Supporting Your
Ideas

Deploying Supporting Materials

Using Examples

Using Statistics

Using Testimony

Using Other Supp...
Supporting Your
Ideas
(continued)

Using Life Experience (Narrative)

Boundless.com/communications

Free to share, print, ...
Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials

Deploying Supporting Materials
• Types of Supporting Materials
• W...
Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials

Types of Supporting Materials
• Scientific evidence includes all f...
Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials

Why Use Supporting Materials?
• Scientific evidence is used to pro...
Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials

Using Supporting Materials Effectively
• Regardless of the type of...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Examples

Using Examples
• Types of Examples: Brief, Extended, and Hypothetical
• Communicat...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Examples

Types of Examples: Brief, Extended, and Hypothetical
• Examples include specific s...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Examples

Communicating Examples
• Examples are essential to apresentation that is backed up...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Statistics

Using Statistics
• Understanding Statistics
• Communicating Statistics

Free to ...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Statistics

Understanding Statistics
• Understanding statistics requires creating a persuasi...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Statistics

Communicating Statistics
• Statistics will, and should, almost always be used to...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Testimony

Using Testimony
• Expert versus Peer Testimony
• How to Incorporate Expert Testim...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Testimony

Expert versus Peer Testimony
• Testimonials can be obtained from expert authoriti...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Testimony

How to Incorporate Expert Testimony
• Expert testimony should be incorporated to ...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials

Using Other Supporting Materials
• Analogies
• Definitions
• Vis...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials

Analogies
• Analogies compare something new and different (the m...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials

Definitions
• Providing the definition of the key terms also wor...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials

Visual Demonstrations
• Visual aids can be memorable, improving ...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Life Experience (Narrative)

Using Life Experience (Narrative)
• The Importance of Stories
•...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Life Experience (Narrative)

The Importance of Stories
• Studies suggest that people accept ...
Supporting Your Ideas > Using Life Experience (Narrative)

How and When to Use Narrative
• A narrative is relayed in the f...
Appendix
Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
Supporting Your Ideas

Key terms
• abstract Difficult to understand; abstruse. (CC BY-SA 3.0)
• accuracy Exact conformity ...
Supporting Your Ideas

• Median described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or ...
Supporting Your Ideas

Statistics

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
Upscene. ...
Supporting Your Ideas

Exam Question

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http:/...
Supporting Your Ideas

Chocolate Ice Cream

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
...
Supporting Your Ideas

Average Fixed Cost Equation

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundl...
Supporting Your Ideas

Corks, for Example

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
F...
Supporting Your Ideas

Statistics

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
Upscene. ...
Supporting Your Ideas

Annual Carbon Emissions By Area

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.bo...
Supporting Your Ideas

Oprah at Her 50th Birthday Party

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.b...
Supporting Your Ideas

Barry Schwartz

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
Flick...
Supporting Your Ideas

The Human Eye is Like a Camera

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.bou...
Supporting Your Ideas

Dictionary

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
Flickr. "...
Supporting Your Ideas

The Plastic Bag Prop

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com...
Supporting Your Ideas

Top Public Speaking Tips

Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless...
Supporting Your Ideas

The Narrative Tale

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F...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

Of the three reasons for using support, choose the answer below
which refers to one of those reason...
Supporting Your Ideas

Of the three reasons for using support, choose the answer below
which refers to one of those reason...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following is the best type of supporting material to
use for a logical appeal?
A) pers...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following is the best type of supporting material to
use for a logical appeal?
A) pers...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not
supported by scientific or statist...
Supporting Your Ideas

Empirical, true facts or figures.

A) anecdote

B) comprehendible

C) scientific evidence

D) conce...
Supporting Your Ideas

Empirical, true facts or figures.

A) anecdote

B) comprehendible

C) scientific evidence

D) conce...
Supporting Your Ideas

If you are trying to appeal to your audience's emotions, a good
supporting material to use is
A) sc...
Supporting Your Ideas

If you are trying to appeal to your audience's emotions, a good
supporting material to use is
A) sc...
Supporting Your Ideas

Able to be comprehended; understandable.

A) scientific evidence

B) anecdote

C) statistics

D) co...
Supporting Your Ideas

Able to be comprehended; understandable.

A) scientific evidence

B) anecdote

C) statistics

D) co...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following is something you should consider when
deciding what types of supporting mate...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following is something you should consider when
deciding what types of supporting mate...
Supporting Your Ideas

A fictional situation or proposition used to explain a complicated
subject.
A) anecdote

B) narrati...
Supporting Your Ideas

A fictional situation or proposition used to explain a complicated
subject.
A) anecdote

B) narrati...
Supporting Your Ideas

A brief example is used
A) when a presenter is discussing a complicated topic with which the
audien...
Supporting Your Ideas

A brief example is used
A) when a presenter is discussing a complicated topic with which the
audien...
Supporting Your Ideas

Difficult to understand; abstruse.

A) direct

B) objectivity

C) orality

D) abstract

Free to sha...
Supporting Your Ideas

Difficult to understand; abstruse.

A) direct

B) objectivity

C) orality

D) abstract

Free to sha...
Supporting Your Ideas

In a speech, examples should
A) be long and involved stories that relate peripherally to the messag...
Supporting Your Ideas

In a speech, examples should
A) be long and involved stories that relate peripherally to the messag...
Supporting Your Ideas

A fact or event considered very unusual, curious, or astonishing
by those who witness it.
A) Hypoth...
Supporting Your Ideas

A fact or event considered very unusual, curious, or astonishing
by those who witness it.
A) Hypoth...
Supporting Your Ideas

Difficult to understand; abstruse.

A) extemporaneous

B) abstract

C) demographic

D) stereotype

...
Supporting Your Ideas

Difficult to understand; abstruse.

A) extemporaneous

B) abstract

C) demographic

D) stereotype

...
Supporting Your Ideas

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
inhaling smoke from cigarettes or othe...
Supporting Your Ideas

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
inhaling smoke from cigarettes or othe...
Supporting Your Ideas

The value that appears the most often in a data set.

A) statistics

B) accuracy

C) Mode

D) analo...
Supporting Your Ideas

The value that appears the most often in a data set.

