Atlantic World

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Atlantic World

  1. 1. The Atlantic World<br />Mr. Taylor | World History | Chapter 20<br />
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  3. 3. Columbus<br />1492<br />Thinks he is in East Indies<br />Actually lands on an island, probably in the Bahamas<br />Unable to find gold, he claims islands for Spain<br />
  4. 4. Columbus<br />In 1493, he sets out for the Americas again with a large fleet<br />Spain aims to set up colonies—lands controlled by a foreign nation <br />
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  6. 6. More Sea Explorers<br />Amerigo Vespucci identifies South America as new continent (1501)<br />Balboareaches the Pacific Ocean<br />Ferdinand Magellanleaves to sail around the world (1519)<br />Magellan is killed, but some of his men return to Spain in 1522 <br />
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  8. 8. Spanish Conquests in Mexico<br />In 1519, Hernando Cortéslands in Mexico <br />Known as conquistadors— Spanish conquerors<br />
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  10. 10. Cortés Conquers the Aztecs<br />Cortés and 600 men reach Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán<br />By 1521, they conquer Aztec empire<br />Conquest aided by superior weapons, Native American allies; European diseases wipe out large numbers of Aztecs<br />
  11. 11. Competing Claims in North America <br />French, English, Dutch start colonies in North America<br />A Trading Empire<br />New France is very large but has few inhabitants<br />Main activity of the colony is the fur trade<br />
  12. 12. Dutch fur trade with Indians<br />
  13. 13. English Arrive in North America<br />The First English Colony<br />In 1607, colonists found Jamestownin Virginia<br />Early years very difficult; many die, but settlement takes hold<br />Puritans Create a “New England”<br />Pilgrims — group persecuted for religion—found Plymouth in 1620<br />Puritans — group seeking religious freedom—settle in Massachusetts<br />
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  15. 15. England Pushes Out Rivals<br />Dutch: New Netherland —(New York)<br />Fur trade; welcome settlers from other lands<br />In 1664, English force out Dutch colonists<br />English, pushing west, collide with French<br />French and Indian War —part of Seven Years’ War—begins (1754)<br />In 1763, France loses to Britain, gives up its American colonies <br />
  16. 16. Atlantic Slave Trade<br />
  17. 17. Slavery in Africa<br />Existed in Africa for centuries, but been minor practice<br />Spread of Islam produces more slavery<br />In African, Muslim lands, slaves have some rights<br />The Demand for Africans<br />Need for workers in Americas raises demand for enslaved Africans<br />Africans withstand diseases, have farming skills, unlikely to escape<br />Middle Passage<br />
  18. 18. Atlantic Slave Trade<br />Spain and Portugal Lead the Way<br />England Dominates the Slave Trade<br />From 1690 to 1807, England dominates slave trade<br />About 400,000 enslaved Africans brought to North American colonies<br />African Cooperation and Resistance<br />Many African rulers capture people to be sold into slavery<br />
  19. 19. Triangular Trade<br />Trade network linking Europe, Africa, Americas<br />Three trading partners each get what they want.<br />There are several triangle trade networks in the Atlantic.<br />
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  22. 22. The Columbian Exchangeand Global Trade <br />
  23. 23. The Columbian Exchange<br />Columbian Exchange — global transfer of food, plants, animals<br />Corn, potatoes, tobacco, tomatoes from Americas become crops in Eastern Hemisphere <br />New animals, plants introduced by Europeans take hold in Americas<br />Cattle, sheep, pigs, horse<br />European diseases kill millions of Native Americans <br />
  24. 24. Changing Economies<br />Wealth from Americas, growth of trade changes business in Europe<br />The Rise of Capitalism<br />New economic system — capitalism — based on private property, profit<br />Increase in business leads to inflation—rising prices—in Europe<br />Gold, silver from Americas cause high inflation<br />Joint-stock companylets investors share risk, profits of business (fund colonies)<br />
  25. 25. Goal was wealth, not land<br />Policy of mercantilism emphasizes national wealth as source of power<br />One way for nation to increase wealth: gather gold, silver<br />Colonies provide raw materials that home country uses to make goods<br />

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