2. Content a) Use of Library and Information Gathering
b) Administrating Questionnaires
c) Reviewing the Gathered Information
d) Administrating Questionnaires
Develop a research plan to gather information and find supporting
materials your speeches
Identify five principal sources of information for your speech
Differentiate among the four types of materials that can support
and clarify your ideas.
4. Develop a
Strengthen your own knowledge about the chosen topic.
Consider the amount of background reading and what
sources will achieve your goal.
Think about types of supporting material.
Determine how much evidence is required to make your
5. Develop a Research Plan
A) An adequate research plan requires you to:
• Start early and gather more information than you think you will need.
• Identify where you should go to find the best information to create your
• Prepare a preliminary list of references.
• Be selective about materials that will enhance your knowledge and clarify
information for your listeners.
• Take good notes and keep complete information on the sources so you do not
have to start over.
• Know when to say “enough is enough.”
• The Internet as an Information Source
• The web offers a wealth of information from a
variety of sources.
• To determine if the information you find on the
web is reliable, consider:
• Publishing body
8. Research: Gathering
• Social Media as an Information Source
• Most social media can provide information.
• Quality of information matters more than
• You as an Information Source
• Your own experiences and knowledge can
contribute to the content of your speech.
• Probe your knowledge of a subject to
organize your thoughts and develop a
• The Interview as an Information Source
• The interview can be a valuable tool
for gathering expert opinion (ideas,
testimony, conclusions, or judgments
of recognized authorities).
• Steps involved in the interview
• Establish the purpose of the interview.
• Choose the interviewee.
• Conduct research prior to the
• Record the interview.
• Prepare questions.
• Organize the interview.
• Use interview clips in your speech.
• The Library as an Information Source
• Many libraries allow access to their
indexes through home or campus
• Libraries offer mediated sources,
such as online databases of
periodicals or services such as
LexisNexis or ERIC.
• Most library research begins in the
reference department with
encyclopedias, yearbooks, and
11. Use Research
to Support and
Differentiate among the four types
of materials that can support and
clarify your ideas.
12. Use Research to Support and Clarify Ideas
Testimony (1 of 2)
Testimony refers to the opinions
or conclusions of witnesses or
The person whose words are
cited must be qualified by virtue
of skills, training, expertise,
recognition, and reputation.
The expert’s opinion must be
acceptable and believable to your
For maximum credibility,
testimony should come from
Testimony adds trustworthiness
to what a speaker says.
Testimony can either support or
clarify material, or both.
Testimony can be either directly
quoted or paraphrased.
• Definitions are required for all unfamiliar words
• A logical definition usually contains two parts, a
dictionary definition and the characteristics that
distinguish it from the term or other terms in the
• An operational definition explains how an object
or concept works or lists the steps that make up
• A definition by example clarifies a term not by
describing it or giving its meaning but by
mentioning or showing an example of it.
14. Use Research to Support and
• Statistics are numerical data that show relationships or summarize or interpret
• Make sure the statistics you present in your speech are from reliable, neutral,
and credible sources.
• Take time to explain the statistics you use.
• Use statistics sparingly.
• Round off large numbers when possible.
17. What is a
A questionnaire, according to Creswell
(2012) is “a form used in a
survey. design that participants in a
study complete and return to the
The reason of selecting questionnaire
as data collection technique in this
research since it can generalize the data
from a sample to population (Creswell,