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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1
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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1

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    9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1 9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Presentation Transcript

    • 9 th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Pgs. 110-119 For Student Use Only
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Chemistry:
        • Study of materials and their function
        • Chemistry has been around for a long time
        • 1800s foundations for modern chemistry were made
        • Chemistry today is highly advanced
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Matter:
        • Matter= anything that occupies space
        • Two pieces of matter cannot occupy the same space at the same time
        • Matter has inertia
          • Inertia- resistance to changes in motion
          • Newton’s 1 st Law
        • Matter has mass
          • Amount of matter an object contains
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Matter:
        • Matter CANNOT be created or destroyed under normal circumstances it only changes form
        • Matter has three basic shapes:
          • Solid= definite size and shape
          • Liquid= definite volume, no definite shape
          • Gas= no definite shape or volume
            • VOLUME= amount of space matter takes up
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Matter:
        • 4 th state of Matter:
          • Plasma= hot gas where atoms begin to break down (not found on Earth)= stars are made of plasma
      http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/Images/state.gif
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Composition of Matter:
        • John Dalton proposed the atomic theory of matter
          • All matter is made of atoms
          • Elements are made up of one kind of atom
          • Compounds are made up of more than one kind of atom
          • Molecules are made up of groups of atoms joined together
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Matter
        • Elements are the “building blocks” of the universe.
        • As of 1995 there are 109 elements:
          • 88 occur naturally
          • 21 have been made in the lab
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Matter
        • Atomic Symbols:
          • Standardized set of symbols for elements
          • Chemical symbol stands for element and is based on common or Latin name
            • Na= Sodium
            • C= Carbon
            • Pb= Lead
            • H= hydrogen
            • He= Helium
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Matter in Motion:
        • Kinetic Energy:
          • Brownian Motion= molecules under microscope move
          • Kinetic Theory of Matter= molecules of matter are in constant motion
            • More energy= faster motion
          • Brownian Motion occurs because large objects will be collided on one side more than the other
    • Chemistry and Matter
      • Matter:
        • Diffusion=
          • Occurs from higher concentration to a lower concentration
        • Osmosis:
          • Concentration from higher to lower through a semi-permeable membrane