A) statistics

B) accuracy

C) Mode

D) analo...
Supporting Your Ideas

described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a
sample, a population, or a probabi...
Supporting Your Ideas

described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a
sample, a population, or a probabi...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

For a data set, the arithmetic _______ is equal to the sum of the
values divided by the number of v...
Supporting Your Ideas

For a data set, the arithmetic _______ is equal to the sum of the
values divided by the number of v...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following is a useful method for helping your
audience understand statistics?
A) Use a...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following is a useful method for helping your
audience understand statistics?
A) Use a...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which answer best rewrites the following passage so that it
possesses stronger conversational quali...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which answer best rewrites the following passage so that it
possesses stronger conversational quali...
Supporting Your Ideas

According to a report from the U.S. government’s National Center
for Education Statistics, “In 2005...
Supporting Your Ideas

According to a report from the U.S. government’s National Center
for Education Statistics, “In 2005...
Supporting Your Ideas

Examine the following observation, and then choose the answer
which paraphrases it best. Paraphrase...
Supporting Your Ideas

Examine the following observation, and then choose the answer
which paraphrases it best. Paraphrase...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a true or st...
Supporting Your Ideas

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a true or st...
Supporting Your Ideas

When using a table, you should always
A) minimize memory load by removing unnecessary data and mini...
Supporting Your Ideas

When using a table, you should always
A) minimize memory load by removing unnecessary data and mini...
Supporting Your Ideas

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a true or st...
Supporting Your Ideas

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a true or st...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations,
often related to demographic infor...
Supporting Your Ideas

Why should you put statistics into context for your audience?

A) The audience will have a greater ...
Supporting Your Ideas

Why should you put statistics into context for your audience?

A) The audience will have a greater ...
Supporting Your Ideas

Somebody who is, or something that is, at a level equal (to that of
something else).
A) TED

B) pee...
Supporting Your Ideas

Somebody who is, or something that is, at a level equal (to that of
something else).
A) TED

B) pee...
Supporting Your Ideas

A non-authority source.

A) narrative

B) scientific evidence

C) TED

D) antiauthority

Free to sh...
Supporting Your Ideas

A non-authority source.

A) narrative

B) scientific evidence

C) TED

D) antiauthority

Free to sh...
Supporting Your Ideas

If a speaker wishes to use testimonials about the impact of oil
spills on the daily life of surroun...
Supporting Your Ideas

If a speaker wishes to use testimonials about the impact of oil
spills on the daily life of surroun...
Supporting Your Ideas

What is the primary benefit of incorporating expert testimony into
a speech?
A) It helps speakers e...
Supporting Your Ideas

What is the primary benefit of incorporating expert testimony into
a speech?
A) It helps speakers e...
Supporting Your Ideas

A person with extensive knowledge or ability in a given subject.

A) expert

B) brainstorming

C) c...
Supporting Your Ideas

A person with extensive knowledge or ability in a given subject.

A) expert

B) brainstorming

C) c...
Supporting Your Ideas

Technology Entertainment Design, a series of global conferences.

A) anecdote

B) TED

C) peer

D) ...
Supporting Your Ideas

Technology Entertainment Design, a series of global conferences.

A) anecdote

B) TED

C) peer

D) ...
Supporting Your Ideas

Analogies draw comparisons between ideas or objects that

A) lack certain aspects or characteristic...
Supporting Your Ideas

Analogies draw comparisons between ideas or objects that

A) lack certain aspects or characteristic...
Supporting Your Ideas

When using an analogy in presentations, speakers should keep
which of the following tips in mind?
A...
Supporting Your Ideas

When using an analogy in presentations, speakers should keep
which of the following tips in mind?
A...
Supporting Your Ideas

The state of being iconic (in all meanings).

A) prop

B) concept

C) iconicity

D) model

Free to ...
Supporting Your Ideas

The state of being iconic (in all meanings).

A) prop

B) concept

C) iconicity

D) model

Free to ...
Supporting Your Ideas

A one-to-one correspondence.

A) prop

B) concept

C) isomorphism

D) model

Free to share, print, ...
Supporting Your Ideas

A one-to-one correspondence.

A) prop

B) concept

C) isomorphism

D) model

Free to share, print, ...
Supporting Your Ideas

A similar appearance of two unrelated organisms or structures.

A) homomorphism

B) prop

C) concep...
Supporting Your Ideas

A similar appearance of two unrelated organisms or structures.

A) homomorphism

B) prop

C) concep...
Supporting Your Ideas

To properly define key terms so that they create credibility in a
presentation, the speaker must
A)...
Supporting Your Ideas

To properly define key terms so that they create credibility in a
presentation, the speaker must
A)...
Supporting Your Ideas

An understanding retained in the mind, from experience,
reasoning and/or imagination; a generalizat...
Supporting Your Ideas

An understanding retained in the mind, from experience,
reasoning and/or imagination; a generalizat...
Supporting Your Ideas

An item placed on a stage or set to create a scene or scenario in
which actors perform. Contraction...
Supporting Your Ideas

An item placed on a stage or set to create a scene or scenario in
which actors perform. Contraction...
Supporting Your Ideas

The well-timed use of a well-chosen prop can impact a
presentation in which of the following ways?
...
Supporting Your Ideas

The well-timed use of a well-chosen prop can impact a
presentation in which of the following ways?
...
Supporting Your Ideas

A simplified representation used to explain the workings of a real
world system or event.
A) model
...
Supporting Your Ideas

A simplified representation used to explain the workings of a real
world system or event.
A) model
...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) narrative

B)...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) narrative

B)...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) scientific ev...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) scientific ev...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following explains why stories are an effective
teaching tool in speeches and presenta...
Supporting Your Ideas

Which of the following explains why stories are an effective
teaching tool in speeches and presenta...
Supporting Your Ideas

Stories can be a powerful tool because the audience's emotions
become inextricably tied to those of...
Supporting Your Ideas

Stories can be a powerful tool because the audience's emotions
become inextricably tied to those of...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) Hypothetical
...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) Hypothetical
...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) scientific ev...
Supporting Your Ideas

The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see
also storytelling)
A) scientific ev...
Supporting Your Ideas

When using narratives, the speaker should use which of the
following tactics to make his or her mai...
Supporting Your Ideas

When using narratives, the speaker should use which of the
following tactics to make his or her mai...
Supporting Your Ideas

Attribution
• Wikipedia. "Evidence." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence
• Wikipedia...
Supporting Your Ideas

• Manner of Speaking. "Making it Stick: Credibility Counts | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA
http://m...
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Transcript of "Supporting Ideas"

