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5.2 designing socio technical experiments ceschin

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  • 1. fabrizio ceschin politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability (SDS) learning resource 5.2 Designing socio-technical experiments
  • 2.
    • CONTENTS
    • . eco-efficient pss: implementation and diffusion barriers
    • . designing socio-technical experiments
    • . socio-technical experiments and transition paths
    • . design approach to design socio-technical experiments
  • 3.
    • ECO-EFFICIENT PSS:
    • IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION BARRIERS
  • 4. Eco-efficient Product-Service System (PSS) PSS product/s service/s stakeholders network a PSS can result in an ECO-EFFICIENT solution (capable to converge the stakeholders’ economic interest with an interest in reducing and optimising environmental resources). [Goedkoop, van Halen et al., 1999; Brezet 2001; Charter e Tischner 2001; Manzini e Vezzoli 2001; Mont 2002; UNEP, 2002; Vezzoli, 2007] IF PROPERLY DEVELOPED AND IMPLEMENTED
  • 5. Eco-efficient PSS: researches, design methods and tools DESIGN OF ECO-EFFICIENT PSS methods IMPLEMENTED AND DIFFUSED ECO-EFFICIENT PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION PROCESS SusHouse, Sustainable Household [see Vergragt et al. 2000] HiCS, Highly Customerised Solutions [see Manzini et al. 2004] MEPSS, MEthodology for Product Service System development [see van Halen et al. 2005] SusProNet, Network on sustainable PSS development [see Tukker &Tischner, 2006] ProSecCo, Product Service Co-design D4S step by step approach [see Tischner & Vezzoli, 2009] Storyboard Offering diagram Interaction table SDO toolkit System map Motivation matrix System assessment Solution elements Diagnosis module Implementation module Opportunity module Polarities diagram Poster tools
  • 6. Eco-efficient PSS: implementation and diffusion barriers DESIGN OF ECO-EFFICIENT PSS IMPLEMENTED AND DIFFUSED ECO-EFFICIENT PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION BARRIERS [UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006] USER SIDE cultural shift lack of knowledge about life cycle costs COMPANY SIDE difficulty in changing the corporate culture lack of design and management skills uncertainties about cash flows REGULATORY SIDE current regulation may not favour eco-efficient PSS
  • 7. CUSTOMERS/USERS PREFERENCES COMPETITIVE PRESSURE NORMS, REGULATIONS if immediately exposed to the mainstream market selection, it has high probability to not survive Eco-efficient PSS: implementation and diffusion barriers PSS CUSTOMERS/ USERS COMPETITORS GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS an eco-efficient PSS innovation can be considered as a new set of culture, practices and institutions that deviate from the socio-technical regime
  • 8. Protected environment SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENT PSS CUSTOMERS/ USERS CUSTOMERS/USERS PREFERENCES COMPETITORS COMPETITIVE PRESSURE GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS NORMS, REGULATIONS a protected environment should be created, where continuous experimentation and learning can bring the innovation to mature
  • 9. Socio-technical experiments - undertaken in real settings - a variety of actors is involved (companies, suppliers, partners, but also users, policy makers, local administrations, governmental agencies, NGOs, etc.) - financial and/or institutional protection - aimed at learning at many different dimensions (user preferences, political, regulative, cultural, social, etc.) - aimed at stimulating and influencing relevant actors to support and protect the innovations UNIVERSITIES PSS SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENT CUSTOMERS/ USERS CUSTOMERS/USERS PREFERENCES COMPETITORS COMPETITIVE PRESSURE GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS NORMS, REGULATIONS GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS COMPANIES CUSTOMERS/ USERS ONGs
  • 10. Socio-technical experiments a partially protected environment where a broad network of actors (including firms, users, policy makers, NGOs and other societal groups) can learn and explore how to: - improve the innovation - and contribute to its societal embedding SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENT UNIVERSITIES PSS GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS COMPANIES CUSTOMERS/ USERS ONGs CUSTOMERS/ USERS CUSTOMERS/USERS PREFERENCES COMPETITORS COMPETITIVE PRESSURE GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS NORMS, REGULATIONS
  • 11.
