Microbial Inoculants:
Effective Microorganisms (EM) &
Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Resilient Farmer Workshop
April 27, ...
Kerr Center’s morning Field Day, Resilient
Farmer 2013 workshop:
Biochar
Thermophilic compost
Vermicompost
Fermented sweet...
“Without living organisms and organic matter, the birth
of soil is not possible” Kyoichi Kumada (1987)
Objectives for 1st ...
Foodweb pyramid in one square meter of soil
James B. Nardi, Life in the Soil, 2007
Soil Foodweb Diagram
Soil microorganisms live in association with plant
roots and excrete nutrients & sticky substances
VAM mycorrhizal fungi o...
SOM = Soil Foodweb HabitatSOM = Soil Foodweb Habitat
Biochar for Improved SOM + Soil
Foodweb Habitat in 2013 Workshop
Charcoal addition to the
soil provides nutrient
and water storage
center for mycorrhizal
fungi
Charcoal is sought out by A...
Rapid colonization of charcoal surface
by fungal hyphae (7 days old)
www.agri-synergy.com
Beneficial Properties of Biochar
• Habitat for soil microorganisms (e.g.,
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi)
• Increased soil c...
Terra Preta soils, Amazonian Black Earth
Transformed “terra preta” Nutrient-poor Oxisol in tropics
Soil Biology Principle
The Number and Diversity of soil micro-
organisms is both an indicator & a driver
of soil fertiliy,...
Lower Bacterial Diversity Higher Bacterial Diversity
Biological Control Concept
General Suppression
Abundance & Diversity of soil micro-
organisms promotes soil fertility and
...
Worm Gold vermicompost tea extract
Photo: BBC Labs
Pathogen Inhibition Assay
Graeme Sait
Nutri-Tech
Solutions
Australia
Field Applications:
Microbe-Mineral
Blends & Brews
Fertigation
Foliars
Microbial Inoculants in Perspective
• Tool to manage soil biology, soil fertility,
organic wastes, and create bio-fertiliz...
Introduction to EM and IMO
• Probiotics for human, animal, and
environmental health
• Fermentation technologies
• Understa...
Probiotics = Organisms or substances whichProbiotics = Organisms or substances which
contribute to intestinal microbial ba...
Fermented Probiotics = Kombucha & Water Kefir
EM (Effective Microorganisms)
Phototrophic bacteria Yeast
Lactic acid bacteria
Actinomycetes
EM = Effective Microorganisms
•Developed by Dr. Teruo Higa, Univ. of
Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan
•Liquid microbial inoculant...
Main Species of EM Microorganisms*
Lactic acid bacteria
• Lactobacillus plantarum
• Lactobacillus casei
• Lactococcus lact...
Key Properties of EM
• Fermentative anaerobics
• Microbial functions
• Multiple farm uses• Multiple farm uses
• Antioxidat...
Putrefactive & Fermentative
Anaerobics
Putrefaction:
Production of odors and harmful substances (hydrogen
sulfide, mercapt...
Microbial Pathways in Organic Matter
Decomposition
1. Aerobic
E.g., Thermophilic compost
2. Putrefactive anaerobic2. Putre...
Two Suppliers of EM & EM-like Cultures
TeraGanix (Texas)
www.teragamix.com
Effective Microorganisms (EM-1)Effective Microo...
Activated EM Recipe (AEM)
1:1:20 Recipe for AEM
Per 1 Gallon Per 5 Gallon
EM 3/4 C 4 CEM 3/4 C 4 C
Molasses 3/4 C 4 C
Wate...
Fermentation Box – keep it warm
Fermentation technology: bucket,
airlock, sample thief
Using AEM in Agriculture
• Soil, organic mulches, cover crops
• Foliar fertilization & plant protection
• Fermented plant ...
AEM Application Rates
Use AEM at Following Dilutions
1:50 manures, stalls
1:100 composts, stalls
1:250 soils1:250 soils
1:...
Bokashi kitchen bucket to
keep food scraps fresh; then
add to compost pile, or bury in
soil, or feed to worm bin
EM Bran B...
