Research supporting ideas


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Research supporting ideas

  1. 1. Supporting your ideas SPE 108
  2. 2. Research methods • Librarians: do not be shy about asking for help • The catalogue: listing of all library resources, availability • Periodical databases : locate magazine and journal articles • Reference works: encyclopedias, yearbooks/almanacs, quotation books, biographical aids
  3. 3. Internet research • Search engines : Google, Yahoo, Bing. The Search Engine List: • Virtual libraries : Internet Public Library ( • Government resources :, Statistical Abstract ( tatistical_abstract.html World Factbook ( ons/the-world-factbook/)
  4. 4. Evaluating Internet documents • Authorship: it is BEST to use an article you can verify the authorship of. Is the author qualified? Is the author an expert? How might you find this out?? • Sponsorship: most websites are published by groups, not individual authors. As a result, you must judge whether the sponsoring organization is impartial enough to cite in your speech. Credibility. • Recency: how old is the article? You can looks for a copyright date, publication date, or date of last revision on a website to find out when it was last updated.
  5. 5. Using examples • Examples help clarify your statements, give listeners specific details to latch on to, vivid examples have an impact on listeners. • Brief examples: specific instances, used to illustrate a point • Extended examples: narratives, anecdotes. Usually detailed and dramatic, they draw listeners into the speech.
  6. 6. Using examples • Hypothetical examples : describes an imaginary situation. Can be very effective. Speaker creates a realistic scenario, relates it directly to the audience, and gets them involved in the speech. Best to follow up hypothetical scenarios with factual evidence. • Examples can reinforce and personalize the ideas you are presenting. Make examples detailed and vivid, and practice your delivery to maximize impact
  7. 7. Statistics • Often cited to clarify or strengthen a speaker's points. • Can show the magnitude or seriousness of an issue. • Statistics can be easily manipulated and distorted. • Make sure you are using good research. Are the stats representative? Are they from a reliable source? How did the source come up with their data?
  8. 8. Tips for using statistics • Use stats to quantify your ideas (give numerical precision) • Use stats sparingly. Overusing numerical data won't resonate with listeners. Use stats to make your point. • Always identify then source of your stats. No source = no credibility • Explain what the stats mean. Don't expect the audience to draw their own conclusions. • Charts can visually clarify statistical trends and comparisons
  9. 9. Testimony • Quotes or paraphrases to support a point • Expert testimony: when the source is a credible, recognized expert in their chosen field • Peer testimony: testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience, or insight on a topic
  10. 10. Testimony • Quoting: testimony presented word for word • Paraphrase: summarizing a source's remarks • Be sure to quote or paraphrase accurately, only use testimony from qualified, unbiased sources, and always identify the people you quote/paraphrase.
  11. 11. Citing sources orally • Careful listeners are skeptical, they will want to know the source of your information • No standard format/wording • They key is to tell your audience enough information so they think your research is credible. Examples: page 160.