The Spatial Nature of ASL for Teachers: June 08 UDOE

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Presentation given to the K-12 ASL Teachers section at the 2008 Health Sciences Summer Workshop. Presentation discusses what students learn about ASL when they study its spatial nature and introduces the Axes Hypothesis, what types of information do signers communicate in various spatial axes.

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The Spatial Nature of ASL for Teachers: June 08 UDOE

  1. 1. Helping Students Understand Space and Location in American Sign Language Doug Stringham 2008 Health Sciences Summer Workshop ©2008 Doug Stringham
  2. 2. About Doug ©2008 Doug Stringham
  3. 3. About you ©2008 Doug Stringham
  4. 4. What we hope to cover today: ©2008 Doug Stringham
  5. 5. Reset terminologies Grammatically, what do we learn about ASL when we study its spatial nature? The Axes Hypothesis: What types of information typically occurs in certain axes of the signer’s space? Where in the curriculum do we teach about spatial manipulation? What are some ways we can encourage students to do language rather than know language? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  6. 6. Reset terminologies: ©2008 Doug Stringham
  7. 7. “spatialization” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  8. 8. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  9. 9. “Spatialization is the aspect of music related with space...” “The Spatialization of Knowledge and Social Relationships” “Illegal Immigration and the Spatialization of Legality” “homogenous spatialization...and European colonialization” “Spatialization, Economic Investment, and Labor Outcomes” “ambisonic spatialization” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  10. 10. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  11. 11. “spatial nature of ASL” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  12. 12. “using space” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  13. 13. “locative relationships” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  14. 14. “spatialization” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  15. 15. What do we learn about the grammar of ASL by studying space? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  16. 16. Let’s look at four grammatical markers or structures. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  17. 17. (1) Defining subjects and objects in an utterance ©2008 Doug Stringham
  18. 18. Subject and object identification is fundamental to all languages, signed or spoken. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  19. 19. Definitions Subject: a noun that represents a person, place or thing that does something. Object: also a subject; subclassified: Direct object: a noun that another subject acts upon Indirect object: a noun that is the recipient of or affected by the subject Oblique object: nouns that generally occur in prepositional phrases ©2008 Doug Stringham
  20. 20. {subject} “The cat sits.” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  21. 21. {subject} {object} “The cat chases the mouse.” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  22. 22. Based on intent, ASL allows conversants to (re)define subjects and objects. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  23. 23. {object} {subject} “The cat chases the mouse.” {subject} {object} “The cat chases the mouse.” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  24. 24. {subject} “The cat sits over there in the corner.” {oblique object} {indirect object} ©2008 Doug Stringham
  25. 25. (1a) Defining subjects and objects: Contrastive structure ©2008 Doug Stringham
  26. 26. Often used to define subject and object groups which will be compared and/or contrasted in a discourse. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  27. 27. “I have four children; three girls and a boy.” {subject 1} {subject 2} ©2008 Doug Stringham
  28. 28. {subject/noun phrase 1} “Iraq’s sectarian violence boils down to Sunni and Shi’ite differences. {subject/noun phrase 2} ©2008 Doug Stringham
  29. 29. (2) Ensuring verb agreement in in an utterance ©2008 Doug Stringham
  30. 30. In English, verbs must agree temporally (tense). ©2008 Doug Stringham
  31. 31. “It is nice outside yesterday. We was met for lunch.” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  32. 32. In ASL, most verbs need to agree spatially (pronominally and directionally). ©2008 Doug Stringham
  33. 33. Some exceptions: ©2008 Doug Stringham
  34. 34. ‘to think’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  35. 35. ‘to act’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  36. 36. ‘to love’ ©2008 Doug Stringham
  37. 37. How does the verb agree? “It was a good movie; Sarah told me so.” {subject} {object} ©2008 Doug Stringham
  38. 38. How ASL verbs are spatially inflected: Directionally: Geographically: verb is spatially inflected verb is spatially inflected to show who subjects and to indicate distance objects are relationships between subject and object Reciprocally: verb is spatially inflected to Situationally: show that subjects and verb is spatially inflected to objects have simultaneous show where action takes interaction place on subject or object ©2008 Doug Stringham
  39. 39. Baker-Shenk, C. & Cokely, D. (1980). American sign language: A teacher’s resource text on grammar and culture. Wasington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  40. 40. (3) Giving information about locative relationships in an ASL discourse ©2008 Doug Stringham