    • DESIGNING SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENTS
  • 12. Designing socio-technical experiments [adaptation from Van den Bosch, 2010] test repeat the experiment in other contexts give visibility link to other projects move from experimentation to mainstream SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENT experiment as AGENT OF CHANGE experiment as a WINDOW experiment as a LAB BROADENING replicating and linking the PSS innovation to other contexts and functions DEEPENING learning as much as possible on a PSS innovation in its context SCALING-UP embedding the PSS innovation in dominant ways of thinking, doing and organising SETTING-UP creating the conditions for setting-up the experiment INCUBATION
  • 13. > set up the basis for implementing the socio-technical experiment > build-up a project network, discuss and adjust the PSS concept, agree on an action plan OBJECTIVES INCUBATION
  • 14.  Identify the actors potentially interested in the PSS concept, as well as the actors needed to give protection and support to the innovation INCUBATION - not only the actors that can be part of the PSS value chain (partners, suppliers, users, etc.) but also: - the actors that can directly influence dominant practices and institutions (e.g. local administrations, policy makers, governmental institutions) - the actors that can mobilise public opinion and indirectly influence the regime (e.g. societal pressure groups, NGOs, media) - the actors that can legitimise and give stability to the first phases of the experiment (e.g. governmental institutions) - the actors that can contribute in the PSS innovation development (e.g. outsider firms, research centres)
  • 15.  Involve the identified actors in discussions and negotiations in order to achieve a common consensus on the PSS concept as well as on the potential strategies to socially embed it INCUBATION - discuss/adjust the PSS concept and the action plan and achieve a common consensus. This brings the project network to agree on the long-term goals as well as on the (short- and medium-term) steps to be carried out. - assign tasks and roles to each actor - set-up meetings and workshops to present and discuss the PSS concept (project vision) and the action plan (how the concept be socially embedded)
  • 16. > learning and exploring how to improve the PSS innovation at many different dimensions (e.g. user preferences, political, regulative, cultural, social, etc.) > learning and exploring how to favour/influence the PSS innovation societal embedding > repeat the experiment in different contexts/functions OBJECTIVES experiment as a LAB
  • 17.  Select a proper site where to implement the experiment - select a site where the PSS innovation can easily get visibility - select a site where experimentation can be easily conducted (protected real setting) - if local NGOs or associations are involved in the project, select a site where these actors are located or undertake activities (in order to legitimise the experiment) experiment as a LAB
  • 18.  Identify protection measures - (in the first phases) protect the PSS innovation from market competition through financial protection (e.g. investment grants, tax exemptions, feed-in tariffs, strategic investment by companies) - protect the PSS innovation through socio-institutional protection (e.g. local administration allows the use of particular area for the experiment, the local administration adopts regulations to support the PSS innovations, etc.) - when the PSS innovation is sufficiently stable and reinforcing mechanisms have been established (such as a network of supporters, users and suppliers), financial protection should be gradually dismantled. On the other hand socio-institutional protection (new social relationships, routines, standards, etc.) should be reinforced and transferred into mainstream settings experiment as a LAB
  • 19.  Learn and explore how to improve the PSS innovation on different dimensions - use the experiment to improve the technical aspects and design specifications (e.g. technicians, PSS providers in interviews/questionnaires to collect feedback on the critical issues) - use the experiment to improve the usability aspects of the PSS (e.g. involve users, and PSS providers in interviews/questionnaires to collect feedback on the critical issues) - use the experiment to learn about the implementation and diffusion barriers at many different dimensions (infrastructure, regulation, social and cultural acceptance) - use the experiment to learn about the social and environmental benefits expected from the PSS - use the experiment to learn about the social and cultural acceptance (e.g. through the involvement of NGOs, local associations etc.) experiment as a LAB
  • 20.  Repeat the experiment in different contexts/functions - repeat the experiment in a variety of contexts - experiment with new functions experiment as a LAB
  • 21. experiment as a WINDOW > give visibility to the PSS innovation and the related project network > attract and enroll new actors > build-up synergies with other projects/initiatives OBJECTIVES
  • 22. experiment as a WINDOW  Give visibility to the experiment - use the experiment to engage and enroll new actors (e.g. organise visits to demonstrate to different actors the experiment results and potential benefits; organise events to show the experiment, etc.) - disseminate the experiment results to the different target actors (wider public, local administration, potential industrial partner, etc.). Use different communication strategies in relation to the different actors typologies - create synergies with other actors (such as NGOs, societal pressure group and media) to support the communication activities
  • 23. experiment as a WINDOW  Create synergies with other projects/initiatives - identify local initiatives and projects that could be connected to the experiment (e.g. projects and initiatives focusing on issues linked to the experiment). Build-up synergies with them (e.g. develop a common agenda, a common communication strategy, etc.)
  • 24. > influence contextual conditions in order to favour the societal embedding process OBJECTIVES experiment as AGENT OF CHANGE
  • 25. experiment as AGENT OF CHANGE  influence contextual conditions in order to favour the societal embedding process - stimulate potential users to get in touch with the experiment and change their behaviours/routines - stimulate local administrations and policy makers to adopt financial and policy measures to support the PSS innovation - in general stimulate and influence relevant actors to support and protect the innovation (e.g. create synergies with potential industrial partners capable to scale-up the innovation) - set-up linkages with regime players (e.g. governmental institutions) to take away regime barriers (e.g. with regard to procedure, regulations, etc.) - bring the experiment to the attention of national NGOs and associations, and stimulate them to support the PSS innovation.
  • 26.
    • SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENTS AND TRANSITION PATHS
  • 27. Designing transition paths for the implementation and diffusion of sustainable PSS PSS CONCEPT (PROJECT VISION) INCUBATION SMALL SCALE SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENTS NICHE DEVELOPMENT SCALING-UP EVOLUTIONARY ACTORS NETWORK
  • 28.
    • DESSIGN APPROACH
  • 29. Design approach Designing socio-technical experiments requires:  a broad system approach, focused not only on the PSS solution and its value chain, but also on the contextual conditions that may favour or hinder the societal embedding of the PSS itself.  the adoption of a strategic attitude oriented at influencing the socio-technical context, in order to create the most favourable conditions for the innovation (i.e. by involving those actors that, directly or indirectly, could affected regime practices and institutions).  a “bifocal” attitude: the formalisation of a long-term vision (the PSS concept) is combined with the identification of short/medium term actions (the vision is translated into a transition path oriented towards the gradually achievement of the vision itself)

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