• Librarians: do not be shy about asking for help
• The catalogue: listing of all library resources,
• Periodical databases : locate magazine and
• Reference works: encyclopedias,
yearbooks/almanacs, quotation books,
• Search engines : Google, Yahoo,
Bing. The Search Engine List:
• Virtual libraries : Internet Public
• Government resources :
• Authorship: it is BEST to use an article you can verify
the authorship of. Is the author qualified? Is the author
an expert? How might you find this out??
• Sponsorship: most websites are published by
groups, not individual authors. As a result, you must
judge whether the sponsoring organization is impartial
enough to cite in your speech. Credibility.
• Recency: how old is the article? You can looks for a
copyright date, publication date, or date of last
revision on a website to find out when it was last
• Examples help clarify your statements, give
listeners specific details to latch on to, vivid
examples have an impact on listeners.
• Brief examples: specific instances, used to
illustrate a point
• Extended examples: narratives,
anecdotes. Usually detailed and dramatic,
they draw listeners into the speech.
• Hypothetical examples : describes an
imaginary situation. Can be very effective.
Speaker creates a realistic scenario, relates it
directly to the audience, and gets them involved
in the speech. Best to follow up hypothetical
scenarios with factual evidence.
• Examples can reinforce and personalize the ideas
you are presenting. Make examples detailed and
vivid, and practice your delivery to maximize
• Often cited to clarify or
strengthen a speaker's points.
• Can show the magnitude or
seriousness of an issue.
• Statistics can be easily
manipulated and distorted.
• Make sure you are using good
research. Are the stats
representative? Are they from a
reliable source? How did the
source come up with their data?
Tips for using
• Use stats to quantify your ideas (give numerical precision)
• Use stats sparingly. Overusing numerical data won't
resonate with listeners. Use stats to make your point.
• Always identify then source of your stats. No source = no
• Explain what the stats mean. Don't expect the audience to
draw their own conclusions.
• Charts can visually clarify statistical trends and comparisons
• Quotes or paraphrases to
support a point
• Expert testimony: when
the source is a credible,
recognized expert in their
• Peer testimony: testimony
from ordinary people with
firsthand experience, or
insight on a topic
• Quoting: testimony presented word for word
• Paraphrase: summarizing a source's
• Be sure to quote or paraphrase accurately,
only use testimony from qualified, unbiased
sources, and always identify the people you
Citing sources orally
• Careful listeners are skeptical, they will want
to know the source of your information
• No standard format/wording
• They key is to tell your audience enough
information so they think your research is
credible. Examples: page 160.