We will be defining disability, identifying WHO comprises our population of deaf and HOH, taking a quick look at deaf history and laws, current and local library technlogies for the deaf community. We’ll explore implications for libs, guidelines for library services to better serve the deaf community, and we’ll finish up by looking at a couple of new library technologies.
Our Def of Disability, as previously learned in this class – the ADA defines disability as a . A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of the individual
When we talk about deafness w/a lowercase d, we are refering to the pjhysicalcondiion of being deaf.When used as a cultural label, the word deaf is often written with a capital D, and referred to as "big D Deaf”. When used as a label for the audiological condition, it is written with a lower case d.HEARING IMPAIRED. Say DEF> Those who identify with the Big D Deaf culture typically reject the label ‘impaired’’ and other terms that’imply that deafness is a pathological condition, They view their culture of deafness with a sense of pride
In order to best serve our Deaf and hard-of-hearing library users, let’s explore WHO they are, , who is it that we are serving?There’s about 28 million deaf and hard-of-hearing people in the U.S. --thats 10 percent of the total population. More than half of those people use American Sign Language.
It was interesting to find out in my research that there are quite a few different groups of deaf communities. So first group we’ll identify are “Deaf People.” These people were….born deaf or deafened before speaking…they use ASL fluently and may not consider themselvesd with disability but as a part of the cultural and linguistic minority Deaf commmunity; they have a positive attitude toward being deaf. Oral approaches toeducating deaf children has sparked much controversy with members of Big D Deaf communities. They may also oppose innovations like hearing aid, cochlear implants coz altho they provide easier access to the hearing world, what would the devices and loss of ASL mean for a DEAF person's sense of identity with deaf culture?
Now the second group – called the Deafened People are those with a sudden loss of hearing could be due to injury or illness.Many people in this group may not wish to learn ASL. Instead they’ll learn to lip-read and make use of text-based access to spoken language.
For this 3rd group of people…they are ….blah blah. As well as Lip- reading and induction loops,Subtitles and other text-based systems for lectures, tv, films.
Now the last grp…blah blah…
Deaf history and heritage is very rich and interesting. Go to this website to read about historical events such as the Deaf President Now movement that brought Gallaudet University its first deaf president, segregation in schools for the deaf, the first Miss America who was crowned and deaf, and a lot of other really cool things…
As we learned earlier in our Assistive Tech lecture, The ADA Act, signed by George Bush, made discrim based on disability illegal. For deaf people, this law enabled access to the telephone and public events.. Doctor's appointments and other meetings became more accessible through interpreting services, and captions became a requirement for the tV, public films.
Telev. Decoder -- required all new television sets to incorporate closed captioningRehab act: Section 504 requires access for people w/disability to to federal programs, and section 508, requires that ANY fed govt issued information technology -- including websites -- to be accessible to those w/disability.President Obama has signed into law the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 -- making it easier for people who are deaf or blind to access communication technologies such as tv, Internet, smartphones and text messaging. The law will ensure that emergency information is accessible to individuals who are blind or have low vision.
Keeping all of the information we just learned in mind, we need to consider the implications this information has on our role as librarians. In my reaserch, I stumbled across this “The social model approach” which asks simply ‘Who are you?’ and ‘What do you need?’, which is the foundation of information necessary to serve our deafcommunity OR ANY and ALL communities.We touched briefly on WHO we are serving…Now let’s take a look at the ways in which we are currently and locally serving the need areas of our Deaf and HOH Library Users.
In speaking w/Ann ito, the Director of the kokua program -- this was one thing that really spoke to me…QUOTE. .though we are responsible as librarioans to serve the diversified public, we also need to keep it simple, like the social model approach, focusing on each individual and each individual need…remembering that each person is gonna be different…gonna have different needs.
