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In 1684 the five colonies of New England, New York, and East and West Jersey were consolidated into one colony called the Dominion of New England.
The new English king, James II, made it his mission to make as much money as possible off of these colonies and placed a military officer, Sir Edmund Andros, in charge.
Andros reorganized the courts, judges, and officers with Anglican newcomers and moved the superior court to Boston, meaning that people would have to travel to go to court.
He forbade Puritan clergy to draw their salaries from public taxes, raised taxes to an outrageous amounts, and took a salary for himself that totaled more than the annual cost of the old Massachusetts government.
Andros challenged old land titles that had been given under the old Puritan charter and demanded that new titles be issued by his government.
In 1687 the reverend John Wise rallied the town of Ipswich to resist the new taxes, but was arrested, tried, convicted and fined by Andros.
The Dominion regime enforced the Navigation Acts by putting a vice-admiralty court in place that didn’t operate with juries.
The new court condemned six merchant ships which hurt the port’s business and left the New English hard pressed to pay all the new taxes.
In the 18 th century, most Congregational and Presbyterian churches had evangelical periods, called “revivals” causing an increase in fervor and members.
Revivals offered the opportunity for sinners to convert and devote their life to God in hopes of eternal salvation.
Energetic preachers gave loud and enthusiastic sermons that were supposed to make the listener realize their evil ways and to make a change or they were going to hell.
The conversion process-called the New Birth-goes from despair, as the person realizes they are worthless without God, to divine grace, when the person gives gives up to God.
The process could happen immediately or take a few months.
Some people were not able to find the saving grace and stayed depressed, leading to some to commit suicide.
Most revivals stayed local until the 1730s and 1740s when preachers traveled long distances to spread their words.
The revival in the Connecticut Valley came to a stop in 1735 when the uncle of a evangelical minister was not able to find the saving grace and cut his own throat.
Chapter 15 Awakenings Old Lights and New Lights
This was the name given to rationalists who believed that religion should follow scriptural traditions and learned sermons.
They consisted of older men that were well established in their careers and had gone to English Universities.
The Old Lights preferred dispassionate religion that lacked emotional and physical outbursts.
They believed that grace was something that happened over time as a result of bible study, morality, and through a cautious minister.
They felt that Christianity was a stable religion that needed defending against modern outside influences.
This was the name given to evangelists who believed that religion should be spontaneous and emotional.
They consisted of younger zealous preachers that had been educated in American universities.
At revivals there was often weeping, crying, twitching, and falling during the worship service.
The New Lights were supporters of women, children, and sinners having sudden conversions to divine grace.
They felt that religion should be uninhibited to bring about the flow of a New Birth to it’s congregation.
Chapter 17 The Great Plains Comanche and Apache
In the 18 th century, The Great Plains became the battleground of native peoples as they competed for land and buffalo.
As the Comanche spread into Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas, they acquired horses, which allowed them more opportunities to delve into new lands.
The Apache and Comanche fought over the river valleys, which had more water, grass, wood, and shelter.
The Comanche bands were normally fluid and nomadic, but would often come together to raid Apache villages to take horses, women and children, and buffalo territory.
The women and children were then assimilated into the Comanche lifestyle, which resulted in a population boom for the Comanche while most of the other natives were experiencing a decrease in population.
The extra horses, buffalo, and captives were traded to the French for guns and ammunition.
The Comanche allied with the Wichita to keep the Apache from trading with the French.
Apache bands fled from the Comanche into new Mexico and Texas getting closer to the Hispanics.
Since the Apache could no longer hunt buffalo, they would raid the Hispanic ranches and missions stealing and eating buffalo and horses.
Some Apache sought refuge with the Hispanic mission system, such as the Lipan Apache who made a peace treaty with a ceremony signifying their submission.
This caused the Hispanics to be party to the dispute between the Apache and the Comanche and Wichita.
This led to attacks and counterattacks which killed both Indians and Hispanics.
Chapter 18 Imperial War and Crisis Balance of Power
The Indians controlled the balance of power between the French and English colony: whomever had the favor of the natives was the empire in control.
The Indians were divided in tribes and subdivided into smaller villages that could obstruct trade and destroy outlying settlements.
The Six Nation Iroquois had the best advantage because of their location between French Canada and New York.
Both the French and English wanted the Indians as their allies.
In 1701, the Iroquois built a neutrality in order to keep competition in the fur trade and keep invading settlers away.
In the mid 18 th century, the British colonists (1.5 million) outnumbered the French colonists (70,000), which led to British arrogance.
Despite having less colonists, the French realized the importance of having the Indians as allies and treated them with respect and diplomacy.
The French knew the Indians were indispensable, yet they were annoyed with the demands that the Indians made.
The French built small forts around the Great Lakes and in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys depending on the Indians for protection, but still allowing the Indians to hunt the land, unlike the British.
The English had one advantage over the French: better trade goods in larger quantities at cheaper prices.
This obliged the natives to make peace with British officials so they had access to trade goods.
Chapter 17 Imperial Wars and Crisis Indian Rebellions
The collapse of New France was a huge blow to the Indians as they could no longer pit the French and the British against each other.
Traders moved into the Ohio and Great Lakes countries, then swindled and abused the Indians.
The new British military commander, Jeffrey Amherst, cut off all presents to the Indians.
This caused the many different bands to come together in cooperation to find a way to deal with the colonists.
The first rebellion was the Cherokee fighting with their former allies in South Carolina as a result of the colonists invading Cherokee lands in the face of the French defeat.
In revenge, the Cherokee killed thirty settlers.
The South Carolina authorities demanded that the warriors be turned over to them to be tried for murder, which the Cherokee ignored.
This led to attacks and counterattacks by the British and Cherokee forces.
In 1760, the Cherokee ravaged South Carolina and captured a British fort, but the British retaliated in 1761 by destroying fifteen Indian towns and their crops.
The Cherokee had to make peace with the English colonies.
This defeat united thirteen different nations of Indians in the common goal of defeating the British.
In 1763, they captured most British forts around the Great Lakes and Ohio valleys along with three settlements.
This led to the settlers to treat all Indians as savages who should be exterminated.
After several battles that led to the deaths of hundreds of Indians and colonists, the British military decided to reinstate the policy of giving presents and tried to cultivate a relationship similar to the one that the French had with the Indians.