ASL -Deaf history timeline

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This presentation was prepared for Ms. AmyLC's D/hh and ASL students.

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  • @ziba vakili it is very important for us as teachers to know about the references so we can help with the students who are interested to learn about it, Thanks.
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  • @ziba vakili it is very important for us as teachers to know about the references so we can help with the students who are interested to learn about it, Thanks.
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    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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  • @ziba vakili it is very important for us as teachers to know about the references so we can help with the students who are interested to learn about it, Thanks.
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  • hi ,it's really helpful.... but would u please mention the references ?! tnx
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ASL -Deaf history timeline

  1. 1. 1. A History of the Deaf in the USA (Copy the numbered slides for notes.)
  2. 2. 1. A History of the Deaf in the USA
  3. 3. 1. A History of the Deaf in the USA
  4. 4. 2. The history of Deaf people, from ancient times to the present, reminds us of other stories of oppressed people who struggled for self- determination.
  5. 5. 3. About 1,000 B.C.E., the Torah of the ancient Hebrews said Deaf people must be protected, but they have no rights.
  6. 6. 3. About 1,000 B.C.E., the Torah of the ancient Hebrews said Deaf people must be protected, but they had no rights.
  7. 7. 5. The Ancient Greeks denied education to Deaf people.
  8. 8. The Greek Philosopher, Plato, about 400 B.C.E. 5. The Ancient Greeks denied education to Deaf people.
  9. 9. The Greek Philosopher, Plato, about 400 B.C.E. “Deaf people cannot speak; therefore, Deaf people lack intelligence.” 4. The Ancient Greeks denied education to Deaf people.
  10. 10. The Greek Philosopher, Aristotle, about 300 B.C.E. 5. The Ancient Greeks denied education to Deaf people.
  11. 11. The Greek Philosopher, Aristotle, about 300 B.C.E. “Without hearing, people cannot learn.” 4. and 5. The Ancient Greeks denied education to Deaf people.
  12. 12. 6. Early Christians equated Deafness with sin.
  13. 13. Saint Augustine, about 400 C.E. 6. Early Christians equated Deafness with sin.
  14. 14. Saint Augustine, about 400 C.E. 6. Early Christians equated Deafness with sin. The Deaf cannot hear the words of God, so they cannot be saved. Deafness is probably a punishment for parents who sinned.
  15. 15. 7. About 530 C.E., Benedictine monks who took vows of silence created a kind of sign language to communicate with each other.
  16. 16. 7. About 530 C.E., Benedictine monks who took vows of silence created a kind of sign language to communicate with each other.
  17. 17. 8. A thousand years later, a Benedictine monk from Madrid, Spain, named Pedro Ponce de Leon applied the idea of using his religious group’s sign language to teaching Deaf students. He opened the first school for the Deaf in Europe around 1550.
  18. 18. 9. In 1620, Juan Pablo Bonet, a priest from Spain who taught Deaf children of rich families, published the first Sign Language book. (Some think the book was probably inspired by Father Pedro Pone de Leon.)
  19. 19. 9. In 1620, Juan Pablo Bonet, a priest from Spain who taught Deaf children of rich families, published the first Sign Language book. (Some think the book was probably inspired by Father Pedro Pone de Leon.)
  20. 20. 10. Father Charles-Michel d’l’ Epee’ started a school for the Deaf in France in 1760. He is considered the father of Deaf education.
  21. 21. Two Deaf sisters taught me how to sign. 10. Father Charles-Michel d’l’ Epee’ started a school for the Deaf in France in 1760. He is considered the father of Deaf education.
  22. 22. This is the school I founded. Father Charles-Michel d’l’ Epee’
  23. 23. Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris This is the school I founded. Father Charles-Michel d’l’ Epee’
  24. 24. The National School for Deaf Children of Paris This is the school I founded. Father Charles-Michel d’l’ Epee’
  25. 25. The National School for Deaf Children of Paris Father Charles-Michel d’l’ Epee’ It continues to teach Deaf students today.
  26. 26. Father Roche-Ambrose Cucurron Sicard 11. Father Roche-Ambrose Sicard became the second principal of the National Institute in 1789.
  27. 27. Father Roche-Ambrose Cucurron Sicard I trained a brilliant Deaf student to become a teacher.
