an emphasis on the primary
level of instruction. Tier one provides universal
screening and effective instruction to insure that
students who are at risk are recognized early. There
are many ways to differentiate instruction in the
classroom to improve student performance. There
are advantages and disadvantages of the RTI
framework. We believe if the framework is
implemented with fidelity it will skew the
achievement bell curve in a positive direction.
What is the background and history?
1970’s and 80’s Deno and Mirkin found that short frequent
assessments helped manage special education students’ needs.
Benjamin Bloom’s (1980) “ Mastery Learning” experiments used
formative assessments as a basis to modify curriculum and
1991 The initials “RTI” may have been first used by Gresham in the
sense of “ Resistance to Intervention” but with the positive results
it went to “Response to Intervention”.
1994 The three tier structure for organizing response to students
originated with researchers like Sugai and Horner seeking ways to
deal with behavioral problems.
1998 Black and Wiliams meta-analysis documented how using
assessment results to set goals and determine interventions
2001 President’s Commission on Excellence in Special
Education Report (Hughes 2011) stated concern about
2003 Dual discrepancy model developed by Fuchs measured
both the level of achievement and the rate of student growth.
2004 IDEIA allowed states to use RTI as a factor in
determining eligibility for Special Education.
• School wide
• Designed to
accommodate all learners
• Requires research based
• Uses data collection over
• A curriculum
• Just a special education
• Require students to “wait
• Make placement
decisions based on
“snapshots” of student
Core curriculum is research-based
Culturally and linguistically responsive to
Universal screening to determine students’
current level of performance
Differentiated learning activities
Problem solving to address behavior issues
Specific Learning Disability (Current
• RTI uses on going assessment rather than a
snapshot to make placement decisions.
• Change from discrepancy model
• Universal screenings
• Regular progress monitoring
• “At Risk” students are identified early
• Supports for meeting the needs of at risk
students are already in place in tier one.
• The thoroughness of the process ensures
• Improved education for all students
• Students receive interventions that are not too much or too little for
• Can identify specific instructional needs for specific learners.
• Students do not have to qualify for special education to receive more
and better instruction
• Feedback teachers can use to improve their own instruction.
• Feedback administrators can use to assess teachers.
• Provides feedback for students and parents.
• Potential to cut expense of services because of fewer referrals.
• Increased burden on classroom teachers extra support is
needed for implementation
• May be poorly executed
• Potential to inadvertently delay special needs referrals.
• Teachers, principals and district officials must believe in
the instructional framework
• Cost of professional development needed to implement
RTI is high
• Time consuming
• Roti requires that decisions about placement are made
based on data taken over a period of time.
• 8th grader struggling with math
• School uses Accelerated math and STAR math
• STAR math showed Jenna was in the “on watch”
• Math teacher monitored biweekly and Jenna
continued to struggle
• Math teacher brought Jenna to 8th grade team
• Math teacher suspected computational fluency
• Math flash student progress report confirmed
fluency issues with subtraction
• Tier two intervention to address fluency was
• Billy is a first grader
• He knows 80 of the first 100 sight words
• He has extensive background knowledge to apply to
reading and a large vocabulary
• His math assessment is nearly perfect
• He entered first grade at Rigby reading level 8 the
end of year goal is level 10.
• He received OT services in Kindergarten
• His teacher reports that he chooses to work and play
alone when possible
• He lies down in the middle of group time and
continues to pay attention.
• He doesn’t always complete his work on time
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