9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1


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9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1

  1. 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Pgs. 224-235 For student Use Only
  2. 2. Minerals <ul><li>Study of Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals: inorganic (non-living) crystalline substances found naturally in the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks of soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vital to industry and society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralogy is the study of minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of Minerals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are NOT mixtures, but are elements or compounds with definite chemical structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Minerals <ul><li>Composition of Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common element in minerals: Oxygen (47%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd most common element: Silicon (28%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd most common element: Aluminum (3%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans contain minerals too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Chloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium Carbonate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Minerals <ul><li>Types of Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Elements: substances that exist as a single naturally in the earth’s crust as a single, uncombined element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halides: Compounds containing the halogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfides: minerals that contain sulfur (pyrite- fool’s gold is a sulfide) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Minerals <ul><li>Types of Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxides: elements that contain oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonates: elements that contain carbonate ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicates: largest group (92%) contain silicon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Quartz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for glass, computer chips, and silicone rubber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures of Minerals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All minerals form crystals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Minerals <ul><li>Structure of Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystal structure= geometric structures arranged by repeating three-dimensional patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystals- flat surfaces (called faces and defined edges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystals of certain minerals have certain shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is used in mineral identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See page 227 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Minerals <ul><li>Identifying Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface color: some minerals have definitive color, some do not (can be changed by impurities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streak Color: some minerals leave distinctive marks on unglazed porcelain (powder left as mineral scrapes over plate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luster: the way light reflects off the surface of the mineral </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Minerals <ul><li>Identifying Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardness: the resistance to being scratched (use Mohs scale to determine level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage: where the mineral will break repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conchoidal Fracture- when broken looks like a smooth curved fracture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specefic gravity: Minerals have different densities as compared to water </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Minerals <ul><li>Identifying Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid Test: carbonates and sulfides react when HCl is dropped on their surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Properties: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic- some minerals are magnetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taste- some minerals have a taste (not the first method of ID) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluoresce- glow when exposed to UV light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorescent- glow after being exposed to UV light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactivity- some minerals are radioactive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Minerals <ul><li>Valuable Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals can be mined and used by humans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jewelry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works of Art </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Minerals <ul><li>Valuable Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals: Used for many substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ore- any mineral that contains a valuable metallic element </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other- copper, Iron, Aluminum, Nickel, Zinc, lead, tin, Uranium (fuel for reactors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precious Metals- Gold, Silver, Platinum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Minerals <ul><li>Valuable Minerals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precious Stones- (rare, valuable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds (hardest substance known to man), ruby, Corundum, sapphire, emerald, aquamarine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-Precious Stones- (not as rare or as valuable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red Spinel, amethyst, zircon, tourmaline, opal, lapis lazuli, turquoise, chalcedony, jade </li></ul></ul></ul>