  28. 28. I trained a brilliant Deaf student to become a teacher. Father Roche-Ambrose Cucurron Sicard
  29. 29. Laurent Clerc, a French Deaf man and respected Teacher of the Deaf
  30. 30. 11. Laurent Clerc, a deaf man from France, moved to North America in 1817 to help start USA’s first school for the Deaf. He introduced Sign Language and French teaching methods to North America.
  31. 31. 12. Laurent Clerc, a deaf man from France, moved to North America in 1817 to help start USA’s first school for the Deaf. He introduced Sign Language and French teaching methods to North America.
  32. 32. I brought French Sign Language to America. In North America, French Sign Language changed as it adapted to English.
  33. 33. I brought French Sign Language to America. In North America, French Sign Language changed as it adapted to English. 13. Today, American Sign Language is similar to French Sign Language. Deaf people from America and Britain read and write in English, but their sign languages are different.
  34. 34. FSL Fingerspelling Alphabet 13. Today, American Sign Language is similar to French Sign Language. Deaf people from America and Britain read and write in English, but their sign languages are different.
  35. 35. 12. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was a hearing man from America. His neighbor, Dr. Mason Cogswell, hired Gallaudet to teach his Deaf daughter. Alice. Dr. Cogswell paid Gallaudet to travel to Europe to study Deaf education.
  36. 36. 14. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was a hearing man from America. His neighbor, Dr. Mason Cogswell, hired Gallaudet to teach his Deaf daughter, Alice. Dr. Cogswell paid Gallaudet to travel to Europe to study Deaf education.
  37. 37. In 1817, I met Laurent Clerc, who was teaching in Paris. I convinced him to come with me to the United States and start our country’s first school for the Deaf.
  38. 38. Want to come to the United States?
  39. 39. Sure. I will be glad to go with you and create new schools for the Deaf in the United States.
  40. 40. Paris
  41. 41. Paris Hartford, CT
  42. 42. Paris Hartford, CT
  43. 43. Paris Hartford, CT
  44. 44. Paris Hartford, CT
  45. 45. This beloved statue of Alice Cogswell and her first teacher, Thomas Gallaudet, is on the campus of Gallaudet University. For many years, people forgot to give credit to Laurent Clerc.
  46. 46. 15. This beloved statue of Alice Cogswell and her first teacher, Thomas Gallaudet, is on the campus of Gallaudet University. For many years, people forgot to give credit to Laurent Clerc.
  47. 47. 15. This beloved statue of Alice Cogswell and her first teacher, Thomas Gallaudet, is on the campus of Gallaudet University. For many years, people forgot to give credit to Laurent Clerc.
  48. 48. 16. For many years, people forgot to give credit to Laurent Clerc. Clerc is recognized today.
  49. 49. Merci, Mounsier Clerc, for bringing French Sign Language to America!
  50. 50. The American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut.
  51. 51. 17. Clerc and Gallaudet opened America’s first school for the Deaf in Connecticut in 1817. It still operates today. The American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut.
  52. 52. The Pennsylvania School for the Deaf in Philadelphia. The New York School for the Deaf The Kentucky School for the Deaf The Ohio School for the Deaf . The American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut. 18. Clerc and Gallaudet opened more schools all over the USA.
  53. 53. 17. By 1850, there were fifteen schools for the Deaf in USA. Most of the teachers in Deaf schools were Deaf adults.
  54. 54. 19. By 1850, there were fifteen schools for the Deaf in USA. Most of the teachers in Deaf schools were Deaf adults.
  55. 55. 20. In 1864, Abraham Lincoln signed a law establishing the National Deaf- Mute College in Washington, D.C.
  56. 56. 20. In 1864, Abraham Lincoln signed a law establishing the National Deaf Mute College in Washington, D.C. Today, that school is known as Gallaudet University.
  57. 57. 21. Alexander Graham Bell was a speech teacher and scientist from Scotland. He moved to Boston to teach Deaf students in 1871.
  58. 58. 22. Bell believed Deaf people should learn speech instead of using sign language. He used his special teaching method, ‘Visible Speech,’ to train Deaf students to speak instead of sign.
  59. 59. 23. In 1876, Bell invented the telephone. Bell became famous and influential in North America and Europe.
