9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3


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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3

  1. 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3 Pgs. 213-223 For student Use Only
  2. 2. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcano: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most violent naturally occuring disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God also can control the volcano </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volcano Structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcano- opening in earth’s surface where gases, ash, and molten rock are ejected </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcano: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of the Volcano: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vent: central channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magma: magma is molten rock lies below the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cone: dust, ash, and magma can make a conical-shaped mountain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crater: bowl-shaped depression that surrounds the vent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Volcanoes <ul><li>Types of Volcanoes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinder-Cone: composed of volcanic ash and rock fragments (cinders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shield: Larger, flatter volcanoes made from runny lava </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite: Composed of layers of cinders and lava </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcanic Activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: Erupted in last 50 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dormant: has not erupted in many years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinct: A volcano that will PROBABLY not erupt again </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcano Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three main belts (like three main earthquake belts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Ring of Fire- 25% of Earth’s 850 Active volcanoes are there </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Mediterranean Trans-Asiatic- (Europe to Asia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Mid-Ocean Ridges- mid-ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ALSO- Some volcanoes are in West Indies and African Rift Valley </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcano Eruptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent eruptions- more powerful than an atomic bombs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signs of Eruptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Swelling, Bulging in part of volcano (due to magma and gasses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Minor Earthquakes begin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Explosion of Gas, Dust, and Steam </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcano Eruptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge rock pieces get thrown into the air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lava can erupt violently or dribble out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity: viscosity (how it flows) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of gas in magma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes (like Nevado De Ruiz) huge mud flows can accompany eruption </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Volcanoes <ul><li>Solid Ejecta: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyroclasts: solid particles or blocks of rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic Ash: pyroclast that is less than 4 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinders: pyroclast that is less than 32mm but more than 4mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic blocks: solid, irregular lumps of lava </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic bombs: lava that is thrown high in the air </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcanic Ejecta: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiery Blasts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lava is not usually very fast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Super heated gas and Incandescent ash are very dangerous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superheated gas can blow as fast as the wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuee Ardente: heated gas and volcanic ash act as an avalanche (glowing avalanche) (Mt. Pelee) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcanic Structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calderas- sunk in hole- bowl shaped surface of crater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunnels- lava hardens on top and then continues to flow under the surface </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Volcanoes <ul><li>Volcanic Intrusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous Intrusion: Magma rock forces up surface of earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dike: Vertical sheet of magma that hardens in a vertical fissure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sill: horizontal sheet of magma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laccolith: magma rock pushes surrounding surface up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batholith: large magma rock deposit </li></ul></ul>