EM Bran Bokashi
Organic farm with packaged salad mix, Switzerland
Salad packing-shed waste, treated with EM
EM-treated salad waste, compost windrow feedstock
EM Bokashi Balls for bioremediation of pond water
in Africa
Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia
Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia
EM Microbial Cultures
AEM = Activated EM
FPE = Fermented Plant Extract
EM-5 = Foliar Pest Control
FF = Fermented FishFF = ...
FPE = Fermented Plant Extracts
•Stinging nettle
•Comfrey
•Equisetum
Also called:
•Herbal teas
•Liquid manures
•Plant-based...
Plant Species for EM-FPE, Auroville
Turmeric Ginger
Tobacco Papaya
Custard Apple Vitex
Neem CalotropisNeem Calotropis
Onio...
EM-FPE for Pest Control
*Margarita Correa, Auroville in India
15 liters water
3 kg neem leaves3 kg neem leaves
250 g selec...
IMO = Indigenous Microorganisms
Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous
Microorganisms and Vital Power of
Crop/Livestock
Han Ky...
Cho’s Global Natural Farming (IMO)
IMO = No. 1, No. 2, No. 3
FFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice
FPJ = Fermented Plant Juice
FFJ =...
Farm bamboo for multi-purpose agroforestry: IMO microbial culture
Bamboo leaf mulch and root exudates: IMO microbial culture
Farm-made Biofertilizers: Managing for
Fermentative Substrate & Microbial
Culture
Substrate (Raw Organic Biomass)
+ Microb...
Fermented Plant Juice (IMO) from Kerr Center herbs
Bioavailable nutrients + Bioactive substances + Beneficial microbes
Summary for 1st afternoon seminar, Resilient
Farmer 2013 workshop:
1. Microorganisms perform multiple functions
and produc...
Thank You!
Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture
and USDA-NRCS Conservation Innovation
Steve Diver, M.Sc.
Agri-Horticult...
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
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Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)

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Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)

  1. 1. Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO) Resilient Farmer Workshop April 27, 2013 Steve Diver, M.Sc. Agri-Horticultural Consulting www.agri-synergy.com April 27, 2013 Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture Poteau, OK
  2. 2. Kerr Center’s morning Field Day, Resilient Farmer 2013 workshop: Biochar Thermophilic compost Vermicompost Fermented sweet potatoes for worms (IMO) Aerated Compost Tea Solo backpack bio-sprayer modifications Fermented Plant Juice (IMO) No-till vegetables with cover crops & bio-intensive crop rotations
  3. 3. “Without living organisms and organic matter, the birth of soil is not possible” Kyoichi Kumada (1987) Objectives for 1st afternoon seminar, Resilient Farmer 2013 workshop: 1. Mini review of soil organic matter (SOM) &1. Mini review of soil organic matter (SOM) & soil foodweb processes from 2012 workshop 2. Soil biology principles 3. Microbial inoculants in perspective 4. Effective Microorganisms (EM) 5. Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)
  4. 4. Foodweb pyramid in one square meter of soil James B. Nardi, Life in the Soil, 2007
  5. 5. Soil Foodweb Diagram
  6. 6. Soil microorganisms live in association with plant roots and excrete nutrients & sticky substances VAM mycorrhizal fungi on plant root: Paula Flynn Alfalfa root with bacterial rhizosphere: Jennifer Fox
  7. 7. SOM = Soil Foodweb HabitatSOM = Soil Foodweb Habitat
  8. 8. Biochar for Improved SOM + Soil Foodweb Habitat in 2013 Workshop
  9. 9. Charcoal addition to the soil provides nutrient and water storage center for mycorrhizal fungi Charcoal is sought out by AM fungi fungi Their hyphae invade charcoal pores and support spore reproduction Ogawa Kansai Environmental Fungi on New Char Fungi on 100 Yr Old CharPhoto: www.eprida.com
  10. 10. Rapid colonization of charcoal surface by fungal hyphae (7 days old) www.agri-synergy.com