Going bak to how we are currently mtg needs of deaf/hoh-e-reference (contact librarian via email)-Job Access with Speech (JAWS) software installed in newer computers.-Closed captioned DVDs, videos. -TTY/TDD not really used but it’s there if people want to use it-Microphone system when necessary-Sign Language Interpeters available upon request-Partner with Better Hearing Hawaii -, they do a program together, usually around May.-LBPH provides lots for blind and phys handicapped, like the name of it. -Alternate Media and Learning Resources, Like talking books, talking book machines, large-print books, audiocassettes, braille books, and cassette book machines for blind and physically handicapped persons,transcirbing services. For the deaf and HOH, a collection of American Sign Language books and videos
For decades, telephones were a convenience that separated deaf people from the rest of society. Special thanks to Robert Weitbrecht, in 1964 for the TTY/TTD..They have tty but its rarely used.
-TTY/TDD u saw a pic of…-Sprint Relay -- free service that allows people who are deaf to communicate with hearing individuals from any computer without having to use traditional TTY equipment. -Workstation with special software to help with people with visual impairment and also for HOH, they can plug in headphones and hear if needed to.-e reference, email, 24/7 chat svc.
I just wanted to let you guys take a peek into the resources provided on the UH Library homepage. There’s a ? In upper left hand corner of homepage .
Will take you to this pg24/7 chat service. At 3am in the morning, you’d chat w/librarian in Ohio. From their computer, they can see our resources and handle question. OR You could email a reference desk and that would go to a reference librarian.
Sumthin else I found on the UH website:Guide to assist in providing educational services to differently abled peoples. URL: http://guides.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/accessibilityOne of the features of this page – is that UH has a program called: Making Distance Learning Accessible to Everyone A video presentation that provides guidelines for designing Internet-based distance learning courses to fully include all students, including those with disabilities. The presentation is open-captioned to assure access for viewers.
…a program of UH with the goal of providing Equal Opportunity for Students with Disabilities.
I got to speak with the director Ann Ito of the kokua program and she shared all of these Supports they have for their students. Priority registration – students who are HOH/Deaf are cleared to register before enyone else on campus – this provides the underpinnings for a successful semester.Choose teachers that will provide visuals, i.e. powerpoints., teachers who are clearer speakers, who don’t have mustaches (so they can read lips), acoustics of the classoomFaculty Technical Assistance – w/studnts permission, student is Ided to faculty as deaf/HH and Kokua will priem the faculty on best teaching practices for deaf/hoh student (about how they can modify their program (i.e. Being multi modal, face the student/face front, so stud can read lips, etc, have AV captioned videos presented in class, excursions and night events – good lighting)TestingAccomodations – stud can take exam in office, time extensions, AV readily accesible in Kokua office space. Ann Ito from KokuaSvs also reminded me that up until 15 years ago, ASL wasn’t counted as an official language. But now fortunately it is. So Deaf/HOH college students can count credits in ASL toward foreign lang requirements.For the HOH, undergrads had to take a few semesters of foreign language…. For a HOH student back then, rather than taking a few required semesters of Spanish, these students can take alternative culture courses about spain and still get the foreign lang credit.AT – many deaf/hoh are supported by exterm=nal gov’t agencies in the purchase of AT (medical visits, hearing aids, personal equipment). Kokua can intervene and advocate for an agency on behalf of a student w/disability Web cams in Kokua office to dierctly communicate with deaf/hoh students, but most deaf students have their own phones now….we’ll actually get to take a peek into how they work nowadays.)Educating/Advocating for the Deaf/HOH student in regards to their circle of academic-related community (financial aid, student housing, commencement). Involving them in career opps. Many
Here I broke down the accomodations needed for the Deaf OR HOH (as u see on this page and the page to come.) -Qualified sign language interpreters for public programming such as children's story times, or for staff meetings if there is an employee who is Deaf-A staff person knowledgeable in sign language to handle basic communication needs (e.g. to answer a reference question)-Captioning:Make sure videos or DVDs that may be used for public programming are Closed Captioned, as well as open Captioning for public programming.-Telephones,Public TTY,Video relay service access-I will talk a little bit more about video relay service access-Just like seeing eye dogs, there is such a thing as Hearing Ear Dogs or Signal Dogs are allowed in all public facilities.
Could be as simple as…
For people who are specifically hard of hearing, they’d benefit from”-Personal portable one-on-one Assistive Listening Device (ALD) (amplification system) for useat service desks, or childrens story rooms-Headsets and "Neckloops" for use with amplification systems-Hearing aid compatible public telephones
loop of wire that u hangaround your neck with a cord that plugs into the device to which you are listening. reduces the buzz caused by phones placed too close to the hearing aid, for a clearer signal.
