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FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

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FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

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FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

  1. 1. TSL426 FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PREPARED BY : NUR SYAHIRAH BINTI ROSLAN (2015146359) SYAZANA BINTI MOHAMAD (2015158939)
  2. 2. FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
  3. 3. DEFINITION • Refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language. • This is the acquisition of the mother tongue. • The process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. • Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language.
  4. 4. INPUT • Input is where human infants are certainly helped in their language acquisition by the adults in the home environment. • “baby talk” is where speech style adopted by someone who spends a lot of time interacting with a young child. • Examples for simplified words are “tummy” , “mama” “poo-poo” “pee-pee” and others.
  5. 5. Caregiver Speech • Also described as “motherese” or “child- directed speech”. • There are four types of caregiver speech : Frequent use of questions Often using exaggerated intonation Extra loudness A slower tempo with longer pauses BACK TO QUESTION 1
  6. 6. Cooing Babbling The one- word stage The two- word stage Telegraphic speech THE ACQUISITION STAGES
  7. 7. 1) Cooing • Between 2-4 months. • The child gradually becomes capable of producing vowel-like sounds, such as [i] and [u] • Repetition of the vowel sounds. • Express satisfaction or pleasure.
  8. 8. 2) Babbling • Between 6-8 months. • The child produces a number of different vowels and consonants, such as ba-ba-ba and ba-ba-da-da, which at times can almost sound like a real speech. • Uses consonants B, M, D and G. BACK TO QUESTION 2
  9. 9. 3) The one-word stage • Between 12 – 18 months. • One or two recognizable word. • Resembles words or simple phrases. • Words that utter everyday objects such as “milk” , “cat” , “spoon”
  10. 10. 4) The two-word stage • Begin around 18 – 20 months. • At least 50 different words. • Simple sentences, grammatically incorrect and perhaps missing information. • Variety combination words appear. • For examples : • baby chair, daddy car, more milk, cat bad.
  11. 11. • The phrase “baby chair” may be taken as : 1) an expression of possession = (this is baby’s chair) or 2) as a request = (put baby in the chair) or 3) as a statement = (baby is in the chair)
  12. 12. 5) Telegraphic speech • Between 2 – 3 years old. • The child begins producing a large number that could be classified as “multiple-word” speech. • The child vocabulary has grown to hundreds of words during this stage and pronunciation become more clearer.
  13. 13. • Almost complete sentences. • Correct/proper word order. • Physical development : running and jumping. • For examples : a) this shoe all wet b) daddy go bye-bye c) cat drink milk
  14. 14. THE ACQUISITION PROCESS Learning through imitation Learning through correction Developing morphology Developing syntax Developing semantics
  15. 15. 1) Learning through imitation • Basis of child’s speech production used by young children. • They may repeat single words or phrases, but not the sentences structures. • It is likely that the children understand what are the sentences but they express what they understand by their own. • For examples : • Mum is hungry = mum hungry • The cat is sleeping = cat sleep
  16. 16. 2) Learning through correction • It is unlikely that adult “corrections” are a very effective determiner of how the child speaks. • The child will continue to use a personally constructed form, despite the adult’s repetition of what the correct form should be. • Example : Child : My teacher holded the baby rabbits. Mother : Did you say your teacher held the baby rabbits? Child : Yes. Mother : Did you say she held them tightly? Child : No, she holded them loosely.
  17. 17. 3) Developing morphology • By the time a child is two-and-a-half years old, he or she is going beyond telegraphic speech and the child indicates the grammatical function of the nouns and verbs used.
  18. 18. 4) Developing syntax • In the formation of questions and the use of negatives. • The child goes through with 3 stages : Stage 1 occurs between 18 – 26 months Stage 2 occurs between 22 - 30 months Stage 3 occurs between 24 - 40 months
  19. 19. Forming questions Forming negatives First stage : Wh- form (Where, Who) to the beginning of the expression. Examples : Where mummy? Who is that person? First stage : A simple strategy of putting NO or NOT at the beginning. Examples : not a teddy bear not sit here Second stage : More complex expressions can be formed. Wh-forms, such as What and Why. Examples : What is mummy doing? Why daddy is not home yet? Second stage : Additional negative forms “don’t” and “can’t” appear, and with no and not. Examples : He not bite you You cant dance Third stage : The movement of the auxiliary in English questions (I can have… -> Can I have…?) Generally quite close to adult model. Examples : Can I have a piece? Will you help me? Third stage : Other auxiliary forms such as didn’t and won’t. Examples : I didn’t buy it. She won’t let go.