  11. 11. Beneficial Properties of Biochar • Habitat for soil microorganisms (e.g., Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi) • Increased soil carbon • Increased CEC (cation exchange capacity)• Increased CEC (cation exchange capacity) • Increased AEC (anion exchange capacity) • Mimicking terra preta soil regeneration
  12. 12. Terra Preta soils, Amazonian Black Earth Transformed “terra preta” Nutrient-poor Oxisol in tropics
  13. 13. Soil Biology Principle The Number and Diversity of soil micro- organisms is both an indicator & a driver of soil fertiliy, biocontrol, and other soil functions. Soil Fertility, Disease Suppression, Soil Structure, Humus, Soil Moisture
  14. 14. Lower Bacterial Diversity Higher Bacterial Diversity
  15. 15. Biological Control Concept General Suppression Abundance & Diversity of soil micro- organisms promotes soil fertility and biological control; e.g., soil health (i.e.,biological control; e.g., soil health (i.e., compost extracts) Specific Suppression Specific microbes are antagonistic to plant pathogenic organisms; e.g., biofungicides (i.e., microbial inoculants)
  16. 16. Worm Gold vermicompost tea extract Photo: BBC Labs Pathogen Inhibition Assay
  17. 17. Graeme Sait Nutri-Tech Solutions Australia Field Applications: Microbe-Mineral Blends & Brews Fertigation Foliars
  18. 18. Microbial Inoculants in Perspective • Tool to manage soil biology, soil fertility, organic wastes, and create bio-fertilizers • Can be used to manipulate the rhizosphere & phyllosphere (e.g., biological control of plantphyllosphere (e.g., biological control of plant disease organisms) • Increases the efficiency of delivered nutrients; can reduce fertilizer rate (e.g., MEND concept) • Not a “silver bullet”; still need minerals and SOM management for healthy crops
  19. 19. Introduction to EM and IMO • Probiotics for human, animal, and environmental health • Fermentation technologies • Understanding aerobic & anaerobic systems• Understanding aerobic & anaerobic systems • Multiple uses for treating soils, crops, livestock, organic wastes • Transform raw materials into bio-fertilizers
  20. 20. Probiotics = Organisms or substances whichProbiotics = Organisms or substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance and health i.e., beneficial and effective microorganisms Lactobacillus casei, L. brevis, L. kefir, L. acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisae, S. unisporus, S. turicensis, Steptococcus thermophilus
  21. 21. Fermented Probiotics = Kombucha & Water Kefir
  22. 22. EM (Effective Microorganisms) Phototrophic bacteria Yeast Lactic acid bacteria Actinomycetes
  23. 23. EM = Effective Microorganisms •Developed by Dr. Teruo Higa, Univ. of Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan •Liquid microbial inoculant (shelf-stable) •Mixed culture of naturally-occurring•Mixed culture of naturally-occurring beneficial microorganisms •Fermentative anaerobic + aerobic microorganisms co-existing symbiotically
  24. 24. Main Species of EM Microorganisms* Lactic acid bacteria • Lactobacillus plantarum • Lactobacillus casei • Lactococcus lactis Photosynthetic bacteria Actinomycetes • Streptomycetes albus • Streptomycetes griseus Fermenting fungi Photosynthetic bacteria • Rhodopseudomonas palustrus • Rhodobacter spaeroides Yeasts • Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Candida utilis • Aspergillus oryzae • Mucor hiemalis *early EM literature
  25. 25. Key Properties of EM • Fermentative anaerobics • Microbial functions • Multiple farm uses• Multiple farm uses • Antioxidative action of microbes • Microbial metabolites
  26. 26. Putrefactive & Fermentative Anaerobics Putrefaction: Production of odors and harmful substances (hydrogen sulfide, mercaptan, ammonia, oxidation substances) via anaerobic microbial metabolism; pathogenic organisms.anaerobic microbial metabolism; pathogenic organisms. Fermentation: Production of useful substances (enzymes, amino acids, organic acids, anti-oxidative substances) via anaerobic microbial metabolism; beneficial organisms.