Generally, the older an individual is when the hearing loss is experienced, the more comfortable that individual is likely to be with oral and written languages. However, individuals who are born deaf or become deaf before acquiring speech may have speech that is difficult to understand or may use no speech at all, and may have difficulty with reading.Because of this variation, and the variations in educational approaches, deaf people frequently have been rearranged into assorted categories under assorted labels, like we looked at earlier. Librarians need to be aware of these variations and of the controversies behind it, in order to build comprehensive and impartial collections about deafness and of related materials of interest to both deaf and hearing people. Here are some basic guidelines for lib svs to the deaf community. :O)(Fly in each one)
ARE staff trained? Is training provided on communcating effectively w/deaf?Training needs are great and need to be on varying assistive techs and communication needs, deaf culture, special collections of materials, captioning of video, assistive listening devices, specialized alerting devices, technological communication aids, reading levels, etc – these all need to be addressed.Libraries should attempt to employ persons who have or are likely to be able to obtain credibility within the deaf community.As is the case with employing other minority groups, libraries have much to gain by hiring deaf staff members. – this person could be a very credible source in coordinating services to the deaf community
A text telephone (TTY) should be available at each main service point, e.g., the reference desk, in each library. Easy access. And All members of the library staff should receive training in the use of the TTY.Telephones for use by library clientele or staff should be equipped with amplification.Internet presence is wholly accessible with On a lib website, Audio tracks that are open-captioned, audio files available as downloadable transcript files. Or like when a button is selected, visual feedback should also be given, e.g., the button flashes on the screenCurrent technologies? As an example, email and IM has proven to be a highly effective mode of communication among deaf people and between deaf and hearing peopleAssistive listening systems, e.g., FM systems, infrared systems, audio loops, etc., are used by persons with hearing disabilities tobetter understand lectures, meetings, music, and other programs. Computer- assisted real-time captioning and computer-assisted note taking allow patrons who do not benefit from interpreters or assistive listening devices to see a running text of information as it is being shared. Closed-caption television decoders for use by their clienteleSign language and oral interpreters, computer-assisted real-time captioning, or computer-assisted note taking services for all library-sponsored programs upon request,e.g., during computer orientation, research workshops, storytelling, etc.Visible warning signals in order to alert deaf clientele to problems and emergencies
Libraries should collect materials related to deafness and Deaf culture that will be of interest to both deaf and hearing clientele. A lot of times resources are limited or out of date in regards to books and DVDs relating to deafness in general. Collections should include current and historical materials related to deafness, works by and about deaf artists and other famous deaf people, materials related to sign language, government documents, legal materials and periodicals related to deafness, etc. And these materials should be integrated into the total resources of the library. Libraries should collect, maintain, and offer information about educational options, referral agencies, and programs for deaf people in a wholly unbiased fashion.Libraries should assemble and provide access to a collection of high interest / low reading level materials of interest to deaf people.For many deaf people, mastery of the oral and written lang is a particular challenge, so Libraries should strive to build a collection of high interest materials thatare“Easy-to-Read”, with appropriateillustartions. Helpful 4 deaf people as well as people from other linguistic minorities.Television video programs and other such media with audio portions should be captioned or signed so that they may be understood by persons unable to hear.Libraries should assemble and maintain a collection of videotapes and/or films in sign language and provide sufficient equipment necessary to view them.Some countries produce video programs or films in sign language; e.g., translations of television programs, fairy tales, deaf folklore, news programs, sign language instruction, etc.
