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Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)

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Presentation by Steve Diver at the April 2013 Resilient Farmer workshop

Presentation by Steve Diver at the April 2013 Resilient Farmer workshop

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  • 1. Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO) Resilient Farmer Workshop April 27, 2013 Steve Diver, M.Sc. Agri-Horticultural Consulting www.agri-synergy.com April 27, 2013 Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture Poteau, OK
  • 2. Kerr Center’s morning Field Day, Resilient Farmer 2013 workshop: Biochar Thermophilic compost Vermicompost Fermented sweet potatoes for worms (IMO) Aerated Compost Tea Solo backpack bio-sprayer modifications Fermented Plant Juice (IMO) No-till vegetables with cover crops & bio-intensive crop rotations
  • 3. “Without living organisms and organic matter, the birth of soil is not possible” Kyoichi Kumada (1987) Objectives for 1st afternoon seminar, Resilient Farmer 2013 workshop: 1. Mini review of soil organic matter (SOM) &1. Mini review of soil organic matter (SOM) & soil foodweb processes from 2012 workshop 2. Soil biology principles 3. Microbial inoculants in perspective 4. Effective Microorganisms (EM) 5. Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
  • 4. Foodweb pyramid in one square meter of soil James B. Nardi, Life in the Soil, 2007
  • 5. Soil Foodweb Diagram
  • 6. Soil microorganisms live in association with plant roots and excrete nutrients & sticky substances VAM mycorrhizal fungi on plant root: Paula Flynn Alfalfa root with bacterial rhizosphere: Jennifer Fox
  • 7. SOM = Soil Foodweb HabitatSOM = Soil Foodweb Habitat
  • 8. Biochar for Improved SOM + Soil Foodweb Habitat in 2013 Workshop
  • 9. Charcoal addition to the soil provides nutrient and water storage center for mycorrhizal fungi Charcoal is sought out by AM fungi fungi Their hyphae invade charcoal pores and support spore reproduction Ogawa Kansai Environmental Fungi on New Char Fungi on 100 Yr Old CharPhoto: www.eprida.com
  • 10. Rapid colonization of charcoal surface by fungal hyphae (7 days old) www.agri-synergy.com
  • 11. Beneficial Properties of Biochar • Habitat for soil microorganisms (e.g., Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi) • Increased soil carbon • Increased CEC (cation exchange capacity)• Increased CEC (cation exchange capacity) • Increased AEC (anion exchange capacity) • Mimicking terra preta soil regeneration
  • 12. Terra Preta soils, Amazonian Black Earth Transformed “terra preta” Nutrient-poor Oxisol in tropics
  • 13. Soil Biology Principle The Number and Diversity of soil micro- organisms is both an indicator & a driver of soil fertiliy, biocontrol, and other soil functions. Soil Fertility, Disease Suppression, Soil Structure, Humus, Soil Moisture
  • 14. Lower Bacterial Diversity Higher Bacterial Diversity
  • 15. Biological Control Concept General Suppression Abundance & Diversity of soil micro- organisms promotes soil fertility and biological control; e.g., soil health (i.e.,biological control; e.g., soil health (i.e., compost extracts) Specific Suppression Specific microbes are antagonistic to plant pathogenic organisms; e.g., biofungicides (i.e., microbial inoculants)
  • 16. Worm Gold vermicompost tea extract Photo: BBC Labs Pathogen Inhibition Assay
  • 17. Graeme Sait Nutri-Tech Solutions Australia Field Applications: Microbe-Mineral Blends & Brews Fertigation Foliars
  • 18. Microbial Inoculants in Perspective • Tool to manage soil biology, soil fertility, organic wastes, and create bio-fertilizers • Can be used to manipulate the rhizosphere & phyllosphere (e.g., biological control of plantphyllosphere (e.g., biological control of plant disease organisms) • Increases the efficiency of delivered nutrients; can reduce fertilizer rate (e.g., MEND concept) • Not a “silver bullet”; still need minerals and SOM management for healthy crops
  • 19. Introduction to EM and IMO • Probiotics for human, animal, and environmental health • Fermentation technologies • Understanding aerobic & anaerobic systems• Understanding aerobic & anaerobic systems • Multiple uses for treating soils, crops, livestock, organic wastes • Transform raw materials into bio-fertilizers
  • 20. Probiotics = Organisms or substances whichProbiotics = Organisms or substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance and health i.e., beneficial and effective microorganisms Lactobacillus casei, L. brevis, L. kefir, L. acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisae, S. unisporus, S. turicensis, Steptococcus thermophilus
  • 21. Fermented Probiotics = Kombucha & Water Kefir
  • 22. EM (Effective Microorganisms) Phototrophic bacteria Yeast Lactic acid bacteria Actinomycetes
  • 23. EM = Effective Microorganisms •Developed by Dr. Teruo Higa, Univ. of Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan •Liquid microbial inoculant (shelf-stable) •Mixed culture of naturally-occurring•Mixed culture of naturally-occurring beneficial microorganisms •Fermentative anaerobic + aerobic microorganisms co-existing symbiotically