  27. 27. Microbial Pathways in Organic Matter Decomposition 1. Aerobic E.g., Thermophilic compost 2. Putrefactive anaerobic2. Putrefactive anaerobic E.g., Stinky organic wastes (non-managed) 3. Fermentative anaerobic E.g., EM bokashi (managed)
  28. 28. Two Suppliers of EM & EM-like Cultures TeraGanix (Texas) www.teragamix.com Effective Microorganisms (EM-1)Effective Microorganisms (EM-1) SCD Probiotics (Missouri) www.scdprobiotics.com ProBio Balance “mother culture” Bio Ag “ready-to-use”
  29. 29. Activated EM Recipe (AEM) 1:1:20 Recipe for AEM Per 1 Gallon Per 5 Gallon EM 3/4 C 4 CEM 3/4 C 4 C Molasses 3/4 C 4 C Water 14.5 C 72 C Ferment = 2 weeks pH = 3.5
  30. 30. Fermentation Box – keep it warm Fermentation technology: bucket, airlock, sample thief
  31. 31. Using AEM in Agriculture • Soil, organic mulches, cover crops • Foliar fertilization & plant protection • Fermented plant extracts • Vermicompost integration• Vermicompost integration • Food waste handling & composting • Livestock probiotics: water & feed • Livestock remediation: stalls, manures, lagoons
  32. 32. AEM Application Rates Use AEM at Following Dilutions 1:50 manures, stalls 1:100 composts, stalls 1:250 soils1:250 soils 1:500 soils & foliar 1:1000 irrigation 1:2500 animal drinking water
  33. 33. Bokashi kitchen bucket to keep food scraps fresh; then add to compost pile, or bury in soil, or feed to worm bin EM Bran Bokashi
  34. 34. EM Bran Bokashi
  35. 35. Organic farm with packaged salad mix, Switzerland
  36. 36. Salad packing-shed waste, treated with EM
  37. 37. EM-treated salad waste, compost windrow feedstock
  38. 38. EM Bokashi Balls for bioremediation of pond water in Africa Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia
  39. 39. Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia
  40. 40. EM Microbial Cultures AEM = Activated EM FPE = Fermented Plant Extract EM-5 = Foliar Pest Control FF = Fermented FishFF = Fermented Fish Bokashi = Fermented Organic Matter EM-X = EM Antioxidant Beverage EM Ceramics = Embedded EM
  41. 41. FPE = Fermented Plant Extracts •Stinging nettle •Comfrey •Equisetum Also called: •Herbal teas •Liquid manures •Plant-based pest control Comfrey
  42. 42. Plant Species for EM-FPE, Auroville Turmeric Ginger Tobacco Papaya Custard Apple Vitex Neem CalotropisNeem Calotropis Onion Garlic Aloe Tulsi Pongam Euphorbia *Table of EM-FPE for 64 different insects & diseases
  43. 43. EM-FPE for Pest Control *Margarita Correa, Auroville in India 15 liters water 3 kg neem leaves3 kg neem leaves 250 g selected plant leaves (previous table) 450 ml EM 450 ml molasses Close tight and ferment 5 days Filter and store for 90 days of usage Apply diluted 1:500
  44. 44. IMO = Indigenous Microorganisms Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi KoyamaHan Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997. 172 p.
  45. 45. Cho’s Global Natural Farming (IMO) IMO = No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 FFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice FPJ = Fermented Plant Juice FFJ = Fermented Fruit JuiceFFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice FAA = Fish Amino Acid LAS = Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum OHN = Oriental Herbal Nutrients BRV = Brown Rice Vinegar
  46. 46. Farm bamboo for multi-purpose agroforestry: IMO microbial culture
  47. 47. Bamboo leaf mulch and root exudates: IMO microbial culture
  48. 48. Farm-made Biofertilizers: Managing for Fermentative Substrate & Microbial Culture Substrate (Raw Organic Biomass) + Microbes (Local or Purchased) + Microbial Food Source (Sugar)+ Microbial Food Source (Sugar) = Fermentation & Extraction = Bioavailable Nutrients = Bioactive Substances = Beneficial Microbes
  49. 49. Fermented Plant Juice (IMO) from Kerr Center herbs Bioavailable nutrients + Bioactive substances + Beneficial microbes
  50. 50. Summary for 1st afternoon seminar, Resilient Farmer 2013 workshop: 1. Microorganisms perform multiple functions and produce beneficial substances (enzymes, organic acids, hormones, anti-oxidants) 2. Managing SOM and thereby soil foodweb2. Managing SOM and thereby soil foodweb habitat is the fundamental approach to soil health (plus soil testing and minerals) 3. Microbial inoculants are multi-purpose tools 4. EM and IMO are easy-to-use fermentative microbial systems with multiple on-farm uses
  51. 51. Thank You! Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture and USDA-NRCS Conservation Innovation Steve Diver, M.Sc. Agri-Horticultural Consulting www.agri-synergy.com steved@ipa.net
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