  1. 1. Supporting Your Ideas Deploying Supporting Materials Using Examples Using Statistics Using Testimony Using Other Supporting Materials Boundless.com/communications Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  2. 2. Supporting Your Ideas (continued) Using Life Experience (Narrative) Boundless.com/communications Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  3. 3. Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials Deploying Supporting Materials • Types of Supporting Materials • Why Use Supporting Materials? • Using Supporting Materials Effectively Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  4. 4. Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials Types of Supporting Materials • Scientific evidence includes all factual information. It is necessary and particularly useful for logical appeals. • Testimonials, personal experience, intuition, and anecdotal evidence are all great for emotional appeals. • Non-scientific supporting materials may be useful, but are not necessarily reflective of broader truths. Statistics View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/deploying-supporting-materials/types-of-supporting-materials
  5. 5. Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials Why Use Supporting Materials? • Scientific evidence is used to prove that a set of facts exist in the world. • Non-scientific evidence is often used to create emotional connections with the audience, which can make them more receptive to the argument. • Misused supporting materials can ruin your perceived reliability as a speaker and cause the audience to stop taking your argument seriously. Exam Question View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/deploying-supporting-materials/why-use-supporting-materials-99a6bd32-42c6-4e3aa853-9a29bed32d96
  6. 6. Supporting Your Ideas > Deploying Supporting Materials Using Supporting Materials Effectively • Regardless of the type of supporting material used, they are effective only if they fulfill the speaker's burden of proof. • Supporting materials must exist in order to be used; not all types exist for all arguments. • The supporting evidence used depends on the idea being supported. Some ideas are more effectively supported by certain types of materials. • Not all types of supporting materials are effective for every appeal. Speakers should select the materials that make their specific appeal most effective. • The type of supporting material used also depends on the audience. If the audience cannot comprehend the material, it is not effective. Chocolate Ice Cream View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/deploying-supporting-materials/using-supporting-materials-effectively
  7. 7. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Examples Using Examples • Types of Examples: Brief, Extended, and Hypothetical • Communicating Examples Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  8. 8. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Examples Types of Examples: Brief, Extended, and Hypothetical • Examples include specific situations, problems or stories designed to help illustrate a principle, method, or phenomenon. • Brief examples are used to further illustrate a point that may not be immediately obvious to all audience members but is not so complex that is requires a more lengthy example. • Extended examples are used when a presenter is discussing a more complicated topic that they think their audience may be unfamiliar with. • A hypothetical example is a fictional example that can be used when a speaker is explaining a complicated topic that makes the most sense when it is put into Average Fixed Cost Equation more realistic or relatable terms. View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-examples/types-of-examples-brief-extended-and-hypothetical
  9. 9. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Examples Communicating Examples • Examples are essential to apresentation that is backed up with evidence, and it helps the audienceeffectively understand the message being presented. An example is a specificsituation, problem, or story designed to help illustrate a principle, method,or phenomenon. • One method of effectively communicating examples is by using an example to clarify and complement a main point of a presentation. • A speaker should be careful to not overuse examples as too many examples may confuse the audience and distract them from focusing on the key points that the speaker is making. Corks, for Example View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-examples/communicating-examples
  10. 10. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Statistics Using Statistics • Understanding Statistics • Communicating Statistics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  11. 11. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Statistics Understanding Statistics • Understanding statistics requires creating a persuasive narrative that explains the data and an adequate explanation of why a statistic is being used, what it means and its source. • The persuasive use of statistics is one of the most powerful tools in any rational argument, especially in public presentations. • There are many ways to interpret statistics, however a public speaker should be mindful that they are presenting a statistic in an accurate way and not misleading the audience through a misrepresentation of a statistic. Statistics View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-statistics/understanding-statistics
  12. 12. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Statistics Communicating Statistics • Statistics will, and should, almost always be used to illustrate a relationship. • Refrain from bombarding your audience with too many mind-numbing numbers. • Before all else, the two pillars of communicating statistics are accuracy and clarity. Annual Carbon Emissions By Area View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-statistics/communicating-statistics
  13. 13. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Testimony Using Testimony • Expert versus Peer Testimony • How to Incorporate Expert Testimony Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  14. 14. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Testimony Expert versus Peer Testimony • Testimonials can be obtained from expert authorities, celebrities and other inspirational figures, and antiauthorities. • An expert is is the kind of person whose wall is covered with framed credentials. • People trust the recommendations of people whom they want to be like. • Antiauthorities are sources of peer testimony whose source of knowledge is firsthand experience. Oprah at Her 50th Birthday Party View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-testimony/expert-versus-peer-testimony
  15. 15. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Testimony How to Incorporate Expert Testimony • Expert testimony should be incorporated to support, defend, or explain the main point or subpoint of a speech. • Limiting your main points, subpoints, and support points to three or four points each improves the ability for your speech to communicate with the audience. • Noticing how professionals use the testimony of experts can provide creative examples for how to incorporate expert testimony into a speech. Barry Schwartz View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-testimony/how-to-incorporate-expert-testimony
  16. 16. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials Using Other Supporting Materials • Analogies • Definitions • Visual Demonstrations Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  17. 17. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials Analogies • Analogies compare something new and different (the main topic of a speech) to people, places, objects, and ideas familiar to audience members. • Public speakers often use analogies to strengthen political and philosophical arguments, even when the semantic similarity is weak or non-existent. • Analogies that begin with phrases including "like", "so on," and "as if" rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message that includes such phrases. • Considering audience demographics, and constructing similar rather than extreme analogies, are tactics public speakers use to create effective analogies. The Human Eye is Like a Camera View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-other-supporting-materials/analogies
  18. 18. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials Definitions • Providing the definition of the key terms also works as a signal to your audience that you know what you’re talking about. • In order to define the key terms, you first have to bluntly state what they are. • Very often, you’ll use the work of somebody else to help you define the key terms. Dictionary View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-other-supporting-materials/definitions
  19. 19. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Other Supporting Materials Visual Demonstrations • Visual aids can be memorable, improving the likelihood that the audience will remember the point of a speech. • Demonstrations can inject humor into a presentation. • Demonstrations using visual aids provide effective metaphors to clarify a point. The Plastic Bag Prop View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-other-supporting-materials/visual-demonstrations
  20. 20. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Life Experience (Narrative) Using Life Experience (Narrative) • The Importance of Stories • How and When to Use Narrative Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  21. 21. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Life Experience (Narrative) The Importance of Stories • Studies suggest that people accept ideas more readily when their minds are in story mode as opposed to when they are in an analytical mind-set. • Stories help us connect with our audiences in a way that all the charts, graphs, statistics, and bullet points in the world will never be able to do. • Stories help to motivate audiences to act. Top Public Speaking Tips View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-life-experience-narrative/the-importance-of-stories