  20. 20. 5) Developing semantics • During the two-word stage, children use their limited vocabulary to refer to a large number of unrelated objects. • Overextension : overextend the meaning of a word on the basis of similarities of shape, sound and size. • Example : use ball to refer an apple, an egg or a ball. BACK TO QUESTION 3
  21. 21. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION OR LEARNING
  22. 22. • the process by which people learn another language in addition to their native language. • First language as (L1) whereas foreign or second language is (L2). • A distinction is sometimes made between learning in a “foreign language” setting (learning a language that is not generally spoken in the surrounding community) and a “second language” setting (learning a language that is spoken in the surrounding community). • Example : Japanese students in an English class in Japan are learning English as a foreign language (EFL) but if those same students were in an English class in USA, they would be learning English as a second language (ESL). SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING
  23. 23. ACQUISITION AND LEARNING • Gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations with others who know the language. • Takes place without a teacher. • Example : Children who “pick up” a second language from long periods spent in interaction, constantly using the language with the native speakers of the language as their L1. Acquisition
  24. 24. • A conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the features of language such as pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. • Takes place with a teacher. • Result in more knowledge “about” the language than fluency in actually using the language. • Example : A student can fill in the blanks on a grammar page but knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good speaking as they may not be able to speak fluently. Learning
  25. 25. ACQUISITION BARRIERS 1) Insufficient focus on the process (adults have a lot of other things to do and think about, unlike very young children). 2) Insufficient incentive (adults already know a language and can use it for their communicative needs) 3) The “critical period” for language acquisition has passed (usually around the time of puberty) 4) Affective factors such as self-consciousness that inhibit the learning process.
  26. 26. THE AGE FACTOR • ADULT • Difficult to acquire another language fully after the critical period for language acquisition has passed. • Result to loss of flexibility or openness to receive the features of another language. • CHILDREN • Quicker and more effective L2 learners in class. • Optimum age for learning (10 – 16 years old) when the flexibility of the inherent capacity for language has not been completely lost.
  27. 27. AFFECTIVE FACTORS • The negative feelings or experiences which can create a barrier to acquisition. - STRESS - UNCOMFORTABLE - SELF-CONSCIOUS - UNMOTIVATED
  28. 28. FOCUS ON TEACHING METHOD • A method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical (traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. A way to teach languages is through the teaching of grammar and the translation of texts. • Students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language(L2) and the native language (L1). • Emphasize a written language rather than spoken language -very little attention is placed on pronunciation or any communicative aspects of the language. GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD BACK TO QUESTION 5
  29. 29. • Learn to speak languages through habit-formation, and therefore need to practice drills until the new habit has been learnt. • Emphasized a spoken language. • Belief that the fluent use of language might develop with a lot of practice repeating oral skills. THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD
  30. 30. • Languages are learnt through communication, and that the focus of the classroom should be on encouraging learners to engage in speaking activities which simulate 'real life' communication. • Emphasized the functions of language (what it is used for) rather than the forms of language (correct grammatical or phonological structures). • Example : Practising question forms by asking learners to find out personal information about their colleagues as it involves meaningful communication. COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES
  31. 31. FOCUS ON THE LEARNER • The fundamental change has been shift from concern with the teacher, textbook and method to an interest in the learner and the acquisition process. • “ Errors ” were regarded negatively and they had to be avoided. • Example : A Spanish (L1) speaker’s production of in the room there are three womens that shows a failure to learn correct English. • Indication of the natural L2 acquisition process in action. • A clue to the active learning progress being made by the student as he/she tries out ways of communicating in new language.