All of the library’s collections, services, and programs should be made accessible to its deaf community.For instance, when libraries provide eg, training in the use of the World Wide Web for searching, sign language interpretation of the training should be offered and publicized.Personal loop induction systems on loan, especially if performances, etc. provided.Signed and subtitled video versions of information leaflets.Members of the library’s deaf community, should be involved, and also and in the establishment of advisory committees, service organizations, and networks.Have people from the deaf community influence the changes.The success of a service will depends upon its content and quality and upon the acceptance of the service by the clientele for whom it is designed. It may be necessary for the individual who is responsible for program design to go out into the community and to actively solicit interest and assistance from deaf individuals. After such relationships are established, the continued success of the service will depend on the continued success of this network between the library and the deaf community.Libraries should offer programs conducted in sign language.All programs and public meetings held in libraries be made accessible by provision of sign language interpreters, oral interpreters, computer-assisted real-time captioning, or computer assisted note taking as requested. AND….some programs should be offered for deaf clientele in sign language, with voice interpreters for hearing clientele. Providing programs in sign language, e.g., storytelling and programs related to Deaf culture, would be of interest and benefit to all groups within the community.Libraries should ensure that their literacy programs meet the needs of deaf individuals. As mentioned earlier, Many persons who were either born deaf or deafened at an early age have difficulty learning to read because they did not grow up hearing the local spoken language. Libraries must consider the unique needs of deaf individuals when developing literacy programs – at least by consulting with professionals knowledgeable about methods used to educate deaf students. Lotsallibraries are offering sessions where local authors read from their works or hold book signing sessions. These arevery welcome activities that can sometimes exclude D/deaf ASL users, but with a ASL interpreter present, full access can be ensured.” says Lauren.Libraries should include local deaf-related information in its online community information and referral databaseBecause electronic communication and the WWW have proven to be extraordinarily effective media for deaf people, it is important that libraries use it well!
Libraries should aggressively publicize their programs and services to their deaf community.All library publicity should provide for access to the library’s deaf community.Libraries should include the TTY number on all stationery, announcements, brochures, fliers, etc. and ensure that all televised information and promotions are captioned. All general library publications should include information on programs and services for deaf people.
is a text-based communication service that allows persons who are deaf to communicate with any telephone user via a Communication Assistant/video interpretorat a relay service call center usingInternet connection. IP Relay is accessed using a computer or wireless handheld device and the Internet, rather than a TTY and a telephone.very much like instant messaging. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tY9Y0P-OB2I
Here’s a screen shot of what the deaf user would see on his or her end. Looks a lot like IM conversation.
enables a deaf user to use sign language or speech reading to communicate with any telephone user via a Video Interpreter (VI) at a relay service call center. The user has a videophone or webcam connected to a video relay service call center using an internet connection.The Deaf user and an interpreter see each other on the video screen. The interpreter voices the conversation signed by the Deaf person to a hearing person who is using a standard phone. The interpreter signs the hearing person’s conversation to the Deaf person. Benefits of VRS?Conversations are faster and more natural than traditional relay services.Sign language users can express themselves naturally, including facial expressions and body language.Heres a quick clip of how VRS works. Instead of using a computer, this VRS user has the web cam in her own little purple Android. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhO2cpmm_mo (1 min, 37 sec)
Assistive Technology for Library Users Who AreDeaf or Hard-of-Hearing Justine MaedaLIS 670: Introduction to Information Science and Technology August 5, 2011
Overview• Definitions• Identifying the Deaf• Deaf History and Laws• Current and Local Library Technologies for the Deaf Community• Implications for Libraries• Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community• Newer Library Technologies for the Deaf Community
Definition: “disability”Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) definition:A. A physical or mental impairment thatsubstantially limits one or more of the major lifeactivities of the individualB. A record of such an impairment;C. Being regarded as having such an impairment
Definition: “deafness”• “deafness” -- a physical condition characterized by a relative lack of auditory sensitivity to sound compared to the species norm. (Ladd, Patty)• Deafness vs. deafness• "hearing-impaired” – refers to people with a less than severe hearing loss or people who acquired deafness in adulthood as opposed to have grown up deaf. (Ladd, Patty)
Identifying the Deaf• According to the National Association of the Deaf, there are approximately 28 million deaf and hard-of-hearing people in the U.S. -- roughly 10 percent of the total population.• Within the actual ranks of deaf people, more than half reportedly use American Sign Language (ASL) on a regular basis.
Identifying the Deaf (2)Deaf People• Born Deaf or deafened before acquiring speech, often to Deaf parents• First language is American Sign Language• May not consider themselves disabled, but as part of the cultural and linguistic minority Deaf community
Identifying the Deaf (3)Deafened People• Those who have suddenly lost sense of hearing and acquisition of spoken language as the result of illness or injury.• Continue to identify with the hearing community• Use their original spoken language.