  22. 22. Supporting Your Ideas > Using Life Experience (Narrative) How and When to Use Narrative • A narrative is relayed in the form of a story. • The greatest story commandment is to make the audience care. • Your story should not be forced; the audience should perceive it as natural part of your speech. The Narrative Tale View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/supporting-your-ideas/using-life-experience-narrative/how-and-when-to-use-narrative
  23. 23. Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  24. 24. Supporting Your Ideas Key terms • abstract Difficult to understand; abstruse. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • accuracy Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • anecdote An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • antiauthority A non-authority source. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • comprehensible Able to be comprehended; understandable. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • concept An understanding retained in the mind, from experience, reasoning and/or imagination; a generalization (generic, basic form), or abstraction (mental impression), of a particular set of instances or occurrences (specific, though different, recorded manifestations of the concept). (CC BY-SA 3.0) • expert A person with extensive knowledge or ability in a given subject. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • homomorphism A similar appearance of two unrelated organisms or structures. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Hypothetical A fictional situation or proposition used to explain a complicated subject. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • iconicity The state of being iconic (in all meanings). (CC BY-SA 3.0) • isomorphism A one-to-one correspondence. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Mean For a data set, the arithmetic mean is equal to the sum of the values divided by the number of values. (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  25. 25. Supporting Your Ideas • Median described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Mode The value that appears the most often in a data set. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • model A simplified representation used to explain the workings of a real world system or event. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • narrative The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) (CC BY-SA 3.0) • narrative The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) (CC BY-SA 3.0) • peer Somebody who is, or something that is, at a level equal (to that of something else). (CC BY-SA 3.0) • phenomenon A fact or event considered very unusual, curious, or astonishing by those who witness it. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • prop An item placed on a stage or set to create a scene or scenario in which actors perform. Contraction of "property". (CC BY-SA 3.0) • scientific evidence Empirical, true facts or figures. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • statistics A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • statistics A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • TED Technology Entertainment Design, a series of global conferences. (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  26. 26. Supporting Your Ideas Statistics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Upscene. CC BY http://blog.upscene.com/thomas/index.php?m=08&y=08&d=13&entry=entry080813-113055&category=10 View on Boundless.com
  27. 27. Supporting Your Ideas Exam Question Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com http://www.xdr.com/dash/blog/index.php?m=03&y=11&entry=entry110302-102900. "Dave's Blog - Elliott Wave Principle Book Available Free Online!!!." CC BY http://www.xdr.com/dash/blog/index.php?m=03&y=11&entry=entry110302-102900 View on Boundless.com
  28. 28. Supporting Your Ideas Chocolate Ice Cream Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "Chocolate ice cream (eggless) with chocolate cake and roasted almonds | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosemilkinabottle/6265404407/ View on Boundless.com
  29. 29. Supporting Your Ideas Average Fixed Cost Equation Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Average fixed cost." GNU FDL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_fixed_cost View on Boundless.com
  30. 30. Supporting Your Ideas Corks, for Example Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "2010_04_01_0005 corks for example | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/45909111@N00/4484587820/ View on Boundless.com
  31. 31. Supporting Your Ideas Statistics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Upscene. CC BY http://blog.upscene.com/thomas/index.php?m=08&y=08&d=13&entry=entry080813-113055&category=10 View on Boundless.com
  32. 32. Supporting Your Ideas Annual Carbon Emissions By Area Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "All sizes | Carbon Emissions by Continent Chart | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/mplemmon/3203403862/sizes/m/in/photostream/ View on Boundless.com
  33. 33. Supporting Your Ideas Oprah at Her 50th Birthday Party Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "Oprah at her 50th birthday party | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/alan-light/210467069/ View on Boundless.com
  34. 34. Supporting Your Ideas Barry Schwartz Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "IMG_2636 | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/billhr/3266173988/ View on Boundless.com
  35. 35. Supporting Your Ideas The Human Eye is Like a Camera Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. CC BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/yulia_guseva/6156029440/ View on Boundless.com
  36. 36. Supporting Your Ideas Dictionary Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "Dictionary | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/greeblie/3338710223/ View on Boundless.com
  37. 37. Supporting Your Ideas The Plastic Bag Prop Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "canal debris | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/polandeze/378698004/ View on Boundless.com
  38. 38. Supporting Your Ideas Top Public Speaking Tips Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com University of British Columbia Learning Commons. "Presentation Skills | Learning Commons." CC BY http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/presentation-skills/ View on Boundless.com
  39. 39. Supporting Your Ideas The Narrative Tale Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "VFS Digital Design Assembly: Storytelling | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/vancouverfilmschool/5261295953/ View on Boundless.com
  40. 40. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) scientific evidence B) comprehendible C) anecdote D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  41. 41. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) scientific evidence B) comprehendible C) anecdote D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "anecdote." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/anecdote
  42. 42. Supporting Your Ideas Of the three reasons for using support, choose the answer below which refers to one of those reasons appropriately and also satisfies most of the criteria for using support in a speech. A) “The President’s job proposal offers only socialist policies that will destroy the American dream.” To make the speech more vivid, you could quote this presidential challenger from the opposing party. B) “The President plans to fund his job-creation proposal partly by increasing taxes on annual incomes over $250,000.” To clarify, you could quote the author from the book “100 Years of Job Creation.” C) “After asking voters for their views on the President's job proposal, I discovered there are three problems with this plan.” To increase your credibility, you could choose to make a similar statement. D) All of the answers Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  43. 43. Supporting Your Ideas Of the three reasons for using support, choose the answer below which refers to one of those reasons appropriately and also satisfies most of the criteria for using support in a speech. A) “The President’s job proposal offers only socialist policies that will destroy the American dream.” To make the speech more vivid, you could quote this presidential challenger from the opposing party. B) “The President plans to fund his job-creation proposal partly by increasing taxes on annual incomes over $250,000.” To clarify, you could quote the author from the book “100 Years of Job Creation.” C) “After asking voters for their views on the President's job proposal, I discovered there are three problems with this plan.” To increase your credibility, you could choose to make a similar statement. D) All of the answers Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Saylor OER. "Communication « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Communication/
  44. 44. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following is the best type of supporting material to use for a logical appeal? A) personal experience B) scientific evidence C) anecdotal evidence D) intuition Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  45. 45. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following is the best type of supporting material to use for a logical appeal? A) personal experience B) scientific evidence C) anecdotal evidence D) intuition Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  46. 46. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) A demonstration B) An example C) A testimonial D) An anecdote Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  47. 47. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) A demonstration B) An example C) A testimonial D) An anecdote Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "anecdote." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/anecdote