  41. 41. In English, locative relationships are expressed lexically. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  42. 42. Identify some examples of English locative markers: (In English/fingerspelled) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  43. 43. In ASL, locative relationships are expressed spatially. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  44. 44. Identify these locative relationships: (In ASL/signed) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  45. 45. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  46. 46. ASL locative information is typically expressed through (1) pronominal relationships (classifiers) and (2) indexing. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  47. 47. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  48. 48. (4) Giving information about temporal aspect in an ASL discourse ©2008 Doug Stringham
  49. 49. The spatial ASL timeline ©2008 Doug Stringham
  50. 50. ASL narrative timelines past > < past present < future present future > ©2008 Doug Stringham
  51. 51. How do we show relativity in temporal information? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  52. 52. ASL narrative timelines past > < past present < future present future > ©2008 Doug Stringham
  53. 53. The Axes Hypothesis: What happens where? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  54. 54. By studying ASL discourse, we begin to understand where certain genres of information are communicated. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  55. 55. Narrative/discourse axes y z x ©2008 Doug Stringham
  56. 56. Relative temporal X-axis space (timeline) Narrative space (‘the stage’) y Relative & absolute reference, locative, or nominalization z Others? past > < future x ©2008 Doug Stringham
  57. 57. Hierarchy, ordered Y-axis numbers or lists Narrative space (‘the stage’) y Relative & absolute first/high reference, locative, or nominalization z Others? x last/low ©2008 Doug Stringham
  58. 58. Universal temporal Z-axis space (metatimeline) Narrative space (‘the stage’) y Relative & absolute reference, locative, or nominalization z Others? < past x future > ©2008 Doug Stringham
  59. 59. Video samples which illustrate these principles ©2008 Doug Stringham
  60. 60. “How a Bill Becomes Law” http://www.odi.govt.nz/documents/video/how-a-bill-becomes-law.mp4 ©2008 Doug Stringham
  61. 61. “The Exodus Story” ©2008 Doug Stringham
  62. 62. “New York School f/t Deaf” WROCC Technical Sign Interviews ©2008 Doug Stringham
  63. 63. “Deaf Ninja” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8 ©2008 Doug Stringham
  64. 64. “The Ball” Signing Naturally, Ch. 16; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOoIcuA-0A4 ©2008 Doug Stringham
  65. 65. Where in the curriculum do we teach about spatial manipulation? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  66. 66. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  67. 67. Signing Naturally (Level 1) Chapter 3: Talking about your surroundings (real-world orientation) Unit 4: Telling where you live (real-world orientation) Unit 5: Talking about your family (contrastive structure) Unit 7: Giving directions (spatial referencing) Unit 9: Making requests (spatial verbs and referencing) Unit 11: Attributing qualities (constructed dialogue and structure) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  68. 68. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  69. 69. Signing Naturally (Level 2) Unit 13: Locating things around the house (locatives and weak-hand referencing) Unit 15: Personal information; life events (classifier predicates and contrastive structure) Unit 16: Describing and identifying things (classifier predicates) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  70. 70. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  71. 71. Do language ≠ Know language ©2008 Doug Stringham
  72. 72. How else can we get students to do language? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  73. 73. (Y)our students are tech-savvy. Try them. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  74. 74. 1. Handheld technologies iPod Nano (2006) iPod Touch (2007) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  75. 75. Handheld technologies Motorola Q (2006) Sony PSP (2005) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  76. 76. 2. Internet video and discourse mapping ©2008 Doug Stringham
  77. 77. vixy.net: Capture YouTube video for offline viewing ©2008 Doug Stringham
  78. 78. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  79. 79. represent spatial zones (clusters or pegs) where specific linguistic features occur peg linguistic features: nominals pronominals unidirectional verbs (signer is agent or actor) unidirectional verbs (signer is recipient or actee) ©2008 Doug Stringham
  80. 80. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  81. 81. noun rb verbnoun ve b noun r noun ve noun noun …sentence + sentence + sentence… ©2008 Doug Stringham
  82. 82. + grammar = ©2008 Doug Stringham
  83. 83. language ©2008 Doug Stringham
  84. 84. 3. Assign group class projects Retell known or novel stories: what was the Friday night football game like? What do you do at your job? Where did you and your friends hang out last Thursday? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  85. 85. Other suggestions? ©2008 Doug Stringham
  86. 86. Additional Readings and References Baker-Shenk, C. & Cokely, D. (1980). American Sign Language: A teacher’s resource text on culture and grammar. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. Valli, C. & Lucas, C. (2000). Linguistics of American Sign Language: An introduction. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. Mikos, K., Smith, C., & Lentz, E. (1992) Signing Naturally: Levels 1 & 2. San Diego: DawnSignPress. ©2008 Doug Stringham
  87. 87. Thank you. dstringham@gmail.com ©2008 Doug Stringham

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