  32. 32. TRANSFER • Transfer (crosslinguistic influence) – using sounds, expressions or structures from the L1 when performing in the L2. • Positive transfer – The use of a feature from the L1 that is similar to the L2 while performing in the L2. ( e.g. the German learner producing 'I am twelve years old' in English L2 as a direct translation of the German structure) • Negative transfer – Transferring an L1 feature that is really different (interference) from the L2 while performing in the L2. (e.g. the French learner producing 'I have 12 years').
  33. 33. INTERLANGUAGE • Interlanguage - the term for a dynamic, rule-based linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) who has not yet reached proficiency. • A learner's interlanguage preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules. • Interlanguage can fossilize. • Fossilization - the process of 'freezing' of the transition between the L1 and L2 because of the inability to overcome the obstacles to acquire native proficiency in the L2.
  34. 34. MOTIVATION • 2 types of language learning motivation :- INSTRUMENTAL MOTIVATION • Learners with an instrumental motivation want to learn the L2 in order to achieve some other goal such as completing a school graduation requirement. • Does not plan to engage in social interaction using the L2. INTEGRATIVE MOTIVATION • Learners want to learn the L2 so that they can better understand and get to know the people who speak that language. • Usually for social purposes in order to take part in the social life of a community using the language. BACK TO QUESTION 6
  35. 35. INPUT AND OUTPUT • Input - describe the language that the learner is exposed to. • Input can be made comprehensible by being simpler in structure and vocabulary, as in the variety of speech called foreigner talk. • Negotiated Input: Target language (L2) material that learner acquire in interaction through request for clarification while active attention is being focused on what is said. • The opportunity to produce comprehensible output in meaningful interaction seems to be another important element in the learner’s development of L2 ability.
  36. 36. TASK-BASED LEARNING • A solution to create different types of tasks and activities which learners (in small group/pairs) have to interact with each other to exchange or solve problems. • Example : The assumption in using tasks such as “ Plan a shopping trip with your partner by making a shopping list” . • To improve the learner’s fluency by using the L2 in an activity that focuses on a clear goal. • Result – Provide overwhelming evidence of better L2 uses by learners and develop communicative competence in L2.
  37. 37. COMMUNITIVE COMPETENCE • Communicative competence – General ability to use language accurately, appropriately and flexibly. GRAMMATICAL COMPETENCE • Involves the accurate use of words and structures . • Only concentrate on grammatical competence. STRATEGIC COMPETENCE • Ability to use language to organize effective messages and to overcome potential communication problems. • Gestures, expressions, mimics and intonation are among others some of the most strategies used. SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE • Ability of learner in producing sentences according to the communicative situation. • Enables the learner to know when to say Can I have some water? versus Give me some water! according to social context . BACK TO QUESTION 4
  38. 38. APPLIED LINGUISTIC • Large-scale endeavor by applying the ideas of linguistic from other fields such as communication studies, education, psychology and sociology. • Concerned with practical issues involving language and its role in everyday life. • Represent an attempt to deal with a large range of real-world issues involving language.
  39. 39. Q U I Z QUESTION 1 QUESTION 6QUESTION 3 QUESTION 2 QUESTION 5 QUESTION 4
  40. 40. 1. Choose the typical features of caregiver speech. a) Frequent use of questions, extra loud noises, slower tempo with longer pauses and often using exaggerated intonation b) Child produces a number of different vowels and consonants, such as ba-ba-ba and ba-ba-da-da
  41. 41. 2. During which stage and what age do children typically begin producing varied syllable combinations such as ba-ba-da-da? a) Babbling stage. It happens between 6-8 months. b) Telegraphic speech. It happens between 2-3 years old
  42. 42. 3. What is the term used to describe the process involved when a child uses one word like ball to refer to an apple, an egg or a ball? b) Overextension a) Baby talk
  43. 43. 4. What are the three components of communicative competence? a) Grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence b) Transfer, interlanguage and motivation
  44. 44. 5. Choose the correct teaching methods introduced in learning second language acquisition? a) Task-based learning and communicative competence b) Grammar translation method, audiolingual method and communicative approaches
  45. 45. 6. What are the types of language learning motivation in second language acquisition? b) Instrumental motivation and integrative motivation a) Input and output
  46. 46. EXCELLENT THAT’S RIGHT
  47. 47. OPPS TRY AGAIN

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