9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 1


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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 1

  1. 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 1 Pgs. 193-202 For student Use Only
  2. 2. Geology <ul><li>Geology is the study of the earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It covers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Geology <ul><li>Earth is made of three layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Geology <ul><li>Crust: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth’s outer layer of rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only layer that has been explained and drilled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average 22 mi (35 km) thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickest beneath mountain ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinner beneath the oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental and Oceanic crust are the two types of crust </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Geology <ul><li>Oceanic and Continental crust are made of two different types of rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granite (made of Silica and Alumina) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oceanic Crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basalt (made of Silica and magnesium) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Geology <ul><li>Crust is covered with thin layer of soil and sediments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediments are usually laid down by water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some areas the sedimentary rock has been eroded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition of crust: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen- most abundant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon- 2 nd most abundant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al and Fe other portion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon and Hydrogen are less than 0.2% </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Geology <ul><li>The Mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s Middle Layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All information about this layer is from seismic waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrija Mohorovicic- discovered that waves travel differently through different materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moho discontinuity= marks lower layer of crust beginning of mantle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought to be composed of mostly oxygen, silicon, iron, and magnesium </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Geology <ul><li>Mantle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Mantle- Moho down to transition, lowest density, solid syurpy rock called plastic flow (due to high heat and pressure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition zone- next layer- higher density, higher temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Mantle- convection currents start deep in earth </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Geology <ul><li>Earth’s Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gutenberg discontinuity marks mantle from outer core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core lies from bottom of mantle all the way to center of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core is divided into layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core is extremely dense </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Geology <ul><li>Plates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plates are broken pieces of crust that float on the asthenosphere (upper mantle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 7 larger plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North American Plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eurasian Plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African Plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-Australian Plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South American Plate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Geology <ul><li>Plates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make up the lithosphere- crust and upper mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plate Tectonic Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection currents in the lithosphere move plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pangea was first introduced by Sir Francis Bacon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This can be believed from a Christian standpoint </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Geology <ul><li>Earth’s Crust’s Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faults: area where the rock fracture and move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes happen along fault lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three main types of faults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal fault: rocks sink up and down (vertically) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strike-slip fault: rocks move side to side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thrust fault: rocks on one side are thrust over the other side </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Geology <ul><li>Folds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fold is formed when the rocks bend or buckle under great force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syncline- bend down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anticline- bend up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified by how they form </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Geology <ul><li>Mountain Formation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed when molten rock leaks from the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domed mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed when molten rock is forces up under the crust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folded mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed when two adjacent rock layers collide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault-block mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed where two rocks collide along a fault line </li></ul></ul></ul>