Identifying the Deaf (4)Hard of hearing people• Many are over 60 years old.• Have usually grown up speaking and reading their first language and are still able to do so; they retain some residual hearing and are likely to use hearing aids..
Identifying the Deaf (5)Deaf-blind/dual sensory impaired• Have a significant degree of both sight and hearing loss.
Laws Related to Library Users Who are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing• Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990: discrimination based on disability became illegal in employment, public transportation, public programs, telecommunications, and public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, shopping centers and offices.• Implications for the Deaf?
Laws Related to Library Users Who are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing (2)• Television Decoder Circuitry Act in 1993• Rehabilitation Act, with key sections 504 and 508• Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010
Implications for LibrariansThe social model approach to deafness enablesservice providers to respect deaf service usersas equals and to remove barriers in a way thatdoes not set deaf people apart as a ‘specialneeds’ group.The social model asks simply:Who are you?What do you need?(Playforth 2004)
“Interact with each person as an individual.”Ann Ito (Director of Kokua Program, UH Manoa, 2011)
Current Local Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-HearingHawaii State Public Libraries • e-reference • Job Access with Speech (JAWS) software • Closed captioned DVDs, videos. • TTY/TDD • Microphone system when necessary • Sign Language Interpeters • Partner with Better Hearing HawaiiLibrary for the Blind and Physically Handicapped • a collection of American Sign Language books and videos
TTY/TTD• Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf (TDD), also known as TTY (text telephone), is a small device like a typewriter that allows a hearing-impaired person to send text over a telephone line.
Current Local Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-HearingUniversity of Hawaii, Manoa Library• TTY/TDD• Sprint Relay Service• Close-captioned videos and DVDs• Audio-Visual Lab with headphones and adjustable volume• E-reference, email, 24/7 chat service• Workstation with software, amplification (headphones)
“Guide to assist in providing educational services to differently abled peoples” http://guides.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/accessibility
Current Local Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-HearingKokua Program at UH ManoaPriority RegistrationTranscription ServicesNote-taking ServicesSign language Interpreters (live or remote)Faculty Technical AssistanceAudio-Visual CaptioningTesting AccommodationsAssistive Technology (TTY, Web Cams)Education and Advocacy
Current Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (2)People who are: May also benefit from these accomodations:D/deaf or hard-of -Qualified sign language interpreters for publichearing programming -A staff person knowledgeable in sign language -Closed/Opened Captioning -Telephones -Public TTY/TDD -Instant Messaging -Video relay service access -Hearing Ear Dogs
Current Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (3)People who are: (3) benefit from these May accomodations:D/deaf or -Clear signagehard-of hearing -Visual alert / warning system -Equal accessibility to all programs and services -Paper and pencil
Current Library Technologies for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (4)People who are: (4)(4 benefit from these May accomodations: -Assistive Listening Device (ALD)Hard-of hearing -Amplification system -Headsets and "Neckloops” -Hearing aid compatible public telephones
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community• Personnel• Communication• Collections• Services• Program Publicity
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (2)Personnel• Are staff trained on the issues pertaining to servicing the deaf community?• Is training provided on how to communicate effectively?• Employment of persons who can obtain credibility within the deaf community?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (3)Communication• Are Text telephones (TTY) available at each main service point (i.e. the reference desk)?• Do telephones have amplification?• Is the library’s internet presence wholly accessible?• Are current technologies for communication in place?• Are communication aids for supporting computer-assisted real- time captioning available for meetings?• Are closed caption/television decoders available?• Are sign language and oral interpreters, computer-assisted real- time captioning, or computer-assisted note taking services available?• Does the library use visible warning signals?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (4)Collections• Are collections interesting and related to deafness/culture?• Is there a wide, impartial collection of information provided in regards to educational options, referral agencies, and programs for community of deaf?• Is there access to collections of high interest / low reading level materials?• Are television, video programs and other such media with audio portions captioned or signed?• Is there sufficient equipment necessary to view videos?• Is there a collection of videotapes/films in sign language?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (5)Services• Are collections, services, and programs accessible and encouraged for deaf patrons?• Is the library’s deaf community involved in the design and development of the library’s services to deaf people?• Are programs conducted in sign language?• Do library-sponsored literacy programs meet the unique needs of deaf individuals?• Is local deaf-related Information provided in its online community information and referral database?
