• Refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants'
acquisition of their native language.
• This is the acquisition of the mother tongue.
• The process by which humans acquire the capacity to
perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce
and use words and sentences to communicate.
• Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human
traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using
• Input is where human infants are certainly
helped in their language acquisition by the
adults in the home environment.
• “baby talk” is where speech style adopted by
someone who spends a lot of time interacting
with a young child.
• Examples for simplified words are “tummy” ,
“mama” “poo-poo” “pee-pee” and others.
• Also described as “motherese” or “child-
• There are four types of caregiver speech :
BACK TO QUESTION 1
THE ACQUISITION STAGES
• Between 2-4 months.
• The child gradually becomes capable of
producing vowel-like sounds, such as [i] and [u]
• Repetition of the vowel sounds.
• Express satisfaction or pleasure.
• Between 6-8 months.
• The child produces a number of different
vowels and consonants, such as ba-ba-ba and
ba-ba-da-da, which at times can almost sound
like a real speech.
• Uses consonants B, M, D and G.
BACK TO QUESTION 2
3) The one-word stage
• Between 12 – 18 months.
• One or two recognizable word.
• Resembles words or simple phrases.
• Words that utter everyday objects such as
“milk” , “cat” , “spoon”
4) The two-word stage
• Begin around 18 – 20 months.
• At least 50 different words.
• Simple sentences, grammatically incorrect and
perhaps missing information.
• Variety combination words appear.
• For examples :
• baby chair, daddy car, more milk, cat bad.
• The phrase “baby chair” may be taken as :
1) an expression of possession = (this is baby’s
2) as a request = (put baby in the chair) or
3) as a statement = (baby is in the chair)
5) Telegraphic speech
• Between 2 – 3 years old.
• The child begins producing a large number
that could be classified as “multiple-word”
• The child vocabulary has grown to hundreds
of words during this stage and pronunciation
become more clearer.
• Almost complete sentences.
• Correct/proper word order.
• Physical development : running and jumping.
• For examples :
a) this shoe all wet
b) daddy go bye-bye
c) cat drink milk
THE ACQUISITION PROCESS
1) Learning through imitation
• Basis of child’s speech production used by young
• They may repeat single words or phrases, but not the
• It is likely that the children understand what are the
sentences but they express what they understand by
• For examples :
• Mum is hungry = mum hungry
• The cat is sleeping = cat sleep
2) Learning through correction
• It is unlikely that adult “corrections” are a very
effective determiner of how the child speaks.
• The child will continue to use a personally
constructed form, despite the adult’s repetition of
what the correct form should be.
• Example :
Child : My teacher holded the baby rabbits.
Mother : Did you say your teacher held the baby rabbits?
Child : Yes.
Mother : Did you say she held them tightly?
Child : No, she holded them loosely.
3) Developing morphology
• By the time a child is two-and-a-half years old, he or she is
going beyond telegraphic speech and the child indicates the
grammatical function of the nouns and verbs used.
4) Developing syntax
• In the formation of questions and the use of
• The child goes through with 3 stages :
Stage 1 occurs
between 18 – 26
Stage 2 occurs
between 22 - 30
Stage 3 occurs
between 24 - 40
Forming questions Forming negatives
First stage :
Wh- form (Where, Who) to the beginning
of the expression.
Examples : Where mummy?
Who is that person?
First stage :
A simple strategy of putting NO or NOT at
Examples : not a teddy bear
not sit here
Second stage :
More complex expressions can be formed.
Wh-forms, such as What and Why.
Examples : What is mummy doing?
Why daddy is not home yet?
Second stage :
Additional negative forms “don’t” and
“can’t” appear, and with no and not.
Examples : He not bite you
You cant dance
Third stage :
The movement of the auxiliary in English
questions (I can have… -> Can I have…?)
Generally quite close to adult model.
Examples : Can I have a piece?
Will you help me?
Third stage :
Other auxiliary forms such as didn’t and
Examples : I didn’t buy it.
She won’t let go.
5) Developing semantics
• During the two-word stage, children use their limited
vocabulary to refer to a large number of unrelated
• Overextension : overextend the meaning of a word
on the basis of similarities of shape, sound and size.
• Example : use ball to refer an apple, an egg or a ball.
BACK TO QUESTION 3
• the process by which people learn another language in addition to
their native language.
• First language as (L1) whereas foreign or second language is
• A distinction is sometimes made between learning in a “foreign
language” setting (learning a language that is not generally spoken
in the surrounding community) and a “second language” setting
(learning a language that is spoken in the surrounding community).
• Example : Japanese students in an English class in Japan are learning
English as a foreign language (EFL) but if those same students were
in an English class in USA, they would be learning English as a second
SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING
ACQUISITION AND LEARNING
• Gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in
communicative situations with others who know the language.
• Takes place without a teacher.
• Example : Children who “pick up” a second language from long
periods spent in interaction, constantly using the language with the
native speakers of the language as their L1.
• A conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the features of
language such as pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar.
• Takes place with a teacher.
• Result in more knowledge “about” the language than fluency in
actually using the language.
• Example : A student can fill in the blanks on a grammar page but
knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good
speaking as they may not be able to speak fluently.
1) Insufficient focus on the process (adults have a lot of other things to do and think
about, unlike very young children).
2) Insufficient incentive (adults already know a language and can use it for their
3) The “critical period” for language acquisition has passed (usually around the
time of puberty)
4) Affective factors such as self-consciousness that inhibit the learning process.