  60. 60. 24. Bell had other connections to Deaf people besides being a teacher. His mother was Deaf. He fell in love with one of his Deaf students, Mabel Hubbard. Alec Bell and Mabel Hubbard married after she graduated. Happily married almost 50 years.
  61. 61. 1880was a big year in Deaf History.
  62. 62. 24. In 1880, humanitarian Helen Keller was born in Alabama. Her teacher, Annie Sullivan, fingerspelled ideas in Helen’s hand. Helen used ASL fingerspelling and ‘home signs’ with her family but was not a fluent user of ASL.
  63. 63. 23. In 1880, humanitarian Helen Keller was born in Alabama. She became blind and deaf at age two. Her teacher, Annie Sullivan, fingerspelled ideas in Helen’s hand. Helen used ASL fingerspelling and ‘home signs’ with her family but was not a fluent user of ASL. By the way, Braille is not a form of ASL.
  64. 64. 25 Also in 1880, Alexander Graham Bell attended an international conference of teachers of Deaf students in Milan, Italy. He convinced the leaders of Deaf schools all over the world that schools should promote the ‘oral method’ of education, teaching speech and lipreading, and discourage sign language.
  65. 65. 25.Also in 1880, Alexander Graham Bell attended an international conference of teachers of Deaf students in Milan, Italy. He convinced the leaders of Deaf schools all over the world that schools should promote the ‘oral method’ of education, teaching speech and lipreading, and discourage sign language.
  66. 66. 24. Also in 1880, Alexander Graham Bell attended an international conference of teachers of Deaf students in Milan, Italy. He convinced the leaders of Deaf schools all over the world that schools should promote the ‘oral method’ of education, teaching speech and lipreading, and discourage sign language. “…In an English speaking country like the United States, the English language, and the English language alone, should be used as the means of communication and instruction at least in schools supported at public expense.” In other words, Bell supported banning ASL.
  67. 67. 23. The educators in Milan passed a resolution in 1880 stating that the oral method was the best for Deaf students and sign language should be banned in schools.
  68. 68. 25. The educators in Milan passed a resolution in 1880 stating that the oral method was the best for Deaf students and sign language should be banned in schools.
  69. 69. Soon, American Sign Language became forbidden in Deaf schools.
  70. 70. 26. In 1880, Deaf people began to fight for their language. Deaf leaders established the National Association of the Deaf to protect their rights and to preserve American Sign Language.
  71. 71. 21. In 1883, Bell wrote a book about eugenics and deafness. *Eugenics: the study of improving the human population by encouraging people with positive traits to have children and discourage people with negative traits –like deafness– from becoming parents.
  72. 72. 21. In 1883, Bell wrote a book about eugenics and deafness. *Eugenics: the study of improving the human population by encouraging people with positive traits to have children and discourage people with negative traits –like deafness– from becoming parents. *
  73. 73. 27. In 1883, Bell wrote a book about eugenics and deafness. *Eugenics: the study of improving the human population by encouraging people with positive traits to have children and discouraging people with negative traits –like deafness– from becoming parents. *
  74. 74. 28. Bell’s writings made many Deaf people angry. Deaf people were against Bell’s ideas about suppressing sign language; many believed he wanted the government to pass laws that would prevent Deaf people from marrying each other.
  75. 75. . Thus began a great controversy:
  76. 76. 29. There was a great argument: Oralists Manualistsv.
  77. 77. 30. In 1895, there was a debate between the two American educators, the great inventor and scientist, Alexander Graham Bell, and Edward Miner Gallaudet.
  78. 78. Edward Miner Gallaudet Alexander Graham Bell
  79. 79. Edward Miner Gallaudet Alexander Graham Bell My son!
  80. 80. My father was a famous teacher of the deaf.
  81. 81. My father was a famous teacher of the deaf. My father was a famous teacher of the deaf.
  82. 82. I became a teacher of the deaf.
  83. 83. I became a teacher of the deaf. I became a teacher of the deaf.
  84. 84. I married a deaf woman.
  85. 85. I married a deaf woman. I married a deaf woman.
  86. 86. My mother and wife were accomplished women who signed.
  87. 87. My mother and wife were accomplished women who signed. My mother and wife were accomplished women who spoke.