Guidelines for Library Services to the Deaf Community (6)Program Publicity• Are programs and services to the deaf community being actively publicized?• Does all library publicity provide for access to the library’s deaf community?
Internet Protocol Relaytext based system that enables persons who are deaf touse sign language or speech reading to communicate withany telephone user via a Video Interpreter (VI) at a relayservice call center. The user has a videophone or webcamconnected to a video relay service call center using aninternet connection.
Video Relay Service (VRS)enables a deaf user to use sign language or speech readingto communicate with any telephone user via a VideoInterpreter (VI) at a relay service call center. The user has avideophone or webcam connected to a video relay servicecall center using an internet connection.
BibliographyAlliance for Technology Access. 2000. Computer and Web Resources for People with Disabilities. Alameda, California: Hunter House Publishers.Aragaki, Tisha M. Acting Section Head, Edna Allyn Room for Children. Hawaii State Library. Email Interview. 4 August 2011.Assistive Technology Resource Centers of Hawaii (ATRC). September 2002. Tools to Use: A Guide to Assistive Technology Devices. Honolulu, Hawaii: Assistive TechnologyResource Centers of Hawaii.Bell, Lori. 2004. Product Pipeline. Library Journal. Net Connect, Vol. 129Christensen, Ross. Public Services/Librarian. Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Phone Interview. 4 August 2011.Claire, Mary. E-Reference Librarian, Hawaii State Library. Email Interview. 3 August 2011.Cohen, Sandy. 2006. Making your Library Accessible for People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. Tennessee Libraries; 2006, Vol. 56 Issue 1Day, John Michael. 2000. Guidelines for Library Services to Deaf People. 2nd Edition. Revised edition of Professional Report No. 24. International Federation of LibraryAssociations and Institutions IFLA Professional Reports, Nr. 62.Hamrick, Sarah. Accessibility at the Gaulladet University Library. Interface (02706717); Fall2004, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p2-2, 2/3pHistory Through Deaf Eyes. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/soundandfury/index.htmlIto, Ann. Director of Kokua Program. Phone interview. 4 August 2011.Jeal, Yvette, Roper, Vincent de Paul, Ansell, Elaine. 1996. Deaf people and libraries - should there be special considerations? Part 2: material and technological developmentsLondon: New Library World. Vol. 97, Iss. 1126; pg. 13Kokua Program. http://www.hawaii.edu/kokua/Ladd, Paddy. 2003. Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood. Clevedon, Great Britain. Multilingual Matters Limited.McQuigg, Karen. Are the Deaf a Disabled Group, or a Linguistic Minority. Issues for Librarians in Victoria’s Public Libraries. Australian Library Journal; Nov2003, Vol. 52 Issue 4,p367-377, 11p. Accessed online from EBSCO.Padden, Carol A. 2005. Inside Deaf Culture. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University PressPeters, T. and Bell, L. Hello IM, Goodbye TTY. Computers in Libraries, 10417915, May2006, Vol. 26, Issue 5.Peters T; Bell L. 2006. Assistive Devices and Options for Libraries. Computers in Libraries. Oct; 26 (9). pp. 38-40. Accessed online from EBSCO.Playforth, Sarah. 2004. Brief Communication. Inclusive Library Services for Deaf People: An Overview from the Social Model Perspective. Health Information and Libraries. 21(Suppl. 2), pp. 54–57. Accessed online from EBSCO.University of Hawaii at Manoa Library. http://library.manoa.hawaii.edu/“A Day in the Life, Girl’s Night Out.” VRS. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhO2cpmm_moIP Relay Service image. http://ddtp.cpuc.ca.gov. Hearing Dog image. http://www.lions.org.uk/health/speech_and_hearing/index.php. Neckloop Image.http://www.hearinglosshelp.com/products.htm. TTY/TDD Image. Unitedtty.com. Video Relay Service image. http://www.clevelandhearingandspeech.org