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Particle Theory of Matter


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Particle Theory of Matter

  1. 1. Particle Theory of Matter SNC1D - Chemistry Unit
  2. 2. Particle Theory <ul><li>A theory is a series of statements which are developed to explain several related observations </li></ul><ul><li>A model is used as a guide for the imagination when using a theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. Particle Theory <ul><li>The particle theory states that… </li></ul><ul><li>All matter is made of small particles </li></ul>
  4. 4. Particle Theory <ul><li>2. All particles of the same substance are made up of the same particles, regardless of state (solid, liquid, gas) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Particle Theory <ul><li>3. The particles attract one another. These forces get stronger as the particles get closer </li></ul>
  6. 6. Particle Theory <ul><li>4. The space between particles are larger compared to the sizes of the particles themselves </li></ul>
  7. 7. Particle Theory <ul><li>5. Particles are always moving </li></ul>
  8. 8. Solids <ul><li>attraction between particles is strong </li></ul><ul><li>space between particles is small (particles are close together) </li></ul><ul><li>there is little motion of particles - movement is mostly vibrational </li></ul>
  9. 9. Liquids <ul><li>attraction between particles is medium </li></ul><ul><li>space between particles is medium </li></ul><ul><li>movement is vibrational and rotational </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gases <ul><li>attraction between particles is weak </li></ul><ul><li>space between particles is large </li></ul><ul><li>movement is vibrational, rotational and translational </li></ul>
  11. 11. Using the particle theory, explain what happens when you heat a substance.
  12. 12. Heat <ul><li>heat = energy </li></ul><ul><li>added energy breaks the attractive forces between the particles </li></ul><ul><li>particles spread apart and movement increases </li></ul>
  13. 13. Diffusion <ul><li>Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration </li></ul>
  14. 14.  vice versa   constant   pressure, compress particles together,  volume   constant  vice versa  constant    temp,  energy,  motion of particles,  volume taken up by moving particles  constant  Density Explanation Vol Pressure Temp
  15. 15. States of Matter
  16. 16. States of Matter <ul><li>Some substances exist only in one state of matter </li></ul>
  17. 17. States of Matter <ul><li>Some substances exist in more than one state of matter. Water is a common example </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gas vs. Vapour <ul><li>gas = gas at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>vapour = the gaseous state of a substance that is liquid at room temperature </li></ul>
  19. 19. fixed fixed fixed not easily not easily expands expands expands no flow flows flows shape of container shape of container size of container yes Ability to Flow Expansion upon heating Ability to be compressed Volume Shape Gas Liquid Solid States Property
  20. 20. Changes of State