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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1
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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Pgs. 110-119 For Student Use Only
  • 2. Chemistry and Matter
    • Chemistry:
      • Study of materials and their function
      • Chemistry has been around for a long time
      • 1800s foundations for modern chemistry were made
      • Chemistry today is highly advanced
  • 3. Chemistry and Matter
    • Matter:
      • Matter= anything that occupies space
      • Two pieces of matter cannot occupy the same space at the same time
      • Matter has inertia
        • Inertia- resistance to changes in motion
        • Newton’s 1 st Law
      • Matter has mass
        • Amount of matter an object contains
  • 4. Chemistry and Matter
    • Matter:
      • Matter CANNOT be created or destroyed under normal circumstances it only changes form
      • Matter has three basic shapes:
        • Solid= definite size and shape
        • Liquid= definite volume, no definite shape
        • Gas= no definite shape or volume
          • VOLUME= amount of space matter takes up
  • 5. Chemistry and Matter
    • Matter:
      • 4 th state of Matter:
        • Plasma= hot gas where atoms begin to break down (not found on Earth)= stars are made of plasma
    http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/Images/state.gif
  • 6. Chemistry and Matter
    • Composition of Matter:
      • John Dalton proposed the atomic theory of matter
        • All matter is made of atoms
        • Elements are made up of one kind of atom
        • Compounds are made up of more than one kind of atom
        • Molecules are made up of groups of atoms joined together
  • 7. Chemistry and Matter
    • Matter
      • Elements are the “building blocks” of the universe.
      • As of 1995 there are 109 elements:
        • 88 occur naturally
        • 21 have been made in the lab
  • 8. Chemistry and Matter
    • Matter
      • Atomic Symbols:
        • Standardized set of symbols for elements
        • Chemical symbol stands for element and is based on common or Latin name
          • Na= Sodium
          • C= Carbon
          • Pb= Lead
          • H= hydrogen
          • He= Helium
  • 9. Chemistry and Matter
    • Matter in Motion:
      • Kinetic Energy:
        • Brownian Motion= molecules under microscope move
        • Kinetic Theory of Matter= molecules of matter are in constant motion
          • More energy= faster motion
        • Brownian Motion occurs because large objects will be collided on one side more than the other
  • 10. Chemistry and Matter
    • Matter:
      • Diffusion=
        • Occurs from higher concentration to a lower concentration
      • Osmosis:
        • Concentration from higher to lower through a semi-permeable membrane