THE AGE FACTOR
• Difficult to acquire another language fully after the critical period for language
acquisition has passed.
• Result to loss of flexibility or openness to receive the features of another language.
• Quicker and more effective L2 learners in class.
• Optimum age for learning (10 – 16 years old) when the flexibility of the inherent
capacity for language has not been completely lost.
• The negative feelings or experiences which can create a barrier to
FOCUS ON TEACHING METHOD
• A method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical (traditional)
method of teaching Greek and Latin. A way to teach languages is through the
teaching of grammar and the translation of texts.
• Students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules
by translating sentences between the target language(L2) and the native language
• Emphasize a written language rather than spoken language -very little attention is
placed on pronunciation or any communicative aspects of the language.
GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
BACK TO QUESTION 5
• Learn to speak languages through habit-formation, and
therefore need to practice drills until the new habit has been
• Emphasized a spoken language.
• Belief that the fluent use of language might develop with a lot
of practice repeating oral skills.
THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD
• Languages are learnt through communication, and that the focus of the
classroom should be on encouraging learners to engage in speaking
activities which simulate 'real life' communication.
• Emphasized the functions of language (what it is used for) rather than the
forms of language (correct grammatical or phonological structures).
• Example : Practising question forms by asking learners to find out personal
information about their colleagues as it involves meaningful
FOCUS ON THE LEARNER
• The fundamental change has been shift from concern with the teacher, textbook
and method to an interest in the learner and the acquisition process.
• “ Errors ” were regarded negatively and they had to be avoided.
• Example : A Spanish (L1) speaker’s production of in the room there are three
womens that shows a failure to learn correct English.
• Indication of the natural L2 acquisition process in action.
• A clue to the active learning progress being made by the student as he/she
tries out ways of communicating in new language.
• Transfer (crosslinguistic influence) – using sounds, expressions or structures from the
L1 when performing in the L2.
• Positive transfer – The use of a feature from the L1 that is similar to the L2 while
performing in the L2. ( e.g. the German learner producing 'I am
twelve years old' in English L2 as a direct translation of the
• Negative transfer – Transferring an L1 feature that is really different
(interference) from the L2 while performing in the L2. (e.g. the French learner
producing 'I have 12 years').
• Interlanguage - the term for a dynamic, rule-based linguistic system that
has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) who has not
yet reached proficiency.
• A learner's interlanguage preserves some features of their first language (or
L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules.
• Interlanguage can fossilize.
• Fossilization - the process of 'freezing' of the transition between the L1 and
L2 because of the inability to overcome the obstacles to acquire
native proficiency in the L2.
• 2 types of language learning motivation :-
• Learners with an
instrumental motivation want
to learn the L2 in order to
achieve some other goal such
as completing a school
• Does not plan to engage in
social interaction using the
• Learners want to learn the
L2 so that they can better
understand and get to know
the people who speak that
• Usually for social purposes
in order to take part in the
social life of a community
using the language.
BACK TO QUESTION 6
INPUT AND OUTPUT
• Input - describe the language that the learner is exposed to.
• Input can be made comprehensible by being simpler in structure and vocabulary, as
in the variety of speech called foreigner talk.
• Negotiated Input: Target language (L2) material that learner acquire in interaction
through request for clarification while active attention is being focused on what is said.
• The opportunity to produce comprehensible output in meaningful interaction seems
to be another important element in the learner’s development of L2 ability.
• A solution to create different types of tasks and activities which learners (in
small group/pairs) have to interact with each other to exchange or solve
• Example : The assumption in using tasks such as “ Plan a shopping trip with
your partner by making a shopping list” .
• To improve the learner’s fluency by using the L2 in an activity that focuses
on a clear goal.
• Result – Provide overwhelming evidence of better L2 uses by learners and
develop communicative competence in L2.
• Communicative competence – General ability to use language accurately,
appropriately and flexibly.
• Involves the accurate
use of words and
• Only concentrate on
• Ability to use language
to organize effective
messages and to
• Gestures, expressions,
mimics and intonation
are among others some
of the most strategies
• Ability of learner in
according to the
• Enables the learner to
know when to say Can I
have some water?
versus Give me some
water! according to
social context .
BACK TO QUESTION 4
• Large-scale endeavor by applying the ideas of linguistic from
other fields such as communication studies, education,
psychology and sociology.
• Concerned with practical issues involving language and its role
in everyday life.
• Represent an attempt to deal with a large range of real-world
issues involving language.
Q U I Z
QUESTION 6QUESTION 3
1. Choose the typical features of caregiver speech.
a) Frequent use of questions, extra loud noises,
slower tempo with longer pauses and often using
b) Child produces a number of different vowels and
consonants, such as ba-ba-ba and ba-ba-da-da
2. During which stage and what age do children
typically begin producing varied syllable
combinations such as ba-ba-da-da?
a) Babbling stage. It happens between 6-8 months.
b) Telegraphic speech. It happens between 2-3 years old
3. What is the term used to describe the process
involved when a child uses one word like ball to
refer to an apple, an egg or a ball?
a) Baby talk
4. What are the three components of
a) Grammatical competence, sociolinguistic
competence and strategic competence
b) Transfer, interlanguage and motivation
5. Choose the correct teaching methods introduced
in learning second language acquisition?
a) Task-based learning and communicative competence
b) Grammar translation method, audiolingual method and
6. What are the types of language learning
motivation in second language acquisition?
b) Instrumental motivation and integrative motivation
a) Input and output