  88. 88. American Sign Language is the natural language of Deaf people.
  89. 89. American Sign Language is the natural language of Deaf people. All Deaf people can learn how to speak.
  90. 90. After inventing the telephone, I became world famous and very powerful.
  91. 91. Ummm… After inventing the telephone, I became world famous and very powerful.
  92. 92. On one hand, Edward Gallaudet and Dr. Bell were the same. Their fathers were both famous teachers of the Deaf. They both had Deaf mothers. They had the same job -they were teachers of Deaf kids. They both married Deaf women. On the other hand, they were different. Edward Gallaudet and Dr. Bell argued. Dr. Bell said, “Never use ASL because Deaf kids must learn speech,” but Gallaudet said, “Deaf kids must learn sign language.’
  93. 93. A Deaf college student drew this cartoon of the Bell and Gallaudet debate.
  94. 94. 31. Ten years after the Conference in Milan, the popularity of sign language in Deaf schools sharply declined. By 1890, 75% of signing teachers retired. Most schools for the Deaf prohibited students from signing.
  95. 95. 31. Ten years after the Conference in Milan, the popularity of sign language in Deaf schools sharply declined. By 1890, 75% of signing teachers retired. Most schools for the Deaf prohibited students from signing.
  96. 96. 32. Oral education predominated in most schools for the Deaf over 90 years, until the 1970s.
  97. 97. 32. Oral education predominated in most schools for the Deaf over 90 years, until the 1970s.
  98. 98. 32. Oral education predominated in most schools for the Deaf over 90 years, until the 1970s.
  99. 99. 32. Oral education predominated in most schools for the Deaf over 90 years, until the 1970s.
  100. 100. 33. In 1913, George Veditz, president of the National Association of the Deaf, began an effort to preserve ASL by recording it on film. “They do not understand signs for they cannot sign. They proclaim that signs are worthless and of no help to the Deaf. Enemies of the sign language, they are enemies of the true welfare of the Deaf. As long as we have Deaf people on earth, we will have signs. It is my hope that we all will love and guard our beautiful sign language..."
  101. 101. 36. Oral education worked for some Deaf people. However, many Deaf students became ‘oral failures’. For 90 years, Deaf students secretly used ASL and hid this from teachers and parents. They felt ashamed. Many Deaf adults felt angry that most of their time in school was used to learn speech.
  102. 102. 34. Oral education worked for some Deaf people. But many Deaf students became ‘oral failures’. For 90 years, Deaf students secretly used ASL and hid this from teachers and parents. They felt ashamed. Many Deaf adults felt angry that most of their time in school was used to learn speech. Lots of those angry adults feel they’ve been cheated out of a good education because they were restricted to one method, oralism . Jack Gannon, Deaf educator and writer
  103. 103. Dr. James Marsters
  104. 104. 35. In 1964, two Deaf scientists and inventors, Robert Weitbrecht and James Marsters, adapted teletypewriters –used by news services– to enable Deaf people to use the telephone with each other. Dr. James Marsters
  105. 105. Later, the teletypewriters –called TTYs– became a lot smaller. .
  106. 106. 36. Deaf people invented texting years before cell phones were commonly used. LOL BRB CU OIC THX L8R
  107. 107. 37. Erastus ‘Deaf’ Smith was hero in Texas’s fight for independence from Mexico in 1835. Deaf Smith County is named for him.
  108. 108. 37. Erastus ‘Deaf’ Smith was hero in Texas’s fight for independence from Mexico in 1835. Deaf Smith County is named for him. Deaf Smith County, Texas
  109. 109. 38. Deaf schools were segregated like hearing schools. The early schools for the Deaf did not accept African Americans. In 1887, William Holland, a hearing African American man and farmer, opened the Deaf Dumb and Blind Institute for Colored Youth students in Texas.
  110. 110. 39. Early hearing aids were called ‘ear trumpets (horns).’
  111. 111. 39. Early hearing aids were called ‘ear trumpets (horns).’
  112. 112. 39. Early hearing aids were called ‘ear trumpets (horns).’
  113. 113. 39. Early hearing aids were called ‘ear trumpets (horns).’
  114. 114. 39. Early hearing aids were called ‘ear trumpets (horns).’