  48. 48. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) topic B) credibility C) anecdote D) introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  49. 49. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) topic B) credibility C) anecdote D) introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "anecdote." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/anecdote
  50. 50. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) segue B) brainstorming C) transition D) anecdote Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  51. 51. Supporting Your Ideas An account or story which supports an argument, but which is not supported by scientific or statistical analysis. A) segue B) brainstorming C) transition D) anecdote Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "anecdote." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/anecdote
  52. 52. Supporting Your Ideas Empirical, true facts or figures. A) anecdote B) comprehendible C) scientific evidence D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  53. 53. Supporting Your Ideas Empirical, true facts or figures. A) anecdote B) comprehendible C) scientific evidence D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/scientific-evidence
  54. 54. Supporting Your Ideas If you are trying to appeal to your audience's emotions, a good supporting material to use is A) scientific evidence. B) a newspaper article. C) a personal anecdote. D) a mathematical theory. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  55. 55. Supporting Your Ideas If you are trying to appeal to your audience's emotions, a good supporting material to use is A) scientific evidence. B) a newspaper article. C) a personal anecdote. D) a mathematical theory. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  56. 56. Supporting Your Ideas Able to be comprehended; understandable. A) scientific evidence B) anecdote C) statistics D) comprehensible Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  57. 57. Supporting Your Ideas Able to be comprehended; understandable. A) scientific evidence B) anecdote C) statistics D) comprehensible Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "comprehensible." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/comprehensible
  58. 58. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following is something you should consider when deciding what types of supporting materials to use? A) All of these answers. B) What supporting materials are available. C) Whether your appeal will be emotional or logical. D) What type of audience you expect for your speech. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  59. 59. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following is something you should consider when deciding what types of supporting materials to use? A) All of these answers. B) What supporting materials are available. C) Whether your appeal will be emotional or logical. D) What type of audience you expect for your speech. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  60. 60. Supporting Your Ideas A fictional situation or proposition used to explain a complicated subject. A) anecdote B) narrative C) Hypothetical D) Orator Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  61. 61. Supporting Your Ideas A fictional situation or proposition used to explain a complicated subject. A) anecdote B) narrative C) Hypothetical D) Orator Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "Hypothetical." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hypothetical
  62. 62. Supporting Your Ideas A brief example is used A) when a presenter is discussing a complicated topic with which the audience is unfamiliar. B) to help the audience better visualize a topic and relate to the point of the presentation. C) when a fictional example can help put the topic into more realistic or relatable terms. D) to further illustrate a point that is not obvious, but not very complex either. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  63. 63. Supporting Your Ideas A brief example is used A) when a presenter is discussing a complicated topic with which the audience is unfamiliar. B) to help the audience better visualize a topic and relate to the point of the presentation. C) when a fictional example can help put the topic into more realistic or relatable terms. D) to further illustrate a point that is not obvious, but not very complex either. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  64. 64. Supporting Your Ideas Difficult to understand; abstruse. A) direct B) objectivity C) orality D) abstract Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  65. 65. Supporting Your Ideas Difficult to understand; abstruse. A) direct B) objectivity C) orality D) abstract Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "abstract." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/abstract
  66. 66. Supporting Your Ideas In a speech, examples should A) be long and involved stories that relate peripherally to the message of the speech. B) occur many times in the speech, to illustrate each point made by the speaker. C) All of these answers. D) be used as a complement to a key point. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  67. 67. Supporting Your Ideas In a speech, examples should A) be long and involved stories that relate peripherally to the message of the speech. B) occur many times in the speech, to illustrate each point made by the speaker. C) All of these answers. D) be used as a complement to a key point. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  68. 68. Supporting Your Ideas A fact or event considered very unusual, curious, or astonishing by those who witness it. A) Hypothetical B) phenomenon C) Median D) prop Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  69. 69. Supporting Your Ideas A fact or event considered very unusual, curious, or astonishing by those who witness it. A) Hypothetical B) phenomenon C) Median D) prop Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "phenomenon." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phenomenon
  70. 70. Supporting Your Ideas Difficult to understand; abstruse. A) extemporaneous B) abstract C) demographic D) stereotype Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  71. 71. Supporting Your Ideas Difficult to understand; abstruse. A) extemporaneous B) abstract C) demographic D) stereotype Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "abstract." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/abstract
  72. 72. Supporting Your Ideas According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, inhaling smoke from cigarettes or other devices impacts the circulatory system by restricting blood vessels and increasing the incidence of peripheral vascular disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Which of the following revisions of this statement is the most effective in using language familiar to teenagers? A) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cigarette smoking restricts blood vessels and raises the incidence of vascular disease and certain types of aneurysms. B) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, smoking damages blood vessels and can cause other circulatory problems. C) According to the CDC, smoking cigarettes, marijuana, or powdered drugs can have serious effects on your veins and arteries, making them less flexible and more vulnerable to disease and other problems. D) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that smoking can damage your blood vessels. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  73. 73. Supporting Your Ideas According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, inhaling smoke from cigarettes or other devices impacts the circulatory system by restricting blood vessels and increasing the incidence of peripheral vascular disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Which of the following revisions of this statement is the most effective in using language familiar to teenagers? A) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cigarette smoking restricts blood vessels and raises the incidence of vascular disease and certain types of aneurysms. B) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, smoking damages blood vessels and can cause other circulatory problems. C) According to the CDC, smoking cigarettes, marijuana, or powdered drugs can have serious effects on your veins and arteries, making them less flexible and more vulnerable to disease and other problems. D) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that smoking can damage your blood vessels. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Saylor OER. "Communication « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Communication/
  74. 74. Supporting Your Ideas The value that appears the most often in a data set. A) statistics B) accuracy C) Mode D) analogy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  75. 75. Supporting Your Ideas The value that appears the most often in a data set. A) statistics B) accuracy C) Mode D) analogy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Mode." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode
  76. 76. Supporting Your Ideas described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. A) statistics B) Median C) accuracy D) comprehendible Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  77. 77. Supporting Your Ideas described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. A) statistics B) Median C) accuracy D) comprehendible Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Median." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median