  • 24. Main Species of EM Microorganisms* Lactic acid bacteria • Lactobacillus plantarum • Lactobacillus casei • Lactococcus lactis Photosynthetic bacteria Actinomycetes • Streptomycetes albus • Streptomycetes griseus Fermenting fungi Photosynthetic bacteria • Rhodopseudomonas palustrus • Rhodobacter spaeroides Yeasts • Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Candida utilis • Aspergillus oryzae • Mucor hiemalis *early EM literature
  • 25. Key Properties of EM • Fermentative anaerobics • Microbial functions • Multiple farm uses• Multiple farm uses • Antioxidative action of microbes • Microbial metabolites
  • 26. Putrefactive & Fermentative Anaerobics Putrefaction: Production of odors and harmful substances (hydrogen sulfide, mercaptan, ammonia, oxidation substances) via anaerobic microbial metabolism; pathogenic organisms.anaerobic microbial metabolism; pathogenic organisms. Fermentation: Production of useful substances (enzymes, amino acids, organic acids, anti-oxidative substances) via anaerobic microbial metabolism; beneficial organisms.
  • 27. Microbial Pathways in Organic Matter Decomposition 1. Aerobic E.g., Thermophilic compost 2. Putrefactive anaerobic2. Putrefactive anaerobic E.g., Stinky organic wastes (non-managed) 3. Fermentative anaerobic E.g., EM bokashi (managed)
  • 28. Two Suppliers of EM & EM-like Cultures TeraGanix (Texas) www.teragamix.com Effective Microorganisms (EM-1)Effective Microorganisms (EM-1) SCD Probiotics (Missouri) www.scdprobiotics.com ProBio Balance “mother culture” Bio Ag “ready-to-use”
  • 29. Activated EM Recipe (AEM) 1:1:20 Recipe for AEM Per 1 Gallon Per 5 Gallon EM 3/4 C 4 CEM 3/4 C 4 C Molasses 3/4 C 4 C Water 14.5 C 72 C Ferment = 2 weeks pH = 3.5
  • 30. Fermentation Box – keep it warm Fermentation technology: bucket, airlock, sample thief
  • 31. Using AEM in Agriculture • Soil, organic mulches, cover crops • Foliar fertilization & plant protection • Fermented plant extracts • Vermicompost integration• Vermicompost integration • Food waste handling & composting • Livestock probiotics: water & feed • Livestock remediation: stalls, manures, lagoons
  • 32. AEM Application Rates Use AEM at Following Dilutions 1:50 manures, stalls 1:100 composts, stalls 1:250 soils1:250 soils 1:500 soils & foliar 1:1000 irrigation 1:2500 animal drinking water
  • 33. Bokashi kitchen bucket to keep food scraps fresh; then add to compost pile, or bury in soil, or feed to worm bin EM Bran Bokashi
  • 34. EM Bran Bokashi
  • 35. Organic farm with packaged salad mix, Switzerland
  • 36. Salad packing-shed waste, treated with EM
  • 37. EM-treated salad waste, compost windrow feedstock
  • 38. EM Bokashi Balls for bioremediation of pond water in Africa Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia
  • 39. Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia
  • 40. EM Microbial Cultures AEM = Activated EM FPE = Fermented Plant Extract EM-5 = Foliar Pest Control FF = Fermented FishFF = Fermented Fish Bokashi = Fermented Organic Matter EM-X = EM Antioxidant Beverage EM Ceramics = Embedded EM
  • 41. FPE = Fermented Plant Extracts •Stinging nettle •Comfrey •Equisetum Also called: •Herbal teas •Liquid manures •Plant-based pest control Comfrey
  • 42. Plant Species for EM-FPE, Auroville Turmeric Ginger Tobacco Papaya Custard Apple Vitex Neem CalotropisNeem Calotropis Onion Garlic Aloe Tulsi Pongam Euphorbia *Table of EM-FPE for 64 different insects & diseases
  • 43. EM-FPE for Pest Control *Margarita Correa, Auroville in India 15 liters water 3 kg neem leaves3 kg neem leaves 250 g selected plant leaves (previous table) 450 ml EM 450 ml molasses Close tight and ferment 5 days Filter and store for 90 days of usage Apply diluted 1:500
  • 44. IMO = Indigenous Microorganisms Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi KoyamaHan Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997. 172 p.
  • 45. Cho’s Global Natural Farming (IMO) IMO = No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 FFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice FPJ = Fermented Plant Juice FFJ = Fermented Fruit JuiceFFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice FAA = Fish Amino Acid LAS = Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum OHN = Oriental Herbal Nutrients BRV = Brown Rice Vinegar
  • 46. Farm bamboo for multi-purpose agroforestry: IMO microbial culture
  • 47. Bamboo leaf mulch and root exudates: IMO microbial culture
  • 48. Farm-made Biofertilizers: Managing for Fermentative Substrate & Microbial Culture Substrate (Raw Organic Biomass) + Microbes (Local or Purchased) + Microbial Food Source (Sugar)+ Microbial Food Source (Sugar) = Fermentation & Extraction = Bioavailable Nutrients = Bioactive Substances = Beneficial Microbes
  • 49. Fermented Plant Juice (IMO) from Kerr Center herbs Bioavailable nutrients + Bioactive substances + Beneficial microbes
  • 50. Summary for 1st afternoon seminar, Resilient Farmer 2013 workshop: 1. Microorganisms perform multiple functions and produce beneficial substances (enzymes, organic acids, hormones, anti-oxidants) 2. Managing SOM and thereby soil foodweb2. Managing SOM and thereby soil foodweb habitat is the fundamental approach to soil health (plus soil testing and minerals) 3. Microbial inoculants are multi-purpose tools 4. EM and IMO are easy-to-use fermentative microbial systems with multiple on-farm uses
  • 51. Thank You! Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture and USDA-NRCS Conservation Innovation Steve Diver, M.Sc. Agri-Horticultural Consulting www.agri-synergy.com steved@ipa.net