  115. 115. 39. Early hearing aids were called ‘ear trumpets (horns).’
  116. 116. 39. Early hearing aids were called ‘ear trumpets (horns).’
  117. 117. 40. Olaf Hanson moved from Sweden to the United States with his parents. He became Deaf when he was 11. He graduated from Gallaudet in 1886. He was an architect and designed buildings at many Deaf schools. He also served as NAD president. Olof and Anna Hanson and their daughters.
  118. 118. 41. The NAD paid famous sculptor Daniel Chester French to create a statue of Thomas Gallaudet. French made many statues, including Lincoln at the Abraham Lincoln Memorial.
  119. 119. 41. The NAD paid famous sculptor Daniel Chester French to create a statue of Thomas Gallaudet. French made many statues, including Lincoln at the Abraham Lincoln Memorial. Daniel Chester French in his studio.
  120. 120. 42. Inventors began making electronic hearing aids around 1890.
  121. 121. 42. Inventors began making electronic hearing aids around 1890.
  122. 122. 42. Inventors began making electronic hearing aids around 1890.
  123. 123. 42. Inventors began making electronic hearing aids around 1890.
  124. 124. 43. Agatha Hanson was the first woman to graduate from Gallaudet University with a Bachelor’s Degree. She graduated in 1893. She was a teacher and worked to support Deaf people’s rights. Agatha (left) with her sister Emma Tiegel in April 1893.
  125. 125. 44. American engineer Miller Reese Hutchison invented the first electric hearing aid in 1895. He used ideas from Bell’s telephone. Hutchison wanted to invent something to help his Deaf childhood friend.
  126. 126. 45. William “Dummy” Hoy was a very successful Major League Baseball player who was profoundly Deaf. When he played from 1888 – 1902, the word ‘Dummy’ was not impolite, but it is now. Historians believe Hoy invented the signals for ‘out’ and ‘safe’. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1951.
  127. 127. 46. In 1908, 26th US President Theodore Roosevelt’s advisors told him to ask for a law blocking Deaf people from government jobs. *government
  128. 128. 46. In 1908, 26th US President Theodore Roosevelt’s advisors told him to ask for a law blocking Deaf people from government jobs. *government Sorry, Deaf Americans. The government does NOT want you.
  129. 129. 47. NAD president George Veditz and educator Edward Miner Gallaudet met with William Taft, the 27th US President. They convinced President Taft to change Roosevelt’s decision. President Taft opened government jobs to Deaf workers.
  130. 130. 47. NAD president George Veditz and educator Edward Miner Gallaudet met with William Taft, the 27th US President. They convinced President Taft to change Roosevelt’s decision. President Taft opened government jobs to Deaf workers.
  131. 131. 47. NAD president George Veditz and educator Edward Miner Gallaudet met with William Taft, the 27th US President. They convinced President Taft to change Roosevelt’s decision. President Taft opened government jobs to Deaf workers.
  132. 132. 47. NAD president George Veditz and educator Edward Miner Gallaudet met with William Taft, the 27th US President. They convinced President Taft to change Roosevelt’s decision. President Taft opened government jobs to Deaf workers. Change that bad law.
  133. 133. 47. NAD president George Veditz and educator Edward Miner Gallaudet met with William Taft, the 27th US President. They convinced President Taft to change Roosevelt’s decision. President Taft opened government jobs to Deaf workers. Change that bad law. Hire Deaf people!
  134. 134. 47. NAD president George Veditz and educator Edward Miner Gallaudet met with William Taft, the 27th US President. They convinced President Taft to change Roosevelt’s decision. In 1909, President Taft opened government jobs to Deaf workers. Change that bad law. Hire Deaf people!
  135. 135. 48. Deaf Canadians did serve in the military during World War I. Samuel Hutton was an American Deaf man who joined the Canadian army and fought overseas from 1917 - 1918.
  136. 136. 49. There are Olympics for Deaf people! The first International Silent Games were held in Paris in 1924. Nine countries sent 148 Deaf athletes to play in the games.
  137. 137. 50. During its annual meeting in 1937, the National Association of the Deaf criticized terms such as “deaf-mute” and “deaf and dumb.” The NAD expressed support for the terms “Deaf” and “hard of hearing.
  138. 138. 51. Nellie Zabel White became the first Deaf airplane pilot in 1928. She was also the first woman to fly in her state, South Dakota.
  139. 139. 52. In the 1930s, Deaf people hid hearing aids in their clothes.
  140. 140. 52. In the 1930s, Deaf people hid hearing aids in their clothes.
  141. 141. 52. In the 1930s, Deaf people hid hearing aids in their clothes.
  142. 142. 53. Chuck Baird was an accomplished Deaf actor and artist who painted from a Deaf perspective. He was born in 1947.
  143. 143. 54. Deaf Americans were not permitted to serve in the military during World War I (1914 - 1918) and World War II (1941 – 1945) but many factory jobs open to Deaf people.
  144. 144. 55. In the 1950s, hearing aids became smaller.
  145. 145. 56. Also in the 1950s, some people wore hearing aids that hid in glasses.
  146. 146. 57. In 1954, Dr. Andrew Foster was the first Deaf African American man to graduate from Gallaudet College. He started schools for Deaf children in Africa.
  147. 147. 58. Ida Wynette Gray Hampton was the first African American to graduate from Gallaudet College in 1957.
  148. 148. 59. In 1958, 34th President Dwight Eisenhower signed a law establishing the Captioned Film Library for the Deaf, making educational movies and other films accessible to Deaf and Hard of Hearing people.
  149. 149. Gallaudet English professor William Stokoe, a hearing man, studied ASL with a movie camera.
  150. 150. 61. Homer Babbidge, a hearing man, was an advisor to Congress on education. In 1965, he wrote an important report on Deaf education. The report explained the oral education was a poor way to teach Deaf students.
  151. 151. Gallaudet English professor William Stokoe, a hearing man, studied ASL with a movie camera. Many people believed ASL was pantomime, a collection of meaningless gesture, or broken English. I proved these ideas were false!
  152. 152. Gallaudet English professor William Stokoe, a hearing man, studied ASL with a movie camera. Many people believed ASL was pantomime, a collection of meaningless gesture, or broken English. I proved these ideas were false!
  153. 153. 33. William Stokoe used the principles of linguistics (the scientific study of language) to show that American Sign Language is a real, natural language. ASL is not bad English; it is different from English.
  154. 154. 33. William Stokoe used the principles of linguistics (the scientific study of language) to show that American Sign Language is a real, natural language. ASL is not bad English; it is different from English.
  155. 155. 33. William Stokoe used the principles of linguistics (the scientific study of language) to show that American Sign Language is a real, natural language. ASL is not bad English; it is different from English.
  156. 156. I studied the movies of Deaf people signing. I made up a notation system to transcribe their communication. 36. William Stokoe used the principles of linguistics (the scientific study of language) to show that American Sign Language is a real, natural language. ASL is not bad English; it is different from English.
  157. 157. I studied the movies of Deaf people signing. I made up a notation system to transcribe their communication. 5x = ‘mother’ 33. William Stokoe used the principles of linguistics (the scientific study of language) to show that American Sign Language is a real, natural language. ASL is not bad English; it is different from English.
  158. 158. My research showed that ASL follows consistent rules of grammar and word creation, so, therefore, ASL meets the definition of a ‘real’ language. 33. William Stokoe used the principles of linguistics (the scientific study of language) to show that American Sign Language is a real, natural language. ASL is not bad English; it is different from English.
  159. 159. My research showed that ASL follows consistent rules of grammar and word creation, so, therefore, ASL meets the definition of a ‘real’ language. 60. William Stokoe used the principles of linguistics (the scientific study of language) to show that American Sign Language is a real, natural language. ASL is not bad English; it is different from English. He published the first ASL dictionary in 1965.
  160. 160. 61. America’s first troupe of Deaf actors, the National Theater of the Deaf, was established in 1967.
  161. 161. Welcome to the French Chef! 62. In 1971, Public TV station WGBH in Boston created the first TV shows with captions, making TV accessible to Deaf viewers. Welcome to the French Chef! Petrified Collection
  162. 162. 63. Hearing aids became smaller
  163. 163. 63. Hearing aids became smaller and smaller.
  164. 164. 63. Hearing aids became smaller and smaller.
  165. 165. 63. Hearing aids became smaller and smaller.
  166. 166. 63. Hearing aids became smaller and smaller.
  167. 167. 63. Hearing aids became smaller and smaller.
  168. 168. 64. Doctors began to offer cochlear implants in 1984.
  169. 169. 64. Doctors began to offer cochlear implants in 1984.
  170. 170. 64. Doctors began to offer cochlear implants in 1984.
  171. 171. 65. In 1986, twenty-one year old Deaf actress Marlee Matlin became the first Deaf person to win an Academy Award for her performance in the movie Children of a Lesser God about a Deaf woman who falls in love with a speech teacher.
  172. 172. 37. In 1988, angry Deaf students at Gallaudet University protested when the school’s Board of Trustees chose a hearing woman to become the school’s new president. Their ‘Deaf President Now!’ protests shut down the school. The protesters successfully influenced the shift to a Deaf university president.
  173. 173. 66. In 1988, angry Deaf students at Gallaudet University protested when the school’s Board of Trustees chose a hearing woman to become the school’s new president. Their ‘Deaf President Now!’ protests shut down the school. The protesters successfully influenced the shift to a Deaf university president. Dr. I. King Jordan, a member of the University’s psychology department, became the school’s first Deaf president.
  174. 174. 67. By 1990, a new law called the Americans with Disabilities Act, required TV networks to produce captions for their shows and television manufacturers to include computer chips that enabled people to see captions on their tvs. Do I get a welcome home kiss?
  175. 175. 68. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 permitted Deaf people to serve on juries in courts. The court must provide an ASL interpreter.
  176. 176. 69. Heather Whitestone became the first Deaf woman crowned as Miss America in 1994.
  177. 177. 43. In 2001, the NAD issued a recommendation that it will “work to ensure that parents of children with cochlear implants and other listening assistive technology receive exposure to Deaf Culture and Sign Language.”
  178. 178. 43. In 2001, the NAD issued a recommendation that it will “work to ensure that parents of children with cochlear implants and other listening assistive technology receive exposure to Deaf Culture and Sign Language.” Abc+
  179. 179. 43. In 2001, the NAD issued a recommendation that it will “work to ensure that parents of children with cochlear implants and other listening assistive technology receive exposure to Deaf Culture and Sign Language.” Abc+
  180. 180. 70. In 2001, the NAD issued a recommendation that it will “work to ensure that parents of children with cochlear implants and other listening assistive technology receive exposure to Deaf Culture and Sign Language.” Abc+
  181. 181. 71. Video interpreting became widely-available in USA after 2002.
  182. 182. 72. In March 2003, the government of the United Kingdom officially recognized British Sign Language as an official language of the nation. BSL has the same recognition as Gaelic and Welsh
  183. 183. 73. Ian Berry, a Deaf man from England, skied with a group to the South Pole 2010. They needed 14 days to reach their destination.
  184. 184. 73. Ian Berry, a Deaf man from England, skied with a group to the South Pole 2010. They needed 14 days to reach their destination.
  185. 185. 74. Switched at Birth became a popular TV show in 2011. There are Deaf characters in the show. Some of the actors are Deaf, too.
  186. 186. 75. In November, 2013, Deaf South Africans were angry when the government hired a fake sign language interpreter during the funeral of leader Nelson Mandela.
  187. 187. 76. In March 2014, the Dunwoody police department near Atlanta, Georgia, began using keyboard technology to communicate with Deaf people when interpreters were not available.
  188. 188. Nancy Rourke, Deaf artist http://www.nancyrourke.com/index.htm
  189. 189. Tom Humphries William Stokoe Laurent Clerc Albert Newsam Edward Miner Gallaudet Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Abbe de l’Epee’Father Pablo Bonet George Veditz Paddy Ladd Jean Baptiste Massiue Alice Tiegel Hansen Nancy Rourke, Deaf artist http://www.nancyrourke.com/index.htm
  190. 190. Tom Humphries William Stokoe Laurent Clerc Albert Newsam Edward Miner Gallaudet Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Abbe de l’Epee’Father Pablo Bonet George Veditz Paddy Ladd Jean Baptiste Massiue Alice Tiegel Hansen Nancy Rourke, Deaf artist http://www.nancyrourke.com/index.htm

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