  78. 78. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) accuracy B) narrative C) statistics D) Hypothetical Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  79. 79. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) accuracy B) narrative C) statistics D) Hypothetical Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "statistics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/statistics
  80. 80. Supporting Your Ideas For a data set, the arithmetic _______ is equal to the sum of the values divided by the number of values. A) Mean B) statistics C) accuracy D) narrative Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  81. 81. Supporting Your Ideas For a data set, the arithmetic _______ is equal to the sum of the values divided by the number of values. A) Mean B) statistics C) accuracy D) narrative Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Mean." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mean
  82. 82. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) Mean B) Median C) statistics D) Mode Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  83. 83. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) Mean B) Median C) statistics D) Mode Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "statistics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/statistics
  84. 84. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following is a useful method for helping your audience understand statistics? A) Use a small sample size so the audience can feel a personal connection. B) Use statistics and terminology that are easily understood. C) Quote numbers to flood the audience with information and force them to pay close attention. D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  85. 85. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following is a useful method for helping your audience understand statistics? A) Use a small sample size so the audience can feel a personal connection. B) Use statistics and terminology that are easily understood. C) Quote numbers to flood the audience with information and force them to pay close attention. D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  86. 86. Supporting Your Ideas Which answer best rewrites the following passage so that it possesses stronger conversational qualities? Research undertaken by a major university found that out of 607 reported cases of founder, 522 horses had foundered in both front hooves at the same time, and of the horses which foundered in one hoof, only 8% did not eventually founder in the other hoof too. A) University research shows that about five out of six horses founder in both front feet and 8% founder in just one. B) Research has shown that most horses founder in both front feet. One study that looked at over 600 founder cases found that less than 10% had foundered in just one hoof. C) Most horses founder in both front feet, not just one, according to research done at a major university. D) Most horses founder in both front feet, if not immediately, then eventually. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  87. 87. Supporting Your Ideas Which answer best rewrites the following passage so that it possesses stronger conversational qualities? Research undertaken by a major university found that out of 607 reported cases of founder, 522 horses had foundered in both front hooves at the same time, and of the horses which foundered in one hoof, only 8% did not eventually founder in the other hoof too. A) University research shows that about five out of six horses founder in both front feet and 8% founder in just one. B) Research has shown that most horses founder in both front feet. One study that looked at over 600 founder cases found that less than 10% had foundered in just one hoof. C) Most horses founder in both front feet, not just one, according to research done at a major university. D) Most horses founder in both front feet, if not immediately, then eventually. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Saylor OER. "Communication « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Communication/
  88. 88. Supporting Your Ideas According to a report from the U.S. government’s National Center for Education Statistics, “In 2005, approximately 40 percent of the 41.9 million Hispanics and 68 percent of the 12.3 million Asians in the United States were foreign born.” Why would it be unethical for a speaker use this quote to illustrate why the children of immigrants should not be allowed to pay in-state tuition rates? A) Because using it in that context would be an expression of intolerance B) Because using it in that context would be a distortion C) Because using it in that context would be intimidating D) Because using it in that context would be degrading Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  89. 89. Supporting Your Ideas According to a report from the U.S. government’s National Center for Education Statistics, “In 2005, approximately 40 percent of the 41.9 million Hispanics and 68 percent of the 12.3 million Asians in the United States were foreign born.” Why would it be unethical for a speaker use this quote to illustrate why the children of immigrants should not be allowed to pay in-state tuition rates? A) Because using it in that context would be an expression of intolerance B) Because using it in that context would be a distortion C) Because using it in that context would be intimidating D) Because using it in that context would be degrading Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Saylor OER. "Communication « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Communication/
  90. 90. Supporting Your Ideas Examine the following observation, and then choose the answer which paraphrases it best. Paraphrase the quoted material only, not the source identification. According to Vanhala et al.’s “Factors Associated with Parental Recognition of a Child’s Overweight Status,” “In this cross-sectional study, more than half of the parents' with an overweight or obese seven year old child did not recognize their child's overweight status. Daughters' overweight status was identified better than sons...” (7) A) In a study, 50% or more of the parents in the study who had overweight seven-year-olds did not recognize that their child was overweight, but did notice overweight girls more than boys. B) A study found that most parents did not recognize their kids were fat, but those few who did tended to notice fat girls more than fat boys. C) Parents noticed when their daughters were overweight more often than when their sons were, according to one study. D) One study found that the majority of parents did not realize when their children were overweight, although theyto noticed when changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com their daughters Free share, print, make copies and were overweight more often than when their sons were.
  91. 91. Supporting Your Ideas Examine the following observation, and then choose the answer which paraphrases it best. Paraphrase the quoted material only, not the source identification. According to Vanhala et al.’s “Factors Associated with Parental Recognition of a Child’s Overweight Status,” “In this cross-sectional study, more than half of the parents' with an overweight or obese seven year old child did not recognize their child's overweight status. Daughters' overweight status was identified better than sons...” (7) A) In a study, 50% or more of the parents in the study who had overweight seven-year-olds did not recognize that their child was overweight, but did notice overweight girls more than boys. B) A study found that most parents did not recognize their kids were fat, but those few who did tended to notice fat girls more than fat boys. C) Parents noticed when their daughters were overweight more often than when their sons were, according to one study. D) One study found that the majority of parents did not realize when their children were overweight, although they noticed share, print, make copies daughters at www.boundless.com Free to when their and changes. Get yours Saylor OER. "Communication « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Communication/ were overweight more often than when their sons were.
  92. 92. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) accuracy B) statistics C) narrative D) Hypothetical Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  93. 93. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) accuracy B) statistics C) narrative D) Hypothetical Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "statistics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/statistics
  94. 94. Supporting Your Ideas Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) statistics B) accuracy C) Mean D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  95. 95. Supporting Your Ideas Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) statistics B) accuracy C) Mean D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "accuracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/accuracy
  96. 96. Supporting Your Ideas When using a table, you should always A) minimize memory load by removing unnecessary data and minimizing decimal places. B) present as much data as possible, with large expanses of figures. C) decide which variable goes on which axis, and what scale is most appropriate. D) use 3D graphs to add clarity to your information. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  97. 97. Supporting Your Ideas When using a table, you should always A) minimize memory load by removing unnecessary data and minimizing decimal places. B) present as much data as possible, with large expanses of figures. C) decide which variable goes on which axis, and what scale is most appropriate. D) use 3D graphs to add clarity to your information. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  98. 98. Supporting Your Ideas Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) abstract B) accuracy C) direct D) objectivity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  99. 99. Supporting Your Ideas Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) abstract B) accuracy C) direct D) objectivity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "accuracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/accuracy
  100. 100. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) statistics B) Mean C) Median D) Mode Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  101. 101. Supporting Your Ideas A systematic collection of data on measurements or observations, often related to demographic information such as population counts, incomes, population counts at different ages, etc. A) statistics B) Mean C) Median D) Mode Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "statistics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/statistics
  102. 102. Supporting Your Ideas Why should you put statistics into context for your audience? A) The audience will have a greater emotional response to the numbers. B) Numbers without context can be mind-numbing to an audience. C) Use statistics to illustrate a relationship, which is more important than a number. D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  103. 103. Supporting Your Ideas Why should you put statistics into context for your audience? A) The audience will have a greater emotional response to the numbers. B) Numbers without context can be mind-numbing to an audience. C) Use statistics to illustrate a relationship, which is more important than a number. D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  104. 104. Supporting Your Ideas Somebody who is, or something that is, at a level equal (to that of something else). A) TED B) peer C) analogy D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  105. 105. Supporting Your Ideas Somebody who is, or something that is, at a level equal (to that of something else). A) TED B) peer C) analogy D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "peer." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/peer
  106. 106. Supporting Your Ideas A non-authority source. A) narrative B) scientific evidence C) TED D) antiauthority Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  107. 107. Supporting Your Ideas A non-authority source. A) narrative B) scientific evidence C) TED D) antiauthority Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "antiauthority." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/antiauthority
  108. 108. Supporting Your Ideas If a speaker wishes to use testimonials about the impact of oil spills on the daily life of surrounding beach communities, which of the following would likely be most compelling to a mainstream audience? A) A celebrity B) An inspirational figure C) An expert authority D) A peer Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  109. 109. Supporting Your Ideas If a speaker wishes to use testimonials about the impact of oil spills on the daily life of surrounding beach communities, which of the following would likely be most compelling to a mainstream audience? A) A celebrity B) An inspirational figure C) An expert authority D) A peer Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  110. 110. Supporting Your Ideas What is the primary benefit of incorporating expert testimony into a speech? A) It helps speakers elaborate and develop their main objectives B) It helps speakers support their sub points C) It bolsters the speaker's authority to speak on the given topic D) It bolsters expert support for the speakers' ideas Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  111. 111. Supporting Your Ideas What is the primary benefit of incorporating expert testimony into a speech? A) It helps speakers elaborate and develop their main objectives B) It helps speakers support their sub points C) It bolsters the speaker's authority to speak on the given topic D) It bolsters expert support for the speakers' ideas Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  112. 112. Supporting Your Ideas A person with extensive knowledge or ability in a given subject. A) expert B) brainstorming C) choose D) narrow Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  113. 113. Supporting Your Ideas A person with extensive knowledge or ability in a given subject. A) expert B) brainstorming C) choose D) narrow Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "expert." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/expert
  114. 114. Supporting Your Ideas Technology Entertainment Design, a series of global conferences. A) anecdote B) TED C) peer D) antiauthority Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  115. 115. Supporting Your Ideas Technology Entertainment Design, a series of global conferences. A) anecdote B) TED C) peer D) antiauthority Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "TED." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/TED
  116. 116. Supporting Your Ideas Analogies draw comparisons between ideas or objects that A) lack certain aspects or characteristics, but are similar in a few areas. B) highlight some form of semantic difference between two words or ideas. C) share certain aspects or characteristics, but are dissimilar in other areas. D) highlight how the relationship between one set of ideas is dissimilar to another set of ideas. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  117. 117. Supporting Your Ideas Analogies draw comparisons between ideas or objects that A) lack certain aspects or characteristics, but are similar in a few areas. B) highlight some form of semantic difference between two words or ideas. C) share certain aspects or characteristics, but are dissimilar in other areas. D) highlight how the relationship between one set of ideas is dissimilar to another set of ideas. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  118. 118. Supporting Your Ideas When using an analogy in presentations, speakers should keep which of the following tips in mind? A) Use analogies that are relatable to the audience. B) Use analogies that are long and complex. C) Use analogies as the main focus of the presentation. D) Use analogies from other people's experiences. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  119. 119. Supporting Your Ideas When using an analogy in presentations, speakers should keep which of the following tips in mind? A) Use analogies that are relatable to the audience. B) Use analogies that are long and complex. C) Use analogies as the main focus of the presentation. D) Use analogies from other people's experiences. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  120. 120. Supporting Your Ideas The state of being iconic (in all meanings). A) prop B) concept C) iconicity D) model Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  121. 121. Supporting Your Ideas The state of being iconic (in all meanings). A) prop B) concept C) iconicity D) model Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "iconicity." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/iconicity
  122. 122. Supporting Your Ideas A one-to-one correspondence. A) prop B) concept C) isomorphism D) model Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  123. 123. Supporting Your Ideas A one-to-one correspondence. A) prop B) concept C) isomorphism D) model Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "isomorphism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/isomorphism
  124. 124. Supporting Your Ideas A similar appearance of two unrelated organisms or structures. A) homomorphism B) prop C) concept D) model Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  125. 125. Supporting Your Ideas A similar appearance of two unrelated organisms or structures. A) homomorphism B) prop C) concept D) model Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "homomorphism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/homomorphism
  126. 126. Supporting Your Ideas To properly define key terms so that they create credibility in a presentation, the speaker must A) include all possible definitions for each key term. B) include the key terms used in the original question that inspired the presentation. C) avoid spending too much time thinking about the key terms that are key concepts. D) state what the key terms are at the very end of the presentation. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  127. 127. Supporting Your Ideas To properly define key terms so that they create credibility in a presentation, the speaker must A) include all possible definitions for each key term. B) include the key terms used in the original question that inspired the presentation. C) avoid spending too much time thinking about the key terms that are key concepts. D) state what the key terms are at the very end of the presentation. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  128. 128. Supporting Your Ideas An understanding retained in the mind, from experience, reasoning and/or imagination; a generalization (generic, basic form), or abstraction (mental impression), of a particular set of instances or occurrences (specific, though different, recorded manifestations of the _______). A) TED B) analogy C) prop D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  129. 129. Supporting Your Ideas An understanding retained in the mind, from experience, reasoning and/or imagination; a generalization (generic, basic form), or abstraction (mental impression), of a particular set of instances or occurrences (specific, though different, recorded manifestations of the _______). A) TED B) analogy C) prop D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "concept." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/concept
  130. 130. Supporting Your Ideas An item placed on a stage or set to create a scene or scenario in which actors perform. Contraction of "_______erty". A) prop B) TED C) analogy D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  131. 131. Supporting Your Ideas An item placed on a stage or set to create a scene or scenario in which actors perform. Contraction of "_______erty". A) prop B) TED C) analogy D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "prop." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/prop
  132. 132. Supporting Your Ideas The well-timed use of a well-chosen prop can impact a presentation in which of the following ways? A) All of these answers. B) Props can be effective metaphors. C) Props can inject humor into a presentation. D) Props can have an emotional impact. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  133. 133. Supporting Your Ideas The well-timed use of a well-chosen prop can impact a presentation in which of the following ways? A) All of these answers. B) Props can be effective metaphors. C) Props can inject humor into a presentation. D) Props can have an emotional impact. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  134. 134. Supporting Your Ideas A simplified representation used to explain the workings of a real world system or event. A) model B) iconicity C) concept D) isomorphism Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  135. 135. Supporting Your Ideas A simplified representation used to explain the workings of a real world system or event. A) model B) iconicity C) concept D) isomorphism Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "model." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/model
  136. 136. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) narrative B) Hypothetical C) analogy D) Mode Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  137. 137. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) narrative B) Hypothetical C) analogy D) Mode Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "narrative." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/narrative
  138. 138. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) scientific evidence B) Mean C) concept D) narrative Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  139. 139. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) scientific evidence B) Mean C) concept D) narrative Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "narrative." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/narrative
  140. 140. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following explains why stories are an effective teaching tool in speeches and presentations? A) Stories help to motivate audiences to act. B) Stories provide additional details and mental visuals for audiences. C) All of these answers. D) Stories give speakers the opportunity to tell personal stories that audiences can relate to. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  141. 141. Supporting Your Ideas Which of the following explains why stories are an effective teaching tool in speeches and presentations? A) Stories help to motivate audiences to act. B) Stories provide additional details and mental visuals for audiences. C) All of these answers. D) Stories give speakers the opportunity to tell personal stories that audiences can relate to. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  142. 142. Supporting Your Ideas Stories can be a powerful tool because the audience's emotions become inextricably tied to those of the story’s characters. Psychologists refer to this state as A) social cognition. B) critical analysis. C) narrative transport. D) analytical mind-set. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  143. 143. Supporting Your Ideas Stories can be a powerful tool because the audience's emotions become inextricably tied to those of the story’s characters. Psychologists refer to this state as A) social cognition. B) critical analysis. C) narrative transport. D) analytical mind-set. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  144. 144. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) Hypothetical B) analogy C) Mode D) narrative Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  145. 145. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) Hypothetical B) analogy C) Mode D) narrative Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "narrative." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/narrative
  146. 146. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) scientific evidence B) narrative C) Mean D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  147. 147. Supporting Your Ideas The systematic recitation of an event or series of events. (see also storytelling) A) scientific evidence B) narrative C) Mean D) concept Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "narrative." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/narrative
  148. 148. Supporting Your Ideas When using narratives, the speaker should use which of the following tactics to make his or her main points interesting and memorable for the audience? A) Limit the narrative to five or six minutes at the most. B) Use numerous narratives throughout the speech. C) Base narratives on personal experiences, as well as facts. D) Narratives should point toward multiple goals. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  149. 149. Supporting Your Ideas When using narratives, the speaker should use which of the following tactics to make his or her main points interesting and memorable for the audience? A) Limit the narrative to five or six minutes at the most. B) Use numerous narratives throughout the speech. C) Base narratives on personal experiences, as well as facts. D) Narratives should point toward multiple goals. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  150. 150. Supporting Your Ideas Attribution • Wikipedia. "Evidence." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence • Wikipedia. "Scientific evidence." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_evidence • Wikipedia. "Intuition (knowledge)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intuition_(knowledge) • Wikipedia. "Anecdotal evidence." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anecdotal_evidence • Wikipedia. "Evidence." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence • Wikipedia. "Evidence." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence • Flat World Knowledge. "Stand Up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking 1.0 | Flat World Knowledge." CC BY-SA http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/3795 • Flat World Knowledge. "Stand Up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking 1.0 | Flat World Knowledge." CC BY-SA http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/3795 • Flat World Knowledge. "Stand Up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking 1.0 | Flat World Knowledge." CC BY-SA http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/3795 • Saylor. "COMM101: Public Speaking « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY-SA http://www.saylor.org/courses/comm101/ • Connexions. "Extract meaningful information from data." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m31282/latest/ • Austrailian Bureau of Statistics. "1500.0 - A guide for using statistics for evidence based policy, 2010." CC BY http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/1500.0chapter92010 • Manner of Speaking. "Making it Stick: Credibility Counts | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA http://mannerofspeaking.org/2009/09/30/making-it-stick-credibility-counts/ • Manner of Speaking. "Making it Stick: Credibility Counts | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA http://mannerofspeaking.org/2009/09/30/making-it-stick-credibility-counts/ • Wikipedia. "Statistical graphics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_graphics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com • Wikibooks. "Development Cooperation Handbook/How to present an idea." CC BY-SA 3.0
  151. 151. Supporting Your Ideas • Manner of Speaking. "Making it Stick: Credibility Counts | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA http://mannerofspeaking.org/2009/09/30/making-it-stick-credibility-counts/ • Manner of Speaking. "Making it Stick: Credibility Counts | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA http://mannerofspeaking.org/2009/09/30/making-it-stick-credibility-counts/ • Wikibooks. "Professional and Technical Writing/Presentations." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Professional_and_Technical_Writing/Presentations#What_Visual_Aids_Will_You_Use.3F • Wikipedia. "Analogies." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analogies#Rhetoric • Wikispaces. CC BY-SA https://equityandexcellence.wikispaces.com/Teaching+with+Metaphors%2526Analogies • http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/How_We_Learn. "How We Learn - UCD - CTAG." CC BY http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/How_We_Learn • Wikibooks. "Writing Better University Essays/Defining key terms." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Writing_Better_University_Essays/Defining_key_terms • Wikibooks. "Writing Better University Essays/Main part." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Writing_Better_University_Essays/Main_part • Wikipedia. "Presentation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presentation • Wikipedia. "Product demonstration." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_demonstration • Manner of Speaking. "How Do Props Help a Presentation? | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA http://mannerofspeaking.org/2011/09/25/how-do-props-help-a-presentation/ • Wikidot. "logical reasoning - Public Speaking." CC BY-SA http://publicspeaking.wikidot.com/logical-reasoning • Manner of Speaking. "The Psychology of Storytelling | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA http://mannerofspeaking.org/2010/08/24/the-psychology-of-storytelling/ • University of British Columbia Learning Commons. "Presentation Skills | Learning Commons." CC BY http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/presentation-skills/ • Wikispaces. "We Are Media - module 4 strategy why are stories engaging." CC BY http://bethemedia.wikispaces.com/module+4++strategy+why+are+stories+engaging Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com • Manner of Speaking. "Making it Stick: Tell stories | Manner of Speaking